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Internet

The term Internet has been coined from two terms, i.e., interconnection and network. A network is simply a group of computers that are connected together for sharing information and resources. Several such networks have been joined together across the world toform what is called as the Internet. The Internet comprises thousands of local area networks, groups of computers including government supercomputers, campus-wide information systems, local area networks and individual workstations. Internet Society (ISOC) defines Internet as a global network of networks enabling computers of all kinds to directly and transparently communicate and share services throughout the world using a common communication protocol.

There exists a set of rules which governs the the sending and receiving of data on the Internet . These rules are implemented in two parts in the network software and are called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP). These two are collectively called TCP/IP. For sending large block of text/data to another machine, TCP divides the data into little data packets. It also adds special information e.g. the packet position, error correction code etc. To make sure that packets at the destination can be reassembled correctly and without any damage to data. The role of IP here is to put destination addressing information on such packets.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)-The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide We HTTP defines how browsers request web pages from servers and how servers transfer web pages to clients i.e., in essence it defines the interaction between the web client and the web server. HTTP request messages for the objects in the page to the server. The server receives the requests and responds with HTTP response messages that contain the objects.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)-FTP is a standard Internet protocol. It is the simplest way to exchange files between computers on the Internet. FTP is commonly used to transfer web page files from their creator to the computer that acts as their server for everyone on the Internet.

FTP Client: Window Client used for Transferring Files from Client to Server and from Server to Client

Each host computer on the Internet has its own unique address. To identify a host on the Internet, three addressing systems have been evolved: A numerical system called IP addressing, a hierarchical naming system called the Domain Name System, and an addressing system called URLs, which are used for identifying sites on the web. IP address: Each computer has a unique numerical address, such as 202.54.26.82 Domain name: Each computer must have a unique name, such as www.iitd.ac.in Uniform Resource Locator: Address of file(s) to be accessible from a host computer

The domain name of a host computer looks like Host computer name Organisation name Type of organisation Country name

Abbreviation Meaning 1. au Australia 2. be Belgium 3. ge Germany 4. jp Japan 5. mx Mexico 6. In India Non-Geographic Domains There are six common top-level domain types that are non-geographical: .com for commercial organisations such as netcom.com, apple.com, sun.com,etc. .net for network organisations, such as internic.net .gov for parts of governments within the United States, such as nasa.gov,Oklahoma.gov, etc. .edu for organisations of higher education, such as harvard.edu, ucdavis.edu, mit.edu,etc. .mil for nonclassified military networks, such as army.mil,etc. (The classified networks are not connected to the wider Internet). .org for organisations that do not otherwise fit the commercial or educational designations. .int international organisation

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)-A URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is the address of a file (resource) accessible on the Internet.