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Water Budget: Recall a water budget is an

accounting of the volume of flow rate of water in all possible locations.

You need to focus interest on a region and

determine how the quantity of water in the region can be changed. across which water may move or be confined. You also need to specify a time period.

The regional boundaries have to be determined

Depression Storage
So what is storage depression? It is the water retained in puddles,
ditches, and other depressions in the surface of the ground.

As water reaches the surface in various
forms of precipitation, it is intercepted by plants or falls directly to the surface.
stems of plants is known as interception.

Precipitation that collects on the leaves or

The amount of water intercepted by a
plant largely depends on the plant form (type).

Interception (contd)
Interception (or canopy interception) typically
refers to precipitation that does not reach the soil, but is instead intercepted by the leaves and branches of plants.

It occurs in the canopy and in the forest litter. Because of evaporation, interception of liquid
water generally tends to loss of that precipitation for the drainage basin, except for cases such as fog interception.

Interception (contd)
Intercepted snowfall does not result in any notable
amount of evaporation, and most of the snow falls off the tree by wind or melt. with the wind, out of the watershed.

However, intercepted snow can more easily drift Conifers have greater interception than hardwoods.
Their needs gives them more surface area for droplets to adhere to, and they have foliage in spring and fall; therefore, interception also depends on the type of vegetation in the wooded area.

Interception (contd)
Water is held on the leaf surface until it
either drips off as through fall or trickles down the leaf finally reaching the ground as stem flow.
against erosion.

Interception of falling rain buffers the surface Coniferous trees tend to intercept more water
than deciduous trees on an annual basis because deciduous trees drop their leaves for a period of time.

Interception (contd)
Upon reaching the ground, some water
infiltrates into the soil, possible percolating down to the groundwater table, or it may run across the surface as runoff.
into the surface of the soil.

Infiltration refers to water that penetrates

Infiltration is controlled by soil texture, soil

structure, vegetation, and soil moisture content.

Interception (contd)
High infiltration rates occur in dry soils, with
infiltration slowing as the soil becomes wet.

Coarse textured soils with large well-connected

pore spaces tend to have higher infiltration rates than fine textured soils. than fine textured soils due to a smaller amount of total pore space in a unit volume of soil. have with a finer textured soil.

However, coarse textured soils fill more quickly Runoff is generated quicker than one might

Interception (contd)
Vegetation also affects infiltration.
For instance, infiltration is higher for soils
under forest vegetation than bare soils. through which water can enter the soil.

Tree roots loosen and provide conduits Foliage and surface litter reduce the impact
of falling rain keeping soil passages from becoming sealed.

Interception (contd)
An article has been provided to you as an
e-mail attachment addressing the impact of interception losses on the water balances in forested mountain ranges.

Significance of Interception and Interception Loss

By how much does interception reduce inputs
into the watershed hydrological cycle?

Not much, because interception is offset by

decreased transpiration.

The amount of solar energy for evaporation and

transpiration is constant for any time and place, so evaporation of intercepted moisture simply replaces the evapotranspiration that would have occurred in the absence of precipitation.

Significance of Interception and Interception Loss (contd)

Experiments have shown decreased transpiration from wet foliage. Therefore:

Interception loss represents a net los of water.

The rate of evaporation of intercepted water exceeds rates of transpiration, because transpiration is limited by soil moisture conditions and the rate at which water is transferred to leaves and interception loss can occur from dead (nontranspiring) vegetation. Evaporation of intercepted water cools the plant, suppressing transpiration and causes a heat flux from the air which contributes to further evaporation.

Depression Storage (contd)

Consider an example of a water budget from
a parking lot. First, you must determine the surface boundaries of the parking lot that contribute water to a collection point. The boundary may be defined on the surface as an imaginary line bordering the surface area from which precipitation may be accumulated and routed to some control point.

Depression Storage (contd)

At the control point, a decision can be

made on the volume and rate of discharge. As an example, the control point can be an inlet grate at the lowest elevation of the parking lot. If the parking lot is constructed with curbs to contain the water on site, the boundary is easily determined.

Depression Storage (contd)

A water budget (balance) for a parking lot
is useful; to show our mass balance principles.

Lets first assume that all the precipitation

remains on the surface of the parking lot, and is routed to a control point. This water volume is given the term rainfall excess . The rate at which rainfall excess appears over time at a discharge (control) point is called runoff.

Depression Storage (contd)

Photographs shown on the following slide

depict storage depression during a storm (in the faculty parking lot near Hoehn Engineering Building).

Storage Depression in Parking Lot near Hoehn Engineering Building

Depression Storage (contd)

A water budget (water balance) can then
be written in volume terms:
Inputs Outputs Accumulation = 0 {1}

If water is not stored on the parking lot

surface, the accumulation term is zero with input equal to precipitation, and output equal to rainfall excess, or:
Rainfall excess = Volume of precipitation {2}

Depression Storage (contd)

If precipitation is abstracted by depression

storage in the parking lot, then the water balance in volume terms is altered as shown below: Rainfall excess = Precipitation Depression storage {3}

Depression Storage (contd)

The complexity of the water budget

(water balance) depends on the physical system and the ultimate use of the balance. complex with many parameters.

Water budgets for large areas are very

Depression Storage (contd)

All of the rain that falls on the impervious portion of
the basin is considered rainfall excess.

The equation for impervious area runoff can be

written to account for depression storage or evaporation (if applicable), using the following equation: R (I ) = d' [P (t) D (t)] EVP {4}

R (I ) = impervious area runoff, (depth) d = impervious portion of the drainage basin,

(fraction) P (t) = rainfall depth during time increment t, (depth) D (t) = depression storage during time increment t, (depth) EVP = portion of rainfall excess which is evaporated before runoff (fraction)

Depression Storage (contd)

The nature of the depression, as well as their
size, is largely dependent on the original land form and local land-use practices.

Ultimately, all the water stored in depressions The amount of precipitation going into

will either evaporate or seep into the complex. Thus, depressions vary widely in size, degree of interconnection, and contributing drainage area.

depression storage will approach zero, given that there is a large enough volume of precipitation to exceed other losses to surface storage, such as infiltration and evaporation.

Depression Storage (contd)

The volume of water stored by surface
V = S d (1 e k
P e)

depressions at any given time can be approximated using the following relationship:
V = volume actually in storage at the time of

interest S d = maximum storage capacity of the depression P e = the rainfall excess (gross rainfall evaporation, interception, and infiltration) k = constant equivalent to 1/S d

Depression Storage (contd)

The value of k can be determined by considering Estimates of S
the case where P e ~ 0, so that all the water fills the depressions and dV /dP e will equal 1.0. With this case, it requires that k = 1/S d. can be obtained by making sample field measurements for the area under consideration. Combining that data with estimates of P e allows you to estimate the volume V.

The manner in which V varies with time must

either be determined or assumed if depression storage losses are to be abstracted from the gross rainfall input.

Depression Storage (contd)

A common assumption invoked for dV/dt is that
all depressions must be full before overland flow supply begins.

This usually does not agree with reality, unless

the largest depressions are graded with the largest ones occurring downstream. If abstraction storage were abstracted in this way, the total volume would be deducted from the initial storm such as depicted in Figure 5.2 of your text.

Figure 5.2. Simple depression storage abstraction scheme.

Depression Storage (contd)

Note that the overland flow supply rate
plus the depression equals i f :



i = rainfall intensity reaching the ground

surface f = infiltration rate

Then the ratio of the overland flow supply

if = 1 e k

to the overland flow plus depression storage supply is given by the following relationship:

Depression Storage (contd)

This can be rewritten as:
if =ifv if {7}
where v is the derivative of Equation {5} with respect to time. Thus: v = d [S d (1 e k P e)] dt = (S d k e k P e) dPe {8} dt and: k = 1_


Depression Storage (contd)

v = e k

dP e dt


Because the excess precipitation P e equals the

gross rainfall minus the infiltrated water, and noting that the derivative with respect to time can be approximated by the equivalent intensity (i f ), the intensity of depression storage then becomes:

v = e k


(i f )


Depression Storage (contd)

Then, inserting this into Equation {7}, we
if = ifv if = (i f ) (i f ) e k P e if = (i f ) (1 e k P e) = 1 e k if



Depression Storage (contd)

Figure 5.3 in your text shows a plot of this
function versus the mass overland flow and the depression storage supply (P F ), where F is the accumulated mass infiltration and P represents the gross precipitation.

This figures indicates that as rainfall

accumulation increases, the ratio of /(i f ) in its limit approaches a value of 1.0.

Figure 5.3. Depth distribution curve of depression storage. Enter graph from top, read down to selected curve, and project right or left as desired.

Depression Storage (contd)

The overland flow supply rate represents
the amount of gross precipitation that can be delivered overland after infiltration and depression storage losses have been accounted for (i.e., deducted from the water balance). runoff that produces a stream flow hydrograph.

The overland flow eventually becomes the

Depression Storage (contd)

Generally, depression storage deductions
are estimated during the first part of a storm (early in the storm); the amount subtracted is a function of the site topography, ground cover, and the extent and type of land development.
storage deductions are usually considered as being negligible.

During major storm events, depression

Part of the storm precipitation that occurs
is intercepted by vegetation and other forms of cover on the drainage area. Interception can be defined as that segment of the gross precipitation input which wets and adheres to the ground objects until it is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation.

Interception (contd)
Precipitation striking vegetation may be
retained on leaves or blades of grass, flow down the stems of plants and become stem flow, or fall off the leaves to become part of the throughfall. The modifying effect that a forest canopy can have on rainfall intensity at the ground (the throughfall) can be put to practical use in watershed management schemes.

Interception (contd)
The amount of water intercepted is a
function of the following:
The storm character;

The species, age, and density of prevailing plants and trees; and
The season of the year.

Interception (contd)
Typically, 1020% of the precipitation that
falls during a growing season is intercepted and returned to the hydrologic cycle via evaporation. Your text cites various percentages of interception for various plant types and seasons. initial storm period, and the rate of interception quickly approaches zero thereafter.

Most interception loss develops during the

Interception (contd)
Potential storm interception losses can be
estimated using the following equation:

Li = S + K E t
where: L i = volume of water intercepted, (in)


S K E t

= interception storage that will be retained on the foliage against the forces of wind and gravity [the value typically varies between 0.01 and 0.05 in.) = ratio of surface area of intercepting leaves to horizontal projection of this area; = amount of water evaporated per hour during the precipitation period, (in) = time, (hr)

Interception (contd)
Total interception by an individual plant is
directly related to the amount of foliage and its character and orientation. for various crops and grasses.

Table 5.2 illustrates the mean interception

Table 5.2. Observed percentages of interception by various crops and grasses.

Interception (contd)
The above equation can be used to estimate
total interception losses.

For analyses of individual storms, it is also A general equation for estimating such losses is
not available, since most studies have been related to particular species or experimental plots strongly associated with a given locality.

necessary to know or assume the distribution of this abstraction.

Interception (contd)
In addition, the loss function varies with the
storms character.

If adequate experimental data are available, the

nature of the variance of interception versus time may be inferred.

Otherwise, common practice is to deduct the

estimated volume entirely from the initial period of the storm (initial abstraction).

Interception (contd)
The above equation was developed with
the assumption that rainfall is sufficient to fully satisfy the storage term S.
rainfall amount:

The next equation then accounts for the

L I = S (1 e P/S) + K E t

where P is the precipitation (rainfall), and the other terms are as described in Equation {12}.

Interception (contd)
Precipitation type, rainfall intensity and
duration, wind, and atmospheric conditions affecting evaporation all are factors that affect interception losses. be significant modeling. in annual or log-term

Estimates of loss to gross precipitation may For heavy rainfalls during individual storm

events, accounting for interception may have minimal (negligible) significance in the overall water balance.

Interception (contd)
You should also note that there can be
considerable variation losses areally. in interception

Common practice is to subtract the

estimated volume from the initial period of the storm (commonly termed initial abstraction).

Interception Example
Example: The following equations derived by
For ash trees: L i = 0.015 + 0.23 P For oak trees: L i = 0.03 + 0.22 P

Horton were derived for interception by ash and oak trees:

where L i is the volume of water intercepted (in inches) and P is the precipitation (in inches). Estimate the interception loss beneath trees during a storm having a total precipitation of 1.5 inches.

Interception Example (contd)

1. For ash trees:

L i = 0.015 + 0.23 P
= 0.015 + 0.23 (1.5 in) = (0.015 + 0.345) in = 0.360 in 2. For oak trees:

L i = 0.03 + 0.22 P
= 0.03 + 0.22 (1.5 in) = (0.03 + 0.33) in = 0.36 in

Interception Example
3. Using the curve for mean percentage
interception by trees, the percentage interception ~24%. Thus:

0.24 x 1.5 in = 0.36 in

For this example, the storm loss beneath

the trees resulting from interception would be ~0.36 inches.

Depression Storage Example

Example (Problem 5.1 of your text): Using
the precipitation input of Figure 5.2 of your text, estimate the volume of depression storage for a 3.0-acre paved drainage area. State the volume in ft 3 and m 3. Convert it to an equivalent depth over the area in inches and centimeters.

Figure 5.2. Simple depression storage abstraction scheme.

Depression Storage Example


Use a basis of 1.0 minute (based on the

representation of Figure 5.2).

Using Figure 5.2, estimate the initial depression

storage abstraction:

V ~ [0.5 + 1.75] ft 3/sec-acre

= 2.25 ft 3/sec-acre

The time scale on Figure 5.2 is in minutes; thus:

V ~ 2.25 ft 3 60 sec = 135.0 ft 3
sec-acre min min-acre

Depression Storage Example (contd)

We are given the paved drainage area is 3.0
acres, so:
V = 135.0 ft 3 (3.0 acres) = 405.0 ft 3
acre = (405.0 ft 3) 12 in 3 2.54 cm 3 1.0 L 1.0 m 3 ft in 1000 cm 3 1000 = (405.0) (1728) (16.3871) (106) m 3 = 11.468 m 3

Depression Storage Example

Determine the volume use a basis of 1.0 acres:
V = 2.25 ft 3 60 sec (1 min) (1.0 acre) = 135.0 ft 3
sec-acre min

Recall: Thus:

1.0 acres = 43,560 ft 2

d = V = 135.0 ft 3 = 3.099 x 103 ft 12 in A 43,560 ft 2 ft

= 0.0372 in x 2.54 cm = 0.0945 cm in

Surface Flow Phenomena within a Watershed

During a given rainfall, water is continually being
abstracted to saturate the upper levels of the soil surface; however, this saturation or infiltration is only one of many continuous abstractions. surfaces, and at the same time is evaporated.

Rainfall is intercepted by trees, plants, and roof

Once rain falls and fulfills initial requirements of
infiltration, natural depressions collect falling rain to form small puddles, creating depression storage. In addition, minute depths of water forming detention storage build up on permeable and impermeable surfaces within the watershed.

Surface Flow Phenomena within a Watershed (contd)

The stored water gathers in small rivulets which
carry the water originating as overland flow into small channels, then into larger channels, and finally as channel flow to the watershed outlet. not the norm. However, the concept is useful to show the manner in which detention and depression storage would be distributed.

The distribution of a prolonged uniform rainfall is

Surface Flow Phenomena within a Watershed (contd)

In general, the channel of a watershed
possesses a certain amount of base flow during most of the year. This flow comes from groundwater or spring contributions and may be considered as the normal day-to-day flow. after abstraction deducted from the original excess constitutes the direct runoff hydrograph (DRH). Arrival of direct runoff at the outlet accounts for an initial rise in the DRH.

Discharge from precipitation excess that is,

Surface Flow Phenomena within a Watershed (contd)

As precipitation excess continues, enough
time elapses for progressively distant areas to add to the outlet flow.

Consequently, the duration of rainfall

dictates the proportionate area of the watershed amplifying the peak, and the intensity of rainfall during this period of time determines the resulting highest discharge.

Surface Flow Phenomena within a Watershed (contd)

If the rainfall maintains a constant intensity
for a long enough period of time, a state of equilibrium discharge (steady state) is reached. which the entire drainage area contributes to the flow. watershed is only partially complete.

An inflection point indicates the time at At this time, maximum storage of the

Surface Flow Phenomena within a Watershed (contd)

As rainfall continues, maximum storage
capacity is attained and equilibrium (steady state) is reached where inflow (rainfall) equals outflow (runoff).

The conditions of maximum storage and Extended rainfall may occur, but variations in

equilibrium are seldom, if ever, attained in nature. intensity throughout its duration negate any possibility of a DRH of the theoretical shape for constant rainfall intensity.

Surface Flow Phenomena within a Watershed (contd)

A normal single-peak DRH generally possesses
the shape shown in curve B of Figure 3.

The time to peak magnitude of this hydrograph

depends on the intensity and duration of the rainfall, and the size, slope, shape, and storage capacity of the watershed. isolated rainstorm, the DRH begins to descend, its source of supply coming largely from water accumulated within the watershed such as detention and channel storage.

Once peak flow has been reached for a given

Surface Flow Phenomena within a Watershed (contd)

Processes involved in forming the DRH can be
better understood by visualizing the precipitation excess as partially disposed of immediately by surface runoff while a portion remains held within the watershed boundaries and is released later from storage. integrated effects of the duration and intensity of rainfall hydrometeorological factors as well as the effect of the physiographic factors of the watershed upon the storage capacity.

Thus, the shape and timing of the DRH are