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PROPRIETARY

1

Repeaters in CDMA and UMTS
Network Design Guidelines

Dr. Joseph Shapira
jshapira@comm-and-sens.com






PROPRIETARY
2

Contents
Definitions and classification
Repeater interaction with the network
Network planning with repeaters
Radio Hole
Rural area
Hot Spot
Multiple repeaters: Star, cascade
Backhaul and interference cancellation
Indoor Service
Pico repeaters
Optimization with repeaters


PROPRIETARY
3

Definitions

Repeater (3GPP): A device that receives, amplifies and
transmits the radiated or conducted RF carrier both in the
down-link direction (from the base station to the mobile
area) and in the up-link direction (from the mobile to the
base station).
Repeater is linked to the RF path and shares the BS resources
with the donor-serviced UEs.
Remote Sector is an access point that has its own resources
(bank of transceivers).



PROPRIETARY
4

CDMA repeaters DL, UL
G
RR
F
R
G
B
F
B
BTS
Repeater
T
r
n
T
D
R
C
R
R
T
c
R
C0
m
G
RR
F
R
G
B
F
B
BTS
Repeater
T
r
n
T
D
R
C
R
R
T
c
R
C0
m
G
RF
F
RF
BTS
Repeater
T
RF
n
m
T
DF
R
CF
R
RF
T
cF
R
C0
PA
G
RF
F
RF
BTS
Repeater
T
RF
n
m
T
DF
R
CF
R
RF
T
cF
R
C0
PA
Up-Link Down-Link



PROPRIETARY
5

Types of Repeaters
1. Embedded
2. Border extension
3. Remote
4. Cascaded
R
R3
D
3
D
2
1
2
3
R
R2
R
R1
D
1
R
C
R
R3
D
3
D
2
1
2
3
R
R2
R
R1
D
1
R
C


PROPRIETARY
6

Repeater coverage - DL
Coverage extension repeater
Signal received in mobile [dBm]
Cell boundary
Hole filler repeater
Boundary repeater
Coverage extender
Other cell
P
B
T(0)
P
B
T(0)y
E
P
B
T(0)y
B
P
B
T(0)y
H
Cell coverage
Coverage extension repeater
Signal received in mobile [dBm]
Cell boundary
Hole filler repeater
Boundary repeater
Coverage extender
Other cell
P
B
T(0)
P
B
T(0)y
E
P
B
T(0)y
B
P
B
T(0)y
H
Cell coverage
The transmission-gain (T) slope depends on the antenna height and tilt


PROPRIETARY
7

Repeater Coverage - UL
Repeater embedded in a cell
Cell coverage
P
m
[dB]
q
q/y
q/y
q
Repeater
coverage
Overlap
R
C

R
R

R
0



PROPRIETARY
8

Cascaded (multi-hop) repeaters
Repeaters are cascaded to increase coverage
1. Along roads
maximal area/ length
2. Within an area/ campus
mixed large/ small areas
3. Within buildings
limited area, complex coverage
Distribution (backhaul):
Star
Cascade


PROPRIETARY
9

Repeater Interaction
Donor
antenna
Service
antenna
G
F
G
R
P
F
P
R
RSSI
R
RSSI
F
Duplex Duplex
BTS
antenna
UE
antenna
y
R
=G
R
T
DR

y
F
=G
F
T
F

T
DR

T
UER



PROPRIETARY
10

Impact of repeater on donor cell - RL
Apparent repeater noise factor

Effective cell noise factor

Effective repeater noise factor

Total load m+n

C
R
F
F
y F

F
F
F
y
F
F
F yF F F
C
R
C
CE
CE R C CE

1 1

; + = + = + =
G
RR
F
R
G
B
F
B
BTS
Repeater
T
r
n
T
D
R
C
R
R
T
c
R
C0
m
G
RR
F
R
G
B
F
B
BTS
Repeater
T
r
n
T
D
R
C
R
R
T
c
R
C0
m
( ) y F F F y F F F
C R C RE RE

1 1

+ = + =


PROPRIETARY
11

RL Impact of repeater on network
Loads the donor noise and reduces its coverage and/ or capacity
Overlap introduces diversity. Excess fingers introduce
interference.
No Rx diversity increases UE_Tx and BS load, and reduces
coverage
Change in Donor link gain causes change in coverage for both
repeater and donor
Imbalance DL-UL (excess offset) causes the P.C. open loop to
be noisy, and loss of capacity. Imbalance exceeding about
close loop range breaks the P.C. loop and drops RSUs



PROPRIETARY
12

Sensitivity and Noise Rise

q [dB]
q
q [dB]
q
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
q
q
q
= =


=
1
1
; ;
1
Re
0
T
b t b
BTS
m
S NR
N
n W R N E quired
WF N
r T r P
q


PROPRIETARY
13

Coverage-Capacity Trade-Off
The repeater coverage can be traded-off vs.
Donor Capacity
Leaving donors coverage at nominal NR intact
Donor Coverage
Maximizing the total capacity
User density in the area (coverage is linked to capacity)


PROPRIETARY
14

Capacity-Coverage Trade-off
Noise rise =
S
T
set limit
S
T
[dB]
q
Capacity loss
Max allowable
slope
( ) ] [

1 10 dB F LOG +
30%
coverage loss
17.5% capacity
loss
But recovered
and more-
by repeaters
| |
10
10 1
; ;
1

1
dB NR
T
n
N
N
n F
S

= =

+
= q
q


PROPRIETARY
15

Noise Rise vs Apparent Noise Figure
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
-
2
5
-
2
2
-
1
9
-
1
6
-
1
3
-
1
0
-
7
-
4
-
1 2 5 8
Apparent Noise Figure [dB]
N
o
i
s
e

R
i
s
e

[
d
B
]
Noise Rise


PROPRIETARY
16

Repeater coverage - UL
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
q
q
q

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
+

=
1

1
1

1
1
0
0
0 0
0 0
I C
y
F
WF N
r T r P
I C
F WF N
r T r P
I C
WF N
r T r P
BTS
R R m
BTS
C C m
C BTS
C C m
( )
4
Ur r T
UL link budget
Baseline donor
Donor loaded with
repeater
Repeater

But
( )
2 1
2
2 1
0
2
0
2 1
0
2
0

1
1
1

1
1
1
1
Uy
R
R
F
Uy
R
R
F
R
R
C
R
C C
R
C C
C
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
q
q
q
q
T is transmission gain (between Tx and Rx antennas)
U is antenna height & diversity parameter



PROPRIETARY
17

Loss of Donors capacity and coverage
due to repeaters noise (no additional load)
A Excess noise rise for fixed load limit (loss of coverage)
B Loss of capacity for fixed noise rise limit
A B




0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Apparent repeater noise figure
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

r
a
n
g
e

a
n
d

c
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
Range (normalized) Coverage( normalized)
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
-
1
0
-
8
-
6
-
4
-
2 0 2 4 6 8
Apparent repeater noise figure
D
o
n
o
r

c
a
p
a
c
i
t
y

r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e

t
o

n
o
m
i
n
a
l

(
m
a
x
.

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r

v
s
.

n
o
m
i
n
a
l
)


PROPRIETARY
18

Repeater Noise Rise
NRr,n fixed, N=40
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
1 4 7
1
0
1
3
1
6
1
9
2
2
2
5
2
8
Number of RSU
N
R
r
[
d
B
]
n=0;y=0 dB
n=0;y=-10 dB
n=0;y=-20 dB
n=5;y=0 dB
n=5;y=-10 dB
n=5;y=-20 dB
n=15;y=0 dB
n=15;y=-10 dB
n=15;y=-20 dB


PROPRIETARY
19

Down (Forward) Link
Relays all donor transmission ( plus other interfering sources)

No automatic balancing UL/DL
Has to be controlled for coverage (gain) and saturation
(AMLC)
Reduces RSU (repeater-served-users) per-user power
Increases PiCH/TCH ratio for RSU (TCH is power-controlled)


RF DF F
G T y =


PROPRIETARY
20

Repeater specs Power (example)
Parameter Unit Assumed value
G dB 90 dB
Pout_DL_max dBm 30 dBm
Pout_UL_max dBm 12 dBm
NF dB 5 dB


PROPRIETARY
21

Power UL vs Power DL
Why is Max power DL higher than UL?
(up to 18 dB)
T
DR
is higher than T
UER
(not true for pico)
Coupling to the donor is designed to be high (LOS, high-gain
antennas)
Coupling to the UE determines the coverage, and is low.
DL transmits all BS transmission, UL only RSUs
Headroom for PC (typical to 9 dB) on DL. May be on UL
too in Pico.
Repeaters in SHO carry up to 50% more DL power per
link.


PROPRIETARY
22

SHO DL Overhead
SHO Probability
(1, 2, 3 way) %
Average total DL
power [units]
UL noise rise
[dB]
67, 22, 11 4.37 1.77
56, 25, 19 6.32 1.68
45, 27, 28 8.56 1.58
Ref: Laiho , A. Wacker, T. Novosad: Radio Network Planning and Optimization for UMTS, Wiley 2002
Repeaters in SHO carry up to 50% more DL power per link


PROPRIETARY
23

Impact of Repeaters on the Network - DL
Net gain (y
F
) determines coverage
Excess gain causes oscillations/spurii
ALC reduces coverage, causes imbalance and reduces capacity
Amplifying other sources may lead to ALC
Instability of the BS-Repeater (BSR) link (e.g. directive antenna
nodding, fiber loss change with temperature, etc.) changes
coverage
Overlap with donors coverage adds multiple fingers to the MS
receiver, introduces interference (reduces orthogonality) and
diversity (if there are enough fingers).



PROPRIETARY
24

Coverage of repeaters
Embedded Border Remote
-10.00
-8.00
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
0
.
0
2
0
.
1
0
.
1
8
0
.
2
6
0
.
3
4
0
.
4
2
0
.
5
0
.
5
8
0
.
6
6
0
.
7
4
0
.
8
2
0
.
9
0
.
9
8
Distance from BTS (normalized)
P
r
s
/
P
s

[
d
B
]
-10.00
-8.00
-6.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
0
.
4
6
0
.
5
2
0
.
5
8
0
.
6
4
0
.
7
0
.
7
6
0
.
8
2
0
.
8
8
0
.
9
4 1
1
.
0
6
1
.
1
2
1
.
1
8
1
.
2
4
1
.
3
Distance from BTS (normalized)
P
r
s
/
P
s

[
d
B
]
-15.00
-13.00
-11.00
-9.00
-7.00
-5.00
-3.00
-1.00
1.00
3.00
5.00
0
.
9
0
.
9
8
1
.
0
6
1
.
1
4
1
.
2
2
1
.
3
1
.
3
8
1
.
4
6
1
.
5
4
1
.
6
2
1
.
7
1
.
7
8
1
.
8
6
1
.
9
4
Distance from BTS (normalized)
P
r
s
/
P
s

[
d
B
]
Cell border


PROPRIETARY
25

Multipath, rake receiver
and search window


PROPRIETARY
26

Channel response to an
Impulse
Multipath occurs in discrete
peaks (fingers)
The fingers follow a structured
path along UE motion.


PROPRIETARY
27

Rake Receiver
The rake receiver is a series of correlators searching in time-
delay for signal peaks with the right code (multipaths).
Each finger extends over one chip (0.26 s).
The number of fingers in the receiver is limited.
The time delay from the first-arriving peak (delay spread)
that is searched in UMTS is 20s ( but is adjustable in
some vendors systems).
Multipath fingers captured by the receiver are MRC-
combined (Maximal ratio combining phase-adjusted and
SNR-weighted) to create diversity gain.
Excess multipath adds only noise.


PROPRIETARY
28

Repeater Delay and Multipath
(Fingers) Search Window
RSU excess delay
D=D
R
+ (d
DR
+d
RUE
-d
DUE
)/c
D<D
R
+2d
RUE

D
R
Repeater delay
Note: fiber cable delay is 150%
Typical D
R
= 5 6 s
Excess delay consideration
needed over the coverage-
overlap area.
In case D + Dspread exceed the
Search Window access
failure.
Rural repeaters may require
extended search window.


d
DUE

d
DR

d
DR

d
RUE

d
RUE

d
DUE

Donor
Repeater A
Repeater B
D
Signal received for UE in coverage overlap
Dspread


PROPRIETARY
29

AGC
AGC is not a required feature for CDMA repeaters. The fast
power control maintains the coverage, both DL and UL.
AGC is used with low-power repeaters, loosely coupled to
the BS (y<-15 dB or so) to ease tuning during installation
and operation. It maintains a constant power under changes
in the load, link to the BS and average coupling to the UEs
(indoors). It is slow compared to the fast Power Control
and to the ALC. It adjusts both UL and DL.
The gain variations do not impact the donor as long as the
total gain y is under -15 dB or so at maximum repeater
gain.


PROPRIETARY
30

ALC
ALC Automatic Level Control is a guard measure against
amplifier saturation, signal distortion and generation of
spurious interference. It is used on the DL, and in some
systems on UL.
ALC reacts to amplifier saturation by reducing the gain when
the amplifier reaches its limit, and maintaining a constant
transmission level. While in operation it biases the DL
power control and reduces coverage and functionality. It
retrieves the normal gain setting when the amplifier
overdrive is relaxed. Its operation is to be programmed by
the operator.
ALC is a guard measure, not a normal mode of operation. Its
operation has to be limited and the respective problem (and
associated alarm) be addressed.



PROPRIETARY
31

Network planning with repeaters
Major parameters:
Repeater location
Repeater UL/DL power, gain, dynamic range
(per channel, per location and purpose)
Height, beam-width, direction and tilt of
service antenna
Backhaul link


PROPRIETARY
32

Coverage-capacity limits vs user density
5 1 6 1
;

l R
0.45
0.55
0.65
0.75
0.85
0.95
1.05
1.15
1.25
1.35
1.45
1.55
0
.
0
5
0
.
2
0
.
3
5
0
.
5
0
.
6
5
0
.
8
0
.
9
5
1
.
1
1
.
2
5
1
.
4
1
.
5
5
1
.
7
1
.
8
5 2
2
.
1
5
2
.
3
2
.
4
5
2
.
6
2
.
7
5
2
.
9
User area density (normalized)
C
e
l
l

r
a
n
g
e

(
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
)
Coverage-
limited
Capacity-
limited
Density (Log scale)
Radius R (Log scale)
Forward link power limit
Reverse link
(interference) limit
Available zone
R
r
a b
0.45
0.55
0.65
0.75
0.85
0.95
1.05
1.15
1.25
1.35
1.45
1.55
0
.
0
5
0
.
2
0
.
3
5
0
.
5
0
.
6
5
0
.
8
0
.
9
5
1
.
1
1
.
2
5
1
.
4
1
.
5
5
1
.
7
1
.
8
5 2
2
.
1
5
2
.
3
2
.
4
5
2
.
6
2
.
7
5
2
.
9
User area density (normalized)
C
e
l
l

r
a
n
g
e

(
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
)
Coverage-
limited
Capacity-
limited
0.45
0.55
0.65
0.75
0.85
0.95
1.05
1.15
1.25
1.35
1.45
1.55
0
.
0
5
0
.
2
0
.
3
5
0
.
5
0
.
6
5
0
.
8
0
.
9
5
1
.
1
1
.
2
5
1
.
4
1
.
5
5
1
.
7
1
.
8
5 2
2
.
1
5
2
.
3
2
.
4
5
2
.
6
2
.
7
5
2
.
9
User area density (normalized)
C
e
l
l

r
a
n
g
e

(
n
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d
)
Coverage-
limited
Capacity-
limited
Density (Log scale)
Radius R (Log scale)
Forward link power limit
Reverse link
(interference) limit
Available zone
R
r
a b
1 2 1
;

l R
DL UL


PROPRIETARY
33

Repeater parameters
4 2
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

C
R
C
R
C
R
C
R
t
t
H
H
g
g
G
G
U
G
R,C
antenna gain
(note sectorization gain)
R,C repeater, cell
g diversity gain
H antenna height
t tilt parameter
Activity and interference Antennas and diversity
capacity Pole N
density Area
N
N
s
R
C
C
R
RC




PROPRIETARY
34

Beam-tilt and foot-print
kHh
Tilted Beam

Reference

Reduced power

R
H
tilt
R
tilt
LOG(R
tilt
)
Cell boundary:
Reference
With tilt
Stronger and
shorter coverage
LOG (R)
Power received at MS[dB]- R
-2
propagation law
Tilt (BW) 0.4 0.6 0.8
Range R=1000m 72 46 28
With tilt (%) R=500m 74 50 32
R=200m 78 55 38


PROPRIETARY
35

Directional donor/ repeater
If
the beamwidth of the donor
coverage is 1/n of a circle
the beamwidth of the repeater
coverage is 1/m of a circle
Then


s
m
n
s
U
n
m
U
s
s
=
=
n 1
m 1


PROPRIETARY
36

Rural Area
(extension/ remote repeater)
User density in the area is allowed to have two values, both in
the donor and in the repeater, accounting for denser inner
cores.
s
1
ratio of donors inner core density to the rest
s
R
ratio of repeaters density to donors
s
R1
ratio of repeaters inner core density to rest
R
1
radius of donors inner core
R
R1
radius of repeaters inner core





PROPRIETARY
37

Rural Area
Base load=50%;s1=1;sr=0.5;sr1=1;r1=.3;rr1;=.1;F=0 dB
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
-
3
0
-
2
6
-
2
2
-
1
8
-
1
4
-
1
0
-
6
-
2 2
Donor coverage
Repeater coverage
Load
Coverage


PROPRIETARY
38

Radio Hole in a Dense Area
The objective is coverage of a well defined area with minimum
loss of capacity and coverage. The repeater coverage is
embedded within the cells/ sectors coverage.
The cell base load is 70
The radio hole covers 1% of the cells/ sectors area
Required density in the repeaters area s
R
=1
Antenna - U=.1 (U is a coverage-control parameter)
The working point is set to cover the required area.
y=-26dB Cov.
=
15% ; Donor cov.
=
98% ; Load=70%




PROPRIETARY
39

Coverage of a radio hole
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
-
3
0
-
2
6
-
2
2
-
1
8
-
1
4
-
1
0
-
6
-
2 2 6
1
0
Net gain y
L
n
e
a
r

v
a
l
u
e
s
Coverage
Repeater fractional
coverage
Repeater coverage
repeater load
Total load
Normalized total load


PROPRIETARY
40

Hot Spot
Hot spot the density within the hot spot is high. The BS
power may not suffice, if the link to the hot spot is weak.
The working point is chosen so that the repeater coverage
exceeds the hot spot area, with a minimum effect on the
donors coverage.
Example presented: Hot Spot area 5%
Base Load s U HS cov. Fr [dB] y [dB] Load Cov.
0.3 10 0.10 0.07 0.00 -9.00 0.61 0.720


PROPRIETARY
41

Hot Spot repeater
0.00
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
-
3
0
-
2
6
-
2
2
-
1
8
-
1
4
-
1
0
-
6
-
2 2 6
1
0
Net gain y
L
n
e
a
r

v
a
l
u
e
s
Coverage
Repeater fractional
coverage
Repeater coverage
repeater load
Total load
Normalized total load


PROPRIETARY
42

Multiple Repeaters - Star/ Cascade
Star
Each repeater may be controlled
independently
The aggregate apparent noise factor
counts. Optimal setting same net gain
to each.
Cascade
The gain setting of each repeater
influence the rest of the chain. The
coverage is successively smaller. Optimal
setting same net gain (y) to all repeaters
but the first (preferably y=1). Control the
chain by the net gain of the first.
R
C
R
1 R
2
R
3 R
4
Total range
R
C
R
1 R
2
R
3 R
4
Total range


PROPRIETARY
43

Coverage area vs. number of repeaters
Uniform density of users
4
6
6 4
0
; ;
|
|
.
|

\
|

}
n
n
R
R
R
p
P
nR p R rdr r P
2
2
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
~ ~ =
n
n
R
R
n R n R Coverage t t
Power limitation, DL
( ) n Coverage n
Coverage
F
F n
n R
R
n
F
n n
+
=
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
1
2
1
;

1
1
2
1
2
1

2 1
2
Noise Rise limitation , UL
Coverage advantage to multiple repeaters for low-density
coverage, both UL and DL


PROPRIETARY
44

Star Coverage
Uniform user density, very light load
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
-
2
0
-
1
8
-
1
6
-
1
4
-
1
2
-
1
0
-
8
-
6
-
4
-
2 0 2 4 6 8
1
0
net gain y[dB] per repeater
T
o
t
a
l

c
o
v
e
r
a
g
e

n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 n=5


PROPRIETARY
45

STAR coverage 5 repeaters
Coverage dependence on the load
uniform density
Coverage, n=5, U=1, s=1
1.000
1.200
1.400
1.600
1.800
2.000
2.200
2.400
-
2
0
-
1
8
-
1
6
-
1
4
-
1
2
-
1
0
-
8
-
6
-
4
-
2 0 2 4 6 8
1
0
y[dB]
C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
5%
30%
50%
60%
40%


PROPRIETARY
46

Coverage, n=5, U=1, s=0.1
1.000
1.200
1.400
1.600
1.800
2.000
2.200
2.400
2.600
-
2
0
-
1
8
-
1
6
-
1
4
-
1
2
-
1
0
-
8
-
6
-
4
-
2 0 2 4 6 8
1
0
y[dB]
C
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
5%
30%
50%
60%
40%
Coverage dependence on the load
Repeaters density s=0.1


PROPRIETARY
47

Total length including donor
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
y=repeater + link gain
t
o
t
a
l

l
e
n
g
t
h
1 repeater 2 3 4 5
Road Coverage with Cascaded Repeaters
Very light load
Donor cell radius shrinkage
0.40
0.50
0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
1.00
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5
y=repeater +link gain
D
o
n
o
r

c
e
l
l

r
a
d
i
u
s
5 4 3 2 1 repeater


PROPRIETARY
48

Diversity Gain
Signal fading below threshold increases the
Bit Error Rate (BER)
Correlated fading: gain 3 dB
Threshold
Rx Diversity
MS
E
Diversity gain is the rise of the average signal
level for the same BER (for the same fraction of
time below the threshold)
Uncorrelated fading: gain 7 dB
(at 1% FER)


PROPRIETARY
49

Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF)
for Diversity Combining
Single Branch

Diversity Gain (dB)
Signal [dB]
CDF
10%
100%
Prob. Signal<
Correlated 2
nd
branch
Uncorrelated 2
nd

branch



PROPRIETARY
50

Repeater Installation and
Interference Cancellation
Installation
Linkage to donor and service coverage
Isolation
between repeater terminals
between repeater and other access points
Interference cancellation
Adaptive angular interference cancellation (adaptive donor
antenna)
Filter-out other donors or interfering sources
Adaptive feedback cancellation
Reduces coupling between donor and service antennas,
allowing for tighter installation on the tower



PROPRIETARY
51

Over-the-air backhaul
Line-of-Sight free-space
Ground clearance (flat
terrain)
Distance to break-point
Interference zone
Height-gain over coverage
prediction
H
D
[m] Height of donor-antenna
H
R
[m] Height of repeater antenna
H
UE
Height of UE antenna
(1.5m)
| | | | | | m km R m R m s 15 . 0 @ 12 . 6
2
1
= =
m H H H kH R
R D R D BP
15 . 0 @ 42 = =
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
UE
R
H
H
HG


PROPRIETARY
52

Coupling Between Antennas on the Tower
Conductive coupling
Near-field coupling
Neighboring scatterers
Large area scatterers
Conductive coupling
Near-field coupling
Neighboring scatterers
Large area scatterers


PROPRIETARY
53

Near-Field Inductive Coupling
This is circuit-type coupling that affects both the
impedance and the pattern of the antenna.
Side-by-side diploes 6 dB @ 0.6
Colinear dipoles 9 dB @ 0.2
Side-by-side 10 dB Omni 6
Colinear arrays T[dB]= -21-40 Log(R/l)


PROPRIETARY
54

Isolation between co-linear antennas
axially polarized, or axial-to-slant
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
6
0
6
4
6
8
7
2
7
6
8
0
8
4
8
8
9
2
9
6
1
0
0
Isolation [dB]
S
e
p
a
r
a
t
i
o
n

[
m
]
Distance [m] for
850 MHz
Distance [m] for
1900 MHz


PROPRIETARY
55

Isolation between co-linear antennas
slant-linear polarized, 2 GHz
-60
-55
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
0
.
1
5
0
.
7
5
1
.
3
5
1
.
9
5
2
.
5
5
3
.
1
5
3
.
7
5
4
.
3
5
4
.
9
5
5
.
5
5
6
.
1
5
6
.
7
5
7
.
3
5
7
.
9
5
8
.
5
5
9
.
1
5
9
.
7
5
1
0
.
3
5
Separation [m]
C
o
u
p
l
i
n
g

[
d
B
]


PROPRIETARY
56

Neighboring scatterers
G
D1

G
D2

G
R2

G
R1

( )
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 1
R R G G
R G FG
T
T
direct direct
direct scatterer scatterer
direct
reflected
+
=
R
1

R
2

R
D

Example:
G
R1
=17 dBi, G
R2
=7dBi
G
D1
=G
D2
=7dBi
R
1
=R
2
=15m; R
D
=3m
T
R
/T
D
=-10 dB


PROPRIETARY
57

Large area scattering
R
RO
Zone 2
Zone 3
R
RO
Zone 2
Zone 3
Zone 1 sidelobes footprint, both antennas
Zone 2 mainlobe footprint
Zone 3 Near sidelobes footprint
Significant when footprints
overlap (both antennas in the
same direction), and significant
scatters within footprint


PROPRIETARY
58

Indoor Service
Methods for providing indoor service
Outdoor repeater illuminating the building
Pico-repeaters, over-the air
Indoor repeater distribution system, cable/ fiber



PROPRIETARY
59

Pico-Repeaters
Serve SOHO (Small Office Home Office).
Objective:
Add coverage to the office area (overcome building-
penetration).
Simple installation, no maintenance.
Constraints:
No/minimal effect on donor coverage
No interference to network operation
No excess coverage to the outdoor and to other offices
No interference to other channels/ networks


PROPRIETARY
60

Pico repeaters Design Guidelines
2 1
0
1
1

1
1 cov

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|


+
=

C
n
i
i R
n
n
i
i Ri n
F
Baseline
erage Donor
y F F
q
q
Overall apparent noise factor less than -15 dB
Resulting NR 0.135 dB
Aggregate repeaters load does not affect network coverage
Avoid coverage overlap with outdoors and neighboring
repeaters coverage.
Avoid excessive coupling with UE.
n
F



PROPRIETARY
61

Pico repeaters Donor coverage - example
0.5
0.55
0.6
0.65
0.7
0.75
0.8
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35
Repeaters' load
R
e
s
i
d
u
a
l

d
o
n
o
r
'
s

c
o
v
e
r
a
g
e
F=-10 dB;nc=0.5
F=-15 dB; nc=0.5
F=-20 dB; nc=0.5
F=-10 dB; nc=0.7
F=-15 dB; nc= 0.7
F=-20 dB; nc= 0.7


PROPRIETARY
62

Discussion
Urban cells
Designed for capacity
Coverage margin may exceed 20 dB (UE_Tx<0 dBm)
Cell shrinkage up to 15 20 dB does not change coverage
Rural cells
Designed for coverage
Cell area should be designed for the expected load,
including the repeaters
Cell shrinks 15% (area) for Fn=-15 dB


PROPRIETARY
63

Pico repeaters Gain
TDR is the transmit gain between the
donor and the repeater.
TDS is the transmit gain between the
donor and the UE in the outdoor
(street),
TUER is the transmit gain between the
repeater and the UE in its coverage.
K=T
DR
/T
DS
is the gain factor of the
repeater-donor link over the street
level, which accounts for the antenna
height over the street and directivity.
T
UER
G
R
T
DR

BS
T
RS
T
DS

UE
UE


PROPRIETARY
64

Relevant Specification Parameters
BS_Tx
MAX
43 dBm
BS_Rx
MIN
-121dBm
BS, UE Noise Floor -102dBm
BS_Rx
MAX
(min+8dB noise Rise) -94dBm
UE_Tx
MAX
21dBm
UE_Tx
MIN
-50dBm
UE_Rx
MAX
-25dBm
ACS (Adjacent Channel Selectivity, UE_Rx) 33dB
ACLR (Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio, UE_Tx) 45dB (50 dB to 2
nd
channel)
ACRR (Adjacent Channel Rejection Ratio, Rep) 20dB (33 dB for higher power)





PROPRIETARY
65

Design Parameters
RSSIo outdoor signal level -80 dBm
RSSIi Indoor minimum signal level -90 dBm
RSSIio Repeater coverage outside level < -95 dBm
BP Outdoor-Indoor penetration margin -20 dB
BPi Indoors margin 0<BPi<-20 dBm
MCL Minimum coupling loss to UE -40 dB



PROPRIETARY
66

Repeater Gain DL link budget
Coverage objective
Isolation objective
Design objective
RSSIo = -80 dBm = BS_Tx(=43 dBm)+T
DS

T
DS
= -123 dB.
RSSIi[dBm] = BS_Tx(=43 dBm)+T
DR
(=T
DS
+K)+G
R
+T
EUR
+BPi
DS UER R DR
T BP T G T =
DS RS R DR
T T G T <<
( )
EUR RS
T BPo BPi T <<


PROPRIETARY
67

Example: Small Urban Office
T
EUR
= -60 dB; RSSIi = -90 dBm; Bpi = 0 dB; K = 10 dB
-90=43-123+10+G-60
G=40 dB
Note: y=G+T
DR
=40-113=-73 dB
No concern about Fn and no practical limit on number of
pico repeaters.
Leakage level to outdoors:
RSSIio(=-95 dBm)=43+y+T
RS

T
RS
=-65 dB


PROPRIETARY
68

Example: Large Office
T
EUR
= -80 dB; RSSIi = -90 dBm; BPi = 10 dB; K = 15 dB
-90=43-123+15+G-80
G=55 dB
Note: y=G+T
DR
=55-108=-53 dB
No concern about Fn and no practical limit on number of
pico repeaters.
Leakage level to outdoors:
RSSIio(=-95 dBm)=43+y+T
RS

T
RS
=-85 dB
This isolation has to be designed carefully.



PROPRIETARY
69

Minimum Coupling Loss to Pico Repeater
Consider:
UE saturation
BS saturation
AUE interfered
BS interfered by AUE
ABS interfered by UE
BS
ABS
UE
AUE
RE


PROPRIETARY
70

Minimum UE Distance to service antenna
DL limits Large office example
G=55 dB; y=-53 dB
Link budget
UE_Rx=43-53-40=-50 dBm<-25 dBm
Meets the requirements.
Interference to Adjacent UE
AUE_Rx=43-53-40-33=-83 dBm
This saturates the AUE. It has to keep a distance.


PROPRIETARY
71

Minimum UE Distance to service antenna
UL limits Large office example
UL budget
UE_Tx
MIN
(=-50dBm)+MCL(=-40dB)+y
R
(=-53dB)=-143dBm<-121 dBm
This is within the UE_Tx range.
UE_Tx
MAX
(=21dBm)+MCL(=-40dB)+y
R
(=-53dB)=-72dBm
This is out of the BS_Rx range.
The UE_Tx level is however controlled by the Power control.




PROPRIETARY
72


Repeater rejection: Interference to ABS
UE_Tx
MIN
(=-50dBm)+MCL(=-40dB)+y
R
(=-53dB)-ACRR(=20dB)=-163dBm
This is satisfactory by far
AUE leakage to BS:
AUETx
MAX
(=21dBm)+MCL(=-40dB)+y
R
(=-53dB)-ACLR(=45dB)=-117dBm
This 15 dB bellow the BS noise level.




Minimum UE Distance to service antenna
UL limits to Adjacent channel
Large office example


PROPRIETARY
73

Coupling Between Dipoles
( ) o

t
3
2 2
8
3
Cos
R
T
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
R
H
D
o
-60
-55
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 33 37 41 45 49 53 57
R/wavelength
C
o
u
p
l
i
n
g

[
d
B
]
AL=0
Al=45
Al=60


PROPRIETARY
74

Discussion
A service antenna with gain Gd[dBd] (gain relative to dipole)
Gd[dBd]=~ Gi[dBi]-2
Gd has to be added to the coupling loss to get the minimum
distance.
Example: Gi=7dBi; Gd=5 dBd. Seek MCL=45 dB


PROPRIETARY
75

Indoors Installations Guide
Wall penetration
Window penetration
Indoor propagation
High-rise effect
Installation guide


PROPRIETARY
76

Wall penetration
Wall penetration depends on
the wall structure.
The penetration is an angular
filter:
Illumination along the street
renders LOW PENETRATION
I
T
I
T
Normal 90
0

-10

-30
Penetration loss [dB]
TM
TE


PROPRIETARY
77

Window penetration
Free-space penetration to
depth d
(Attenuation if the
window is coated with a
metallic film)
Beyond d high
attenuation, equating to the
wall penetration.
Penetration depth is angle-
dependent.
s
d
2
2
s
d =
d
d
u
( ) ( ) 0 0
2
cos ' d d =


PROPRIETARY
78

Indoor Propagation
Free-space propagation in the
clear slab above the clutter
and bellow acoustic ceiling.
Example: s=1.35m; d=12.15 m
(2 GHz).
High attenuation beyond.
Propagation along corridors
waveguide.

2
s
d =
Imqage reflection
S
d


PROPRIETARY
79

The High-Rise Effect
Connection from high-rise windows, overlooking multiple
base stations, fails due to pilot pollution. The signal level is
HIGH.
Connection is established 5 to 8 m deeper into the building.
The reason is the attenuation, that is angular filtered,
suppresses excess base stations pilots.


PROPRIETARY
80

Installation guide
Coverage map indoor is complex. Measurement validation is
highly recommended.
Install high, just beneath the acoustic ceiling. This assures
range and minimal distance to UEs. Control the area by
antenna directivity.
Access points placed near the outer wall/ aperture, with
directive antennas pointed inwards (7 dBi minimum). This
establishes the best server indoors and minimizes the
outdoors coverage by the indoors antenna.
The same is true for isolation between offices served by
different access points: place each near the common wall
with a high front-to-back ratio antennas.


PROPRIETARY
81

Enhancement Tools
UMTS wireless modem in the repeater
Reports repeater functional status
Relays commands to the repeater
Identifies Pilots and network codes through repeater.
Supports reduction of interference from other sources.
Measures RSSI, Pilot, Synch, Composite power, Ec/Io
All these are indicators of the functionality of the repeater and
its served UEs
Support automatic DL/UL links balancing
By reading the offset parameter of the modem P.C. and
controlling repeater gains
- Supports Location services
(e.g. by differentiating time-of-flight to modem and to
subscriber)



PROPRIETARY
82

Open Loop Power Control
The uplink channels are power-controlled.
Open-loop PC is used upon access, and then corrected by the
inner loop.
The open loop acts as an inverse AGC: The UE increase
power per low received power detected.
The initial transmission power is based on information
broadcasted by the Base Station
UETx[dB]= Pilot received pilot+I
0
+ req. C/I.
Error occurs if the repeater UL and DL are not balanced.
This is corrected by the inner loop, but causes noise.


PROPRIETARY
83

Optimization with Repeaters
Change repeater coverage vs. donor coverage
Hot spot Repeater coverage should exceed high density area
Border Steep T slope (height, tilt). Affects pilot pollution/ SHO extent
Remote Trade overall coverage vs. core coverage
Change repeater antenna orientation/ tilt
Hot spot controls overlap with donor (capacity, performance)
Border controls pilot pollution/ SHO extent
Remote controls Repeater coverage area
Frequency Filters and service antenna control
Controls load distribution/ service destination
Switch
Switch off dormant coverage and reduce noise


Reference
PROPRIETARY
84

CDMA Radio with Repeaters

Joseph Shapira
Shmuel Miller

SPRINGER, 2007
ISBN 978-0-387-26329-8


PROPRIETARY
85

Thank you
Contact
Dr. Joseph Shapira
Comm&Sens Ltd
+972 4 8251653
+972 54 6607088
Jshapira@comm-and-sens.com


PROPRIETARY
86

Dr. Joseph Shapira
Biography
Dr. Joseph Shapira is president of Comm&Sens, a strategic consulting company in wireless
communications and electromagnetic sensing and imaging. He is also chair Professor of
communications in IIT Madras, India. He is credited with 30 patents and patent-filing on cellular
systems' enhancement and optimization, a book "CDMA Radio with repeaters", chapters in 4 books
and over 80 papers in professional journals and symposia.
While in Qualcomm he contributed to the development of the CDMA standard. He then founded
and Presided Qualcomm Israel, and then Celletra a cellular communications enhancement
company. Prior to his tenure in Qualcomm he served 29 years in RAFAEL, where he founded and
managed the Electromagnetics laboratory, served as VP of the guidance division and then the senior
fellow of the organization.
Dr. Shapira was president of the Israel National committee for Radio Science for 18 years, and Vice
President of the International Union for Radio Science (URSI) for 6 years. He is Life Fellow of
IEEE. He was awarded Best Paper prize in IEEE-APS in 1974, and the Bergman prize in 1980. He
is a member of the Forum 100 of influential alumni of the Technion.

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