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EE 615: Lecture 1

Multicarrier Communications
Professor Uf Tureli
Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Contents
Syllabus: http://koala.ece.stevens-
tech.edu/~utureli/EE615/home.html
Todays lecture, motivation for
Multicarrier Communications
Next lecture: review of random
variables, discrete time signal
processing, digital communications,
multipath fading channels

Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Books
(Required) OFDM Wireless LANS: A
Theoretical and Practical Guide, John Terry,
Juha Heiskala, Dec. 2001, ISBN:
06723221572
(Recommended) OFDM for Wireless
Multimedia Communications, Richard van Nee
and Ramjee Prasad, 2000, ISBN:0890065306
(Recommended) Multicarrier Techniques for
4G Mobile Communications, Shinsuke Hara
and Ramjee Prasad, 2003, ISBN:1580534821

Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Homework & Quizzes
MATLAB based code along w/ book.
SystemView with Wireless LAN
http://www.elanix.com/html/program.html

Projects: About three. Emphasis is on
recent results. Need to have computer
based component.


Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Course Outline
Propagation, Multipath and TV Channels
Multicarrier System Model
Implementation aspects
Channel Estimation
Synchronization
Coding
Multiuser detection/ separation
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Motivation
Wireless and Internet trends
WAN, WLAN, WPAN networks
Bandwidth and Mobility Requirements
OFDM, OFDMA, MC-CDMA technologies
Efficient modulation, coding and
diversity techniques
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Wireless Vision
Applications:
Wireless Phones
Wireless Internet Access
Wireless LANs
Smart Homes/Appliances
Automated Highways
Video Teleconferencing
Distance Learning
Sensor Networks

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Seamless Connection
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Technical Challenges
Hardware
Small, lightweight, low power, multimode operation
Communication Link Design
Channel characterization
Fast, robust, spectrally efficient communication
techniques
Mitigation of wireless channel impairments
Multiple Access and Resource Allocation
Efficient modulation, coding and smart antenna schemes
that maximize system capacity
Protocols and cross layer optimization
Aug 31, 2006 E E615

Networking.
Routing and mobility management for mobile users
Network reliability
Network flexibility and scalability.
Meeting application-specific requirements.
Performance gap with wireline systems.
Application Issues
Adaptable to changing QOS
Predictive caching
Resource environment awareness

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Wireless Internet Technologies
UWB
802.11a
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Performance Gap
WIDE AREA CIRCUIT SWITCHING
User
Bit-Rate
(kbps)
14.4
digital
cellular
28.8 modem
ISDN
ATM
9.6 modem
2.4 modem
2.4 cellular
32 kbps
PCS
9.6 cellular
wired- wireless
bit-rate "gap"
1970 2000 1990 1980
YEAR
LOCAL AREA PACKET SWITCHING
User
Bit-Rate
(kbps)
Ethernet
FDDI
ATM
100 M
Ethernet
Polling
Packet
Radio
1st gen
WLAN
2nd gen
WLAN
wired- wireless
bit-rate "gap"
1970 2000 1990 1980
.01
.1
1
10
100
1000
10,000
100,000
YEAR
.01
.1
1
10
100
1000
10,000
100,000
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Spectrum Regulation
Spectral Allocation in US controlled by FCC
(commercial) or OSM (defense)
FCC allocates spectral blocks for particular
applications.
FCC previously gave away spectrum
Currently holds spectral auctions
Some spectrum set aside for universal use
Worldwide spectrum controlled by ITU-R
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History of Mobile Comm
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Standards
Interacting communication systems require
standardization
Standards determined by TIA/CTIA in US
IEEE standards often adopted
Worldwide standards determined by ITU-T
In Europe, ETSI is equivalent of IEEE for
standards development.
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Example Standards

M
o
b
i
l
i
t
y

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Systems beyond 3G/ IMT
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Digital Audio Broadcast (DAB)
DAB supersedes AM/FM
Main advantage, more channels per BW
6 stereo (12 mono) channels per single
freq, allows tranmission of data (as well
as programming information)
DAB uses single frequency network,
differential quadrature phase shift
keying (DQPSK), of BW 1.54 MHz
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Digital Video Broadcast (DVB)
MPEG-2 compressed 3 Mbps TV, 20
Mbps HDTV.
8 MHz channel, 64 QAM modulation
Similar to DAB but intended mainly for
digital television broadcasting.
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Wireless Broadband LANs
Mobile Multimedia Access Communication
(MMAC)
Japanese Association of Radio Industies and
Business (ARIB)
OFDM, 155 Mbps, indoor&outdoor
CBR, VBR and ABR services
USA-IEEE 802.11a, ETSI- Hiperlan II
OFDM, 5.7 GHz, 6-54 Mbit/sec

Aug 31, 2006 E E615
WPAN(Personal Area Network)
UWB: 802.15.3a proposes Multiband OFDM
spread to 500MHz, many bands envisioned.
http://www.multibandofdm.org/
(Ultra-wideband communications
Fractional bandwidth (BW/fc) > 25%
BW > 1.5 GHx)
128 Carriers, 500/128=4MHz tone spacing


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Throughput Comparison



802.11b

802.11 a

802.15.3

Frequency band

2.4 GHz

5 GHz

2.4 GHz

Maximum bit rate per channel

11 Mb/s

54 Mb/s[1]

55 Mb/s

Number of non-interfering
channels

3

12

4

Support for QoS

802.11e QoS patch under development

Guaranteed time
slots

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802.15.3 UWB
UWB: Robustness to multipath and
fading

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802.15.3 UWB-OFDM
High bit rate capability proportional to
power (from Information Theory)
Fine time resolution (Time Bandwidth
product is constant), e.g. localization
Merge UWB with Multicarrier

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
time
a
m
p
l i t u
d
e
2 ( )
1
0
( ) ( ) ,
c
c n t
N
j
T
n
p t s t nT e
t


=
=

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WMAN
Wireless Metropolitan Area Network
(WMAN)
802.16a
OFDM TDMA & OFDM-FDMA



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Competition


1. IEEE 802.11b, DSSS or FHSS, 2.4 GHz,
1,2,11 Mbit/sec (theoretical)
2. Satellite Broadcast Systems
3. HomeRF and Bluetooth
4. 3G services
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802.11a vs 802.11b
Throughput comparision (Atheros)
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Propagation

Path loss
Multipath
Interference
Shadowing


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Multipath Channel
Exponential delay profile, instantaneous
and average.
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Narrowband Channel
Multipath spread is smaller than symbol
period
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Wideband Channel
Multipath spans several symbols
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Digital Modulation in
Wideband Channels
Digital modulation encodes bit
information in amplitude, phase, or
freq. of transmitted signal
Due to multipath, received signal
consists of echoes.
Frequency transfer function of the
channel varies significantly over the BW

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Wideband Channel Defn.
Properties of channel determine
wideband or narrowband system
Outdoor channel, multipath spread 5-
20s, thus more than 50 kbits
Indoor channel, multipath spread 50-
200ns or less, more than 5 Mbits are
truly wideband.
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Multipath Channels
Wideband channels
characterized by
scattering function.
With multipath
and Doppler spread
Coherence
bandwidth


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Equalization
Digital Equalizer



Criterion for coefficient choice
Minimize BER (Hard to solve for {w}s)
Eliminate ISI (Zero forcing, enhances noise)
Minimize MSE between d
n
and d
n


n
n eq
z w z w w z H

+ + + = ... ) (
1
1 0
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Mitigating Multipath effects
Channel estimation required
Training based methods
Tradeoffs in overhead, complexity, and delays
Linear equalizers can completely eliminate
ISI, but this may enhance noise.
Decision feedback (nonlinear) equalizers can
improve performance.


Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Equalizers
Decision Feedback Equalizer

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History
Until 1990, analog modulation and Frequency
Division Multiple Access (FDMA) channels of
25-30 kHz
After 1990, digital speech transmission
(US) D-AMPS/ (Japan) JDC, compatible with
old analog system, slightly wideband
Slightly wideband, required equalizers, main
focus simple one or two tap equalizers and
fast time variations (slow symboling speed
compared to rate of change in the channel)


Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Digital PCS Age
European DECT, BW 1.6 MHz, mainly indoor
no equalizer
GSM Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
system, BW 200 kHz, outdoor and is
wideband, specifies equalizer to counteract
multipath up to 4 samples duration!
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) IS-95
system, uses RAKE receiver to detect echoes
and coherently combine similar to
equalization.
Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Third Generation and beyond
WCDMA (wideband CDMA)BW 5MHz,
wideband even for indoor applications.
New implementation issues because of the
increased bandwidth compared to CDMA IS-
95 standard.
Multicarrier (e.g. OFDM) is a new modulation
technique to distribute information onto many
subcarriers, so bits on each subcarrier are
longer and reduce intersymbol interference
due to multipath.
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Multicarrier Modulation
Divide bit stream into N substreams


Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Orthogonal Division
Multiplexing (OFDM)
OFDM is one of Multicarrier Modulation
schemes, it distributes information on all
carriers
OFDM known since late 60s, and suggested
for wireless in 80s, but progress in digital
signal processing hardware made it feasible
in the 90s, adopted for DAB/DVB, WLAN
(IEEE 802.11a/ HiperLan II), in the 2000s
likely adoption in Wide Area Networking in
IEEE 802.16a as OFDM and OFDMA.
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Spectrum of OFDM
Ex: OFDM has completely separated
and overlapping substreams :
Spectrally efficient

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Transmit Filtering
To limit out of band emissions

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Adaptive Power Allocation
Power Adaptation



Spectral Efficiency
*Spectral Diversity
*Code Diversity
*Spatial Diversity

>
=
else 0
1
0
1
) (
0
M
M
E
E

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Motivation for Spectrum and
Power Efficiency
Until late 90s, mobile radio used
exclusively for speech telephony,
bandwidth needs were proportional to
number of users served not by user
demand.
Data transmission and multimedia
demand high bit rates, upto that of a
wired connection > 1 Mbps.
Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Multimedia Requirements
Delay
Packet Loss
BER
Data Rate
Traffic
Voice Data Video
<100ms
<1%
10
-3
8-32 Kbps

Cts

-
0
<10
-6
1-100Mbps

Bursty

<100ms
<1%
<10
-6
5-25 Mbps

Cts

Aug 31, 2006 E E615
ADSL / VDSL & Multitone
Physical Layer technology is Multicarrier
i.e. discrete Multitone (DMT) for xDSL.


DMT
xDSL MCM
DSL: 160 kbit/sec full
duplex (ISDN, 2 x 64
kbit/sec voice)
HDSL: 1.536 Mbit or
2.048 Mbit/sec
Asym. ADSL: 6.8/0.64
up/down


Aug 31, 2006 E E615
MCM (DMT) and DSL
Customer Loop:
insulated
copper wires
Bridge Taps are
open circuit
connections
http://www.iec.org/online/tutorials/xdsl_test/topic06.html
Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Cross Talk in DSL
Capacitive and
inductive
coupling
between wires
Far End Cross
Talk (FEXT)
Near End Cross
Talk (NEXT)
Aug 31, 2006 E E615
Next week
Read Chapter 1 of Book
Review of Random Variables, Discrete
Time Signal Processing
Digital Communications & Multipath
Fading Channels
Comparison of MCM w/ Single Carrier
MCM: OFDM 802.11a, overview