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Steam cycle and steam power plant

http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/th ermo/property_tables/H2O/H2O_Su per3.html

Elements in steam cycle


Saturation temperature Subcooled liquid Compressed liquid Saturated liquid Vapor Saturated vapor Superheated vapor Degree superheat Degree subcooled Wet vapor Quality Moisture Latent heat of vaporization Critical point Sensible heat Latent heat

steam cycle

Specify whether the steam is wet, dry or superheated for the following conditions:
t = 200C, p = 1.44 MPa t = 220C, p = 2.318 MPa p = 1.0 MPa, s = 6.672 kJ/kgK p = 3.0 MPa, t = 234C t = 250C, v = 54.2x103 m3/kg P = 11.0 MPa, h = 2805 kJ/kg P = 4.0 MPa, s = 5.897 kJ/kgK p = 15.0 MPa, t = 310C

Processes of vapors
Constant pressure Constant volume Constant temperature Constant entropy Constant enthalpy

Rankine cycle

Ideal Rankine cycle processes (SPSP)


Adiabatic pumping (1 to 2) Constant pressure heat addition of heat in the steam generator (2 to 3) Isentropic expansion in the engine (3 to 4) Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser (4 to 1)

Ideal versus actual rankine cycle

Improving rankine cycle efficiecy


Lowering the condenser pressure in rankine cycle Increasing the boiler pressure in rankine cycle Superheating the steam to a higher temperature in rankine cycle Reheat cycle Regenerative cycle Reheat regenerative cycle

Rankine cycle statements


Rankine cycle is the ideal cycle for vapor power plant In a rankine cycle, water enters the pump as saturated liquid and is compressed isentropically to the operating pressure of the boiler In the pump, the water pressure and temperature increases somewhat during the isentropic compression process due to a slight decrease in specific volume of water The superheated vapor enters the turbine and expands isentropically and produces work by the rotating shaft. The temperature and pressure may drop during the process. Steam is condensed at constant pressure in the condenser. The boiler and condenser do not involve any work, and the pump and turbine are assumed to be isentropic.

Rankine cycle statements


Rankine cycle power plant converts 26% of the heat it recieves in the boiler to net work. The lesser the back work ratio, the better is the cycle. Only .4% of the turbine work output is required to operate the pump. In actual condensers, the liquid is usually subcooled to prevent cavitation. Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the boiler, the condenser, and piping between various compunents. The pressure in the condenser is usually very small. The major source of irreversibility is the heat loss from the steam to the surroundings.

Rankine cycle statements


To compensate pressure drops in Rankine cycle, the water must be pumped to a sufficient higher pressure than the ideal cycle. To increase the thermal efficiency of rankine cycle, increase the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working fluid in the boiler. To increase the thermal efficiency of rankine cycle, decrease the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the working fluid in the condenser. Lowering the operating pressure of the condenser automatically lowers the temperature of the steam, and thus the temperature at which heat is rejected.

Rankine cycle statements


The overall effect of lowering the condenser pressure is an increase in the efficiency of rankine cycle. To take advantage of the increased efficiencies at low pressure, the condenser of steam power plants usually operate well below the atmospheric pressure. The average temperature at which heat is added to the steam can be increased without increasing the boiler pressure by superheating the steam to high temperature. Superheating the steam to higher temperatures decrease the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit.

Rankine cycle statements


Presently the highest steam temperature allowed at the turbine inlet is about 620C. Raises the average temperature at which heat is added to the steam raises the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The average temperature during the reheat process can be increased by increasing the number of expansion and reheat stages. As the number of stages is increased, the expansion and reheat process approached an isothermal process at the maximum temperature. In a reheat cycle, the optimum reheat pressure is about of the maximum cycle.

Rankine cycle statements


The main purpose of reheating is to reduce the moisture content of the steam at the final stage expansion. Regeneration also provides a convenient means of dearating the feedwater to prevent corrosion in the boiler. The cycle efficiency increases further as the number of feedwater heaters is increased. A trap allows the liquid to be throttled to a lower pressure region but traps the vapor. A closed feedwater heater is more expansive than the open feedwater heater.

Rankine cycle statements


Cogeneration is the production of more than one useful form of energy from the same energy source. The overall thermal efficiency of a power plant can be increased by binary cycles or combined cycles. A binary cycles is composed of two separate cycle, one at high temperatures and the other at relative low temperatures.

Problem solving
steam is generated at 4.1 MPa and 440C and condensation occurs at .105 MPa. (a) For a Rankine cycle operating between these limits, compute the thermal efficiency and the heat rate. (b) Considering that a Rankine cycle occurs between the same limits, determine Q

Steam power plant design