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Toolkit for

Dental
Oral Health
Health
Professionals Tutorial for
Evidence-Based Dental Public
Dental
Public Health Health
Data Tools and
Professionals
Statistics

Patient Information

Purpose: Provides instruction for public


health dental practitioners How to Use thatThis focusesTutorial on
This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federalfinding and
funds from the evaluating
National information
Library of Medicine, National Institutesrelevant
of Health,
Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. N01-LM-6-3505 under the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

How to use this tutorial:


 You can navigate to any module topic in any order you
choose.

The 4 modules are color-coded, so that you always know


which module you are viewing.

You can navigate to any module by clicking one of the four


tabs at the top of each page.

To navigate sequentially from one page to the next or to go


back, just click the grey arrow buttons at the bottom of each
page.

 If you would like to return to the home page, simply click


this
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Toolkit for Dental


Public
Health
Professionals
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Objectives

 Define public health dentistry

 Identify professional resources to help you


stay informed of developments in public
health dentistry
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Definition

Dental public health is the science and art


of preventing and controlling dental
diseases and promoting dental health
through organized community efforts. It is
that form of dental practice that serves
the community as a patient rather than
the individual.

A
merican Association of Public Health Dentistry
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Major Associations and


Organizations
 American Association for Community Dental Pro

 American Association of Public Health Dentistry


-
Competency Statements for Dental Public Healt

 American Dental Hygienists’ Association

 
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Major Associations and


Organizations (cont.)
 American Dental Association

 Hispanic Dental Association

  
American Public Health Association: Oral Health

 Centers for Disease Control: Division of Oral He

 
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Major Associations and


Organizations (cont.)
 
International Association for Disability and Oral

 National Dental Association

 National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resour

 Public Health Foundation


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Major Associations and


Organizations (cont.)
 Texas Dental Association

 Texas Dental Hygienists’ Association

 Texas Dental Assistants Association


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Education and Training

Accreditation Standards:

 American Dental Association: Accreditation Sta


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Education and Training

Residency and Fellowship Programs:

 American Association of Public Health Dentistry

 Association of Schools of Public Health

 National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Re


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Education and Training (cont.)

Continuing Education Programs:

 American Public Health Association

 TRAIN National
Note: many schools of public health also offer continuing education programs, including Harvard
(Center for Continuing Professional Education, www.hsph.harvard.edu/ccpe/); University of North
Carolina (School of Public Health Office of Continuing Education, http://www.sph.unc.edu/oce);
University of Albany (Center for Public Health Continuing Education, http://www.albany.edu/sph/coned/);
and Johns Hopkins University (http://www.jhsph.edu/academics/continuing_ed/).

A list of Schools of Public Health is available on the website of the Association of Schools of Public
Health (ASPH) at http://www.asph.org/.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Meetings and Conferences


 American Association for Community Dental Programs
The annual symposium is held as a pre-conference session
to the National Oral Health Conference.

 American Public Health Association


The APHA Annual Meeting & Exposition is the oldest and
largest gathering of public health professionals in the
world.

 National Oral Health Conference


The National Oral Health Conference is sponsored by the
Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors, the
American Association of Public Health Dentistry, the
Health Resources and Services Administration, and the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Legislation and Policy


 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
The mission of the AAPD is to advocate policies, guidelines
and programs that promote optimal oral health and oral
health care for children.

 Center for Health Policy


A project of the School of Nursing at Columbia University, the
Center is working with the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (CDC), to document, analyze, and disseminate
public health legal principles relating to improved oral health
through community water fluoridation, identifying the legal
boundaries and considerations that pervade debates about
community water fluoridation and thus furthering CDC’s goal
of raising the proportion of the population with access to
fluoridated water.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Legislation and Policy (cont.)

 Healthy People 2010 Objectives for Oral Health


The overall goal of the Healthy People 2010 oral health objectives is to
prevent and control oral and craniofacial diseases, conditions, and injuries
and improve access to related services.
 
 National Center for Fluoridation
NCF was created to provide information within that network of scientists,
educators, public officials, organizational representatives, and media
concerned about the availability of reliable, timely, and scientifically-based
information about community water fluoridation.
 
 National Conference of State Legislatures: State Childrens’ Health Insurance
Program (SCHIP) Dental Care for Kids
The National Conference of State Legislatures is a bipartisan organization that
serves the legislators and staffs of the nation's 50 states, its commonwealths
and territories.  NCSL provides research, technical assistance and
opportunities for policymakers to exchange ideas on the most pressing state
issues.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Public Health Dentistry


Journals
Open Access Journals

 Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice


Provides a peer-reviewed forum for
professionals to contribute new findings to
the literature.

 Bio Med Central


Peer-reviewed, scientific articles available
in all areas of medical research.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Public Health Dentistry


Journals (cont.)
Open Access Journals

 Directory of Open Access Journals(DOAJ)


Categorized, searchable links to 3700 full-
text scientific and scholarly journals in all
subjects and languages.

 Free Medical Journals


Full text medical journals categorized by
specialty or alphabetized by title; variety of
languages.
  Toolkit Evidence-
Based
Statistics Patient Info

Public Health Dentistry


Journals (cont.)
 Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Original research, methods and review articles
relevant to the advancement of public health
dentistry.

 Community Dental Health


Scientific articles concerned with disease
prevention, health service planning and health
promotion.

 Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology


Behavioral sciences literature related to dentistry,
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Public Health Dentistry


Journals (cont.)
 Journal of the American Dental Association
Reliable, peer-reviewed source of
information on dentistry and dental science.

 Journal of Dental Hygiene


Published by the American Dental
Hygienists’ Association to provide refereed,
original research articles concerned with the
practice and education of dental hygiene.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Public Health Dentistry


Journals (cont.)
 Journal of Dentistry for Children
Publishes topics related to the clinical care
of children; provides information on the
physical, psychological and emotional
conditions of children related to and
affecting their dental health.

 Pediatric Dentistry
Includes scientific articles, case reports and
abstracts of current pediatric dental
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Public Health Journals


 American Journal of Public Health
Publishes work that advances the field of public health
research, policy, practice and education.

 Public Health Reports


Publishes articles in three main areas: public health
practice, research, and viewpoints/commentaries with
topics such as tobacco control, teenage violence,
occupational disease and injury and many others.

 Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health


International journal that that contains all aspects of
epidemiology related to the study and improvement of
communities.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Public Health Journals (cont.)

 American Journal of Epidemiology


For professionals who use epidemiological data.
Publishes empirical research findings,
methodological developments in the field of
epidemiological research, and opinion pieces.

 Critical Public Health


Peer-reviewed, critical analyses of theory and
practice for researchers and practitioners
working in public health, health promotion and
related fields.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info

  Based

E-Books

 National Library of Medicine (NLM) Bookshelf


Largest collection of biomedical textbooks
that can be searched directly from NLM.

 FreeBooks4Doctors
Freely available biomedical textbooks
categorized by specialty or alphabetized by
title; variety of languages.
 
  Toolkit Evidence-
Based
Statistics Patient Info

Reports and Other


Publications
 Healthy People 2010 Oral Health Toolkit
Toolkit designed to help states, territories, tribes, and
communities develop programs that will in turn help eliminate
oral health disparities and achieve the nation's Healthy People
2010 oral health objectives.

 Journal articles written by CDC staff

 National Call to Promote Oral Health


Released by Department of Health and Human Services in 2003
to improve oral health and prevent disease for all Americans.

 Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (pdf)


In May 2000, Surgeon General David Satcher released this
report on oral health in America.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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 Literature and Guidelines


 ASTDD Guidelines for State & Territorial Oral Health Programs
Provide guidance to health agency officials and public health
administrators in the development and operation of oral
health programs at the state level.

 Guidelines and Recommendations from the CDC


Guidelines and recommendations for community prevention
programs, fluoride, infection control, oral cancer, and water
fluoridation.

 National Guideline Clearinghouse


The National Guideline Clearinghouse includes practice
guidelines for dental and oral care.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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 Grants and Funding


Opportunities
 National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Researc

 The American Dental Association Foundation (ADAF)

 The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AH

 Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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 Professional Communication:
Electronic Lists
 Community Oral Health Programs
Hosted by the National Maternal and Child Health Resource
Center (http://www.mchoralhealth.org) that discusses the
operation of local oral health programs.

 KidsOralHealth
State and federal oral health policies and programs hosted
and maintained by the National Maternal and Child Health
Resource Center (http://www.mchoralhealth.org).

 American Association of Public Health Dentistry


Discusses topics related to dental public health.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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 Professional Communication:
Newsletters
 National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDC

 American Association for Community Dental Programs (AAC

 Association of State and Territorial Dental Directors (ASTDD)

 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP): Children's Oral Healt


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Evidence-Based
Dental
Public Health
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Objectives
Define evidence-based dental public health

Learn a strategy for effective retrieval of


evidence-based research

Be able to critique and synthesize scientific


literature and apply it to public health dental
practice

Identify evidence-based resources on the


Web
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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What is Evidence-Based Dental
Practice?
“ An approach to oral health care that
requires the judicious integration of
systematic assessments of clinically
relevant scientific evidence, relating to the
patient’s oral and medical condition and
history with the dentist’s clinical expertise
and the patient’s treatment needs and
preferences.” - American Dental Association

For additional information about evidence-based dentistry, refer to the


American Dental Association
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Why Practice Evidence-Based


Dentistry?
 Helps filter the immense amount of
information that emerges in the literature

 Effective method of keeping up with the


most current research

 Provides information on how similar cases


have been treated
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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The 5 A’s of Evidence-Based


Dentistry
Assess
the patient

Ask clinical
questions
(Use PICO model)

Acquire the
best evidence

Appraise
the evidence

Apply
evidence to patient care
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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PICO Model: The well-built question for


evidence–based research

P= Population or problem or patient


What are the characteristics of the patient or
population?
What is the condition or disease?
I= Intervention or exposure
What do you want to do with/for the patient or
population?
C= Comparison
What is the alternative to the intervention?
O= Outcome Evidence Based Dentistry for Effective

What are the relevant outcomes?


Practice, 2003.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Searching the Literature:


PubMed
 PubMed is a search engine for MEDLINE created by the U.S. National
Library of Medicine (NLM).

 PubMed is a free, easy-to-use database that is accessible by any computer


with Internet service

 Includes over 17 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science
journals for biomedical articles back to the 1950s.

 Citations are indexed, or coded, with the NLM's controlled vocabulary,


called Medical Subject Headings or MeSH®

 Contains bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than


5,000 biomedical journals published in the United States and 80 other
countries. PubMed includes links to full text articles and other related
resources. PubMed also includes citations to newer articles that are not yet
fully indexed. "PubMed Tutorial", this Web-based program will show
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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The PubMed Search


 Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
The papers in PubMed are indexed by a subject specialist who reads the
paper and notes all the search terms that apply to that paper, cataloguing
them as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The terms come from a
standardized list of vocabulary and definitions. Click on the MeSH database
link on PubMed's home page: (
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html), where a quick tutorial will
take you step by step through using the search. MeSH can be more useful
than performing a general search because it allows you to capture the
synonyms associated with your topic across multiple fields. Once you've
set up a MeSH search that pulls the papers you are looking for, save the
search and get weekly alerts for any new citations.

 Text words
Include the words the author uses in the title or abstract. “Mouthguard" as
a text word would retrieve articles that use the word “mouthguard" but
would not necessarily retrieve other relevant articles that use the words
“mouth protection" or “mouth pieces, protective." Text words are useful
when there is no good match to a subject heading and as an addition to
your MeSH searches. Text words can also help you find citations that have
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Study Types
 Systematic Reviews- "A type of scientific study that tries to
answer a special question by finding, appraising and
summarizing all published, and, if possible, unpublished work
on a topic, according to predetermined criteria."
 Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)- "An experiment where
eligible patients are randomly allocated into groups to receive
(experimental group) or not receive (control group) one or
more interventions that are being compared.“
 Cohort Study- “Makes observations about the association
between a particular exposure or risk factor and the
development of a disease or condition.”
 Case-Control Study- “Involves identifying patients who have
had a particular outcome (cases), and control patients who do
not have that outcome, and then establishing whether
Evidence-Based there
Decision Making : A
Translational Guide for Dental
had been a specified exposure or not.” Professionals, 2009
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Hierarchical Levels of
Evidence Table
Rank Evidence Level Study Type
1 Systematic review & Review of randomized
randomized controlled trials controlled trials,
Experimental + control,
Randomization

2 Cohort Studies Experimental + control, no


randomization

3 Case-Control Studies Experimental + control,


retrospective
4 Case Reports Experimental only,
prospective
5 Narrative review, editorial

N/A Epidemiology, Animal


studies, In vitro studies
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Hierarchical Levels of Evidence

A well done study assigned a Level 1


rank is considered the most rigorous
and least susceptible to bias, while a
study ranked Level 5 is considered
the least rigorous and is more
susceptible to bias.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Try to find a
systematic review to
answer your
question. If one is not
available, you can
choose other types of
studies lower on the
hierarchical pyramid
of evidence.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Evidence-Based
Tools
The Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, provides useful
information and downloads for critical appraisal of medical
evidence:

Example critical appraisal sheets- Step-by-step


guidelines for critical appraisal
Calculators- Designed to calculate statistical data related to
evidence-based dentistry
CATmaker- Download a wizard that guides you through a
critical appraisal, then calculates appropriate evidence-based
medicine values
Explanations & Examples- Learn how to apply statistical
applications and terms to evidence-based dentistry

To access the detailed critical appraisal section from the Centre for Evidence-
Based Medicine: www.cebm.net/critical_appraisal.asp
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Guide to Reading Research


Articles
The University of Southern California Health Science Center
developed this four question guide to help researchers
critically analyze content in articles:

What is the purpose of the study? Does the purpose of the study
relate to an important problem?

How was the purpose investigated? Was the question studied in a


credible and rigorous manner?

What are the findings and conclusions? Do the findings and


conclusions relate the data to the purpose?

 Are the findings of this study applicable to my practice?


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Further Study: Overviews of Evidence-


Based Practice

 Evidentista

 Academic Center for Evidence-Based


Practice, UTHSCSA School of Nursing

 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (A

 Centre for Evidence Based Medicine


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Sample Clinical Question


Are school-based fluoride varnish
programs effective in preventing
approximal caries?

P= Children
I= School-based fluoride varnish programs
C= Implied
O= Reduce incidence of approximal caries
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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MeSH Search Terms


In the sample clinical question, the “key
concepts” or PICO parts must be identified
with their MeSH terms:
Key Concept MeSH Term
P Children All Child 0-18 years
(limit)

I School-based School health


programs services
Fluoride
Implied varnish Topical
Implied fluoride
C
O Reduced incidence Dental caries
of approximal caries
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Practice Case Study #1


Sam is a 49-year old man with moderate
periodontitis, who was recently diagnosed
with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sam’s
glycosylated hemoglobin is 12%, which
places him in the category of poorly
controlled diabetes. Sam is worried that
his diabetes will increase his chance of
losing his teeth. He wants to know the
impact diabetes now has on his oral
health.
Evidence-Based Decision Making : A
Translational Guide for Dental
Write down an answerable question, then put it Professionals, 2009
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Clinical Question: Case Study


#1
What impact will Type 2 diabetes
mellitus have on the oral health,
specifically tooth loss, of a 49-year old
man with moderate periodontitis?

P= 49-year old man with moderate


periodontitis?
I= Type 2 diabetes mellitus
C= Implied
O= Tooth Loss
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Case Study #1: MeSH Search


Terms
In the practice case study, the “key
concepts” or PICO parts must be identified
with their MeSH terms:
Key Concept MeSH Term

P 49-year old man Middle Aged: 45-64


with moderate years (limit)
periodontitis Periodontitis

I Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes Mellitus,


Mellitus Type 2
C Implied Implied
O Tooth Loss Tooth Loss
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Practice Case Study #2


A partnership between your community
dental clinic and the dental school is
establishing an oral cancer screening
program as part of an outreach initiative.
To justify the new program, you must find
research that supports the objective to
increase patients’ chance of early oral
cancer detection.

Write down an answerable question, then


put it in the PICO format.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Clinical Question: Case Study


#2
Do community oral cancer screening
programs increase a patient’s chance of
early oral cancer detection?

P= Adults
I= Community oral cancer screenings
C= No screenings
O= Increase a patient’s chance of early
oral cancer detection
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Case Study #2: MeSH Search


Terms
In the practice case study, the “key concepts” or
PICO parts must be identified with their MeSH
terms:
Key Concept MeSH Term
P Adult Adult: 19-44 years
(limit)

I Community Community Health


Services
Cancer Screening
Early Detection of
Implied Cancer
Implied
C
O Early Detection Already Stated
Oral Cancer Mouth Neoplasms
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Databases
 American Dental Association’s Directory of System
Links to systematic review abstracts available
on PubMed

 The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews


Full-text of systematic reviews prepared by
the Cochrane Collaboration

 Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CEN


Contains over 300,000 bibliographic
references to controlled trials that have been
identified by the distinguished contributors to
the Cochrane Collaboration
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Databases (cont.)

 DARE( Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects)


Contains 15,000 abstracts of systematic
reviews that focus on the effects of
interventions used in health and social care.

 PubMed/MEDLINE
Principal biomedical database that contains
bibliographic citations and author abstracts
from over 4,900 medical journals (250 journals
are specific to the field of Dentistry)

 PubMed Clinical Queries


Provides specialized PubMed searches for
clinicians
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Examples of Evidence-
Based Journals
 Evidence-Based Dentistry
Publishes quarterly, some FREE, full-text
available online. Publishes articles on the
latest developments in oral health.

 Journal of Evidence-Based Dental Practice


FREE Table of Contents and Abstracts
available online. Publishes original articles
and review articles about clinical procedures
and their outcomes.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Additional Tutorials on Evidence-


Based Practice
 UNC-Chapel Hill Evidence-Based Dentistr

 Boston University, Alumni Medical Library

 University of Illinois at Chicago


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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References
Clarkson, Jan, Harrison, Jayne E., Ismail, Amid I., Needleman,
Ian & Worthington, Helen. (2003). Evidence Based Dentistry
for Effective Practice. New York, New York: Martin Dunitz, an
imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group.

Forrest, Jane L, Miller, Syrene A., Overman, Pamela R. &


Newman, Michael G. ( 2009). Evidence-Based Decision
Making: A Translational Guide for Dental Professionals.
Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters
Kluwer business.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Oral Health Data


Tools
and Statistics
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Objectives
 Develop a basic understanding of the
types of statistics and data sets that are
available related to oral health

 Identify oral health related web resources


with data sources and statistics for use at
the local, state, national and international
levels
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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What are health statistics?


 The most common statistics reported are:
-vital (birth, death, marriage, divorce rates)
-morbidity (incidence of oral cancer in a
population)
-mortality (the number of people who die of
oral cancer compared with the total number of
people)

 Other common statistical data are health care


costs and demographic distribution of disease
based on geographic, ethnic, and gender
variables
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based
Oral Health Statistics and Data:
National Level
 CDC Division of Oral Health

 U.S. Department of health and


Human Services Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention National
Center for Health Statistics- fast
stats A to Z, Oral and Dental Health
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based
Oral Health Statistics and Data:
State/Local Level
 Bexar County Health Collaborative
2006 Oral Health Assessment Data

 National Center for Chronic Disease Preve


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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General Health Statistics and Data:


International Level

 World Health Organization (WHO) Statisti

 Pan American Health Organization (PAHO


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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General Health Statistics and Data:
National Level
 CDC- Data and Statistics

 CDC’s National Center for Chronic


Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion Behavioral Risk Factor
Surveillance System (BRFSS)
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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General Health Statistics and Data:
National Level
 Division of Health Promotion Statistics at the N
An interactive database system that contains
the most recent monitoring data for
tracking Healthy People 2010.

 US Census Bureau- American Fact Finder

 United States Department of Health and Huma


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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General Statistics and Data:
State Level
 Cancer Registry
 CHARTing Health Information for Texas
 Community Health Status Indicators (CHSI)
 Border County Health Workforce Profiles: Texas
 FedStats.gov
 Kaiser State Health Facts
 Texas Department of State Health Services
 Texas Research Links
 Texas Vital Statistics
 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Health Statistics- fast stats A
to Z, Texas
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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To Learn More…
 Data Detective: Finding the Gems of Hea
Slide presentation from a course on
public health data developed by the
University of Connecticut Health
Center.

 Finding and Using Health Stats


A self-study course developed by the
National Library of Medicine.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Patient
Information:
Oral Health Resources
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Objectives
 Be able to identify and evaluate
quality online patient/consumer oral
health information

 Be introduced to quality online


resources for patient/consumer oral
health information
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based
Evaluating Online Consumer
Health Resources
5 basic criteria for website evaluation:

 Accuracy

 Authority

 Bias

 Currency

 Coverage.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based
How accurate is the
information?
 Are the facts accurate?

 Are the sources of the information clearly


stated? Is the author drawing conclusions
and generalizations based on his/her
experience or personal opinion and are they
appropriate?

 Is the information consistent with other


sources?

 Is the information well written, well


Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Who maintains the website? Who
is the author?
 Can you identify the author/s or sponsoring
organization? Is there an “About Us” section?

 Are credentials given for contributors to the site?


Is the person/s qualified to provide the
information?

 Is there a way to contact the author(s)?

 Good sources of health information include: sites


maintained by a government agency, nonprofit
organization or educational group
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Is bias evident in the content?


 Are there advertisements on the site? Who
paid for the site?

 Are there endorsements on the site? Are


they hidden or obvious?

 Do the ads or endorsements represent a


conflict of interest?
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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How current is the information


on the site?
 Is the information revised and updated
regularly?

 If dates are given, are they for when the


information was first written, first included on
the site or last revised?

 Do links to other sites work? If more than a


few links are “dead”, it could mean the site is
not maintained regularly.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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What is the coverage and scope
of the site?
 What topics are covered and how in-depth are they
discussed?

 Who is the intended audience? A health


professional or a consumer?

 How does this information compare with other


sources (including published print sources) on the
same topic? Is a better source available?

 Is there content on the website or just a collection


of links to other sites?

 What is the purpose of the site? Be cautious of sites


trying to sell you a product or service.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
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Government Consumer Health


Resources
 Medline Plus
Created by the National Library of Medicine, a
directory to the most reliable sources of
information about oral health on the internet.
There are interactive tutorials, games and
videos, links to major organizations, a directory
of dentists, and a
medicalencyclopedia/dictionary. A Spanish
version can be found by clicking the español
button at the top.
Links:
 MedlinePlus.gov-Mouth and Teeth
 MedlinePlus.gov- Dental Health
 MedlinePlus.gov- Child Dental Health
 Medline Plus.gov- Oral Cancer
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info

Government Consumer Health


Based

Resources (cont.)
 National Institutes of Health-Oral Health

 National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Researc


Locate information on a broad range of topics
and order free publications about oral health.

 womenshealth.gov- Oral Health


The National Women's Health Information
Center (NWHIC) is a reliable and current
information resource on women’s health
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info

Government Consumer Health


Based

Resources(cont.)
 Cancer.gov- Head and Neck
Accurate, up-to-date, comprehensive
information from the US government's principal
agency for cancer research, The National
Institutes of Health.

 Healthfinder.gov
Coordinated by the
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (O
and its health information referral service, the
National Health Information Center. This is the
US government’s gateway to reliable health
information resources from over 1,500 health-
related organizations.
 Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info

Non-Governmental Consumer
Based

Health Resources
 Academy of General Dentistry (AGD), For the Pub
Subscribe to a free oral health newsletter,
ask a dental question, find articles about
oral health or find an AGD member dentist.

 American Cancer Society- Oral Cavity and Oroph


Includes reliable information about oral
cancer risk factors, prevention, treatment,
and more.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Non-Governmental Consumer Health


Resources (cont.)
 American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry
Browse and print Parent Education
Brochures.

 American Academy of Periodontology


Association of dental professionals that
specialize in diseases affecting the gums.
Find a periodontist and information about
gum diseases, treatment, cosmetic
dentistry and implants.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info

Non-Governmental Consumer
Based

Health Resources (cont.)


 American Dental Association
Information on oral health, cosmetic dentistry,
restorative procedures, and has games and
animations for children. A glossary of dental
terms, a directory of dentists and a section in
Spanish add useful information.

 American Dental Hygienist’ Association


Find oral health information, including tips on
brushing & flossing, games & cool links for kids
and printable Fact Sheets in English & Spanish.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

Non-Governmental Consumer Health


Resources (cont.)
 Familydoctor.org
Clear and concise information about common
medical concerns and conditions. Features a
medical dictionary, health calculators, Healthy
Living Guides, a Smart Patient Guide, Health Tools
section and a Health Tip of the Day.

 Mayo Clinic.com
Easy-to-understand health and medical
information. The site has a number of healthy
living guides and helpful resources such as
Health Tools, Treatment Decision Guides, blogs
and pod casts, and an Ask a Specialist feature.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based
Non-Governmental Consumer Health
Resources (cont.)
 NOAH: New York Online Access to Health

Bi-lingual in Spanish and English,


NOAH provides links to high quality
consumer health information that is
accurate, up-to-date, relevant and
unbiased. Arranged both
alphabetically and by body region, it
includes a search feature to guide
you to a specific topic.
Toolkit Evidence- Statistics Patient Info
Based

References
National Libraries of Medicine. (2006). MedlinePlus Guide to Healthy
Web Surfing. Retrieved 2-01-2009, from Website:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthywebsurfing.html