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Pressure changes in Atria during the Cardiac Cycle:

3 waves can be recorded from atria which represent atrial pressure changes: a-wave, c-wave & vwave (Seen as Jugular Venous Pulse, not a true pulse, but a reflection of pressure changes in right atrium. Two descents: x and y descent.

PRESSURE CHANGES IN ATRIA DURING THE CARDIAC CYCLE:


a-wave: Due to increase in atrial pressure during atrial systole.

PRESSURE CHANGES IN ATRIA DURING THE CARDIAC CYCLE:


c-wave: Recorded at beginning of contraction of ventricle. During isovolumetric contraction, ventricular pressure increases Cusps of AV valves are pushed into atrial cavity pressure rises in atria ascent of c-wave.

PRESSURE CHANGES IN ATRIA DURING THE CARDIAC CYCLE:


The top of c-wave coincides with opening of semi-lunar valves (Aortic & Pulmonary). With opening of semilunar valves, ejection phase starts. AV valve is pulled to ventricular cavity pressure falls in the atria x-descent

PRESSURE CHANGES IN ATRIA DURING THE CARDIAC CYCLE:


v-wave: Due to gradual increase in atrial pressure, resulting from venous filling of blood (from the venae cavae) into the atria, with closed AV valves ascent of v-wave. Top of v-wave coincides with opening of AV valves rapid inflow phase decrease pressure in atria y-descent

JUGULAR VENOUS PULSE: (a, c, v waves)


Normally arteriolar pulse ends in arterioles & in veins no pulsation. But we can record pulsation in jugular vein, which is not a true pulse. It is just backward transmission of pressure changes in Rt. Atrium (a, c. v waves) transmitted in neck veins.

Significance of J.V.P:
ac interval coincides with PR interval of ECG.

ac interval increases in delayed AV conduction (AV nodal blocks).

Significance of J.V.P:
a waves are absent in: ATRIAL FIBRILLATION. Cannon a WAVES: (a wave) > (c wave) in COMPLETE AV BLOCK (3rd degree AV block). Giant a waves in TRICUSPID & PULMONARY STENOSIS. Pulsating Neck Veins in CCF (Congestive Cardiac Failure).