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By: Arun Mishra arunjimishra@gmail.

com 9893686820

A factory is a place where all the industrial activities are housed. Plant layout refers to the arrangement of machinery, equipment and other industrial facilities for achieving quickest and smooth production. Ideal Plant Layout It is a master blueprint for co-ordinating all operations performed inside the factory. Objectives of a Good Layout Improving productivity is the overall objective of good layout.

Materials 2. Types of Product 3. Worker 4. Type of Industry 5. Production Systems 6. Scale of Production 7. Type of Machines 8. Type of Building Facilities 9. Availability of total floor area 10.Possibility of Future Expansion 11.Arrangement of Material Handling Equipment

The Principle of Minimum Travel Principle of Sequence Principle of Usage Principle of Compactness Principle of Safety and Satisfaction Principle of Flexibility Principle of Minimum Investment


iv. v.

Process layout or functional layout or job shop layout; Product layout or line processing layout or flow-line layout; Fixed position layout or static layout; Cellular manufacturing (CM) layout or Group Technology layout; Combination layout or Hybrid layout.


Store layout is the way merchandise is laid out for inspection and accessed by consumers It has two significant effects on the consumer behavior & buying activity:
It determines the appearance of the store It limits the way in which customers may negotiate their way round the store, which affects customer traffic flow/circulation.

The Grid
Free flow

Loop Spine

The grid/gridiron pattern usually has main, secondary & tertiary aisles & consumers are exposed to all products. Grid Layout is a type of store layout in which counters and fixtures are placed in long rows or runs, usually at right angles, throughout the store. Widely used in supermarkets, variety & discount stores

Uses space efficiently Low cost Customer familiarity & allows more customers Merchandise exposure Ease of cleaning Simplified security

Possibility of self-service

Plain & un interesting

Limited browsing

Stimulation of rushed shopping behavior

Increases security risks

Makes displays rigid

Customers feels isolated

Free-Flow Layout is a type of store layout in which fixtures and merchandise are grouped into free-flowing patterns on the sales floor. Designed more unstructured flows of store traffic &allows relaxed customer shopping
Widely used in department & specialty stores

Flexibility in layout Allowance for browsing and wandering freely Increased impulse purchases Visual appeal Cross aisles makes shopping easier

Expensive on space requirements Cost of fixtures is higher Waste of floor space Possibility of confusion Difficulty of cleaning

Also known as concept pattern It effectively adapt free flow system by creating departments to sell related merchandise. This is also known as associated sales. Widely used in small specialist shop & specialty areas in department stores.

Storage, Receiving, Marketing


Dressing Rooms



Checkout counter

Casual Wear



Clearance Items




Open Display Window

Open Display Window

Skirts and Dresses

Hats and Handbags


Create a sense of space within a small area Customer can easily see complete range of merchandise Customer can link items in different categories Appears most appealing to customers


Cost of using space as center space is left empty Boundaries b/w different categories may distract customer from their planned purchase

Also known as Race Track. Loop Layout is a type of store layout in which a major customer aisle begins at the entrance, loops through the store, usually in the shape of a circle, square, arc rectangle, and then returns the customer to the front of the store. It is useful for large stores


It guides customer round a large area It exposes large amounts of merchandise

Customers cannot focus on intended purchase Need for internal walls/island screens

Spine Layout is a type of store layout which is similar to that of loop layout except that customer returns by same path . It uses a central path way to access various sections of the store with branch lines Spine layout can be used as the basis for S shaped & Y shaped layout.

Retailer can utilize the benefits of free flow, grid and loop systems.


Retailer may need to vary the shape of central walk way & increase expenditure on fixtures & fittings


Grouping of workers, their equipment, and spaces to provide comfort, safety, and movement of information Movement of information is main distinction Typically in state of flux due to frequent technological changes

Accounting Finance
Fin. Acct.


Brand X

A Cellular office consists of a number of rooms in which an employee works on his own or with a few other employees. Employees can lock their doors and can have privacy when required


Advantages Make it homely adding pictures Private Quiet and less distractions Concentrate on task Lock doors to stop people using your equipment

Disadvantages May work with someone you dont like Miss out on decisions Harder to manage staff Isolated Poorer communication (possibly)

An Open Plan office is a large area where employees work together Room dividers, soundproof screens may be used to provide some privacy


Advantages Wont be lonely Better communication Easier to manage Wont miss out on decisions

Disadvantages Possibly messy Noisy with lots of distractions Always being watched pressured Cant lock items away theft Cant set the office up the way you like it lighting etc


Any Questions