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Presented by:

Dini Andriani Enung Nurjanah Erlika Argianti Ika Sartika Lia Herlina Sri Kurnia S Siti Hasanah Wiwit Rianti

Language Elements




Harmer (2002, p. 12) emphasizes The grammar of a language is the description of the ways in which words can change their forms and can be combined into sentences in that language.

According to Coghill and Magendanz (2003, p. xvi), The grammar of a language is the set of rules that govern its structure. Grammar determines how words are arranged to form meaningful units.
Based on Swan (2005, p. xix), The rules that show how words are combined, arranged or changed to show certain kinds of meaning.

Teaching Grammar
Grammar teaching sometimes happens as a result of other work the studenrs are doing. (Harmer, 2007, p. 210) An example of teaching grammar activity that is designed to get students making sentences using the present continous. (Harmer, 2007, p. 219)
Example: Where am I? Focus: present continuous Age: young learners Level: elementary

The teacher tells student to think of a place they would like to be ( e.g. beach, on the spot field, park)

Now, the teacher tells them to imagine they are in this place.

The teacher asks them to look around them and write down three things that they can see using the present continuous (e.g. at a football game: A lot of people are shouting. A man is blowing a whistle. Someone is kicking a ball.)

While they are doing this, the teacher can go around the class monitoring their progress and suggesting alternatives or prompting students who can think what to write.
One student now comes to the front of class, reads out his or her senteces and then say where am I? and the other students try to guess.


to Penny (1991, p. 60), "Vocabulary can be defined, roughly, as the words we teach in the foreign language." (2008, p. 697) defines vocabulary as (1) stock of words used by person, class of people, profession, etc. (2) a collection or list of words, usually in alphabetical order and defined."


Teaching Vocabulary
When teaching vocabulary this is a major part of the teachers art. Students need to see words in context to see how they are used. An example of teaching vocabulary that is designed to focus students attention on an aspect of vocabulary is
(Harmer, 2007, p. 229-230)


Walking running jumping

Focus: verb of movement

Age: adult
Level: beginner

The teacher starts by showing or drawing pictures, or miming the action, for example:






Students are now asked to put the correct verb in sentences, for example:

a. You....along a road
b. Then you....across a stream c. Then you....up a tree d. Then you ....across the bridge

e. Then you....down a wall

f. Then you....across a river g. Then you....over a wall h. Then you....along a road

Finnaly, the students can be asked to write ne instructions using the new words, for example:

a. Sit down



c. d. e.

stand sit lie

On the box Of the box Round the room




to Lindsay (2000) as cited by Jahan (2011, p. 36), Pronunciation includes suprasegmental features and they are: sounds of the language, stress and rhythm, intonation.
refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. (Adult Migrant English Program Research Centre, 2002, p. 1)


Teaching Pronunciation
Pronunciation teaching not only makes students aware of different sounds and sound fatures, but can also improve their speaking immeasurably. (Harmer, 2007, p. 248) An example of teaching pronunciation that is designed to get students to concentrate on specific aspects of pronunciation, especially when they are listening to hear the small difference between the sounds (Harmer, 2007, p. 253-254).
Example: Ship and chip Sounds: // and /t/ Age: Intermediate

The sequence starts with students listening to pairs of words and practicing the difference of // and /t/, for example:

ship sherry shoes sheep

chip cherry choose cheap

washing cash mash wish

watching catch match which, witch

If the students have difficulty discriminating between// and /t/, the teacher asks them to listen to a recording and, in a series of exercise of exercise, for example:

1. Small shops / chops are often expensive. 2. The disher / ditches need cleaning. 3. I couldnt mash / match these things up. 4. She enjoys washing / watching the children.


now move on to exercise in which they say words or phrases with one sound or the other, e.g.
It is very cheap
a grey chair a cheese sandwich You cheat! a pretty child no chance

Barnhart, Cynthia A. (2008). The facts on file students dictionary of American English. Facts on File: Inc. Coghill, Jeffrey and Stacy, Magendanz. (2003). English grammar. New York: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Harmer, Jeremy. (2002). The practice of English language teaching (third ed.). England: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). The practice of English language teaching third edition. England: Pearson Education Limited. Jahan, N. (2011). Teaching and learning pronunciation in ESL/EFL classes of Bangladesh. Journal of Education and Practice, 2(3). Penny, Ur. (1991). A course in language teaching: practice and theory. Cambridge: University Press. Swan, Michael. (2005). Practical English usage: 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press.