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MAGM 262

Hydraulic Fundamentals - 2

Mr. Conrado

The Hydraulic System


The basic hydraulic system has seven parts
Pump Lines and connectors Cylinder or Motor Check valve Reservoir Control Valve Relief Valve

Hydraulic pump
The pump moves the hydraulic fluid
Pumps create flow not pressure Come in positive fixed displacement and variable displacement
Fix displacement Moves the same amount of fluid every rotation Variable displacement The amount of fluid discharged can be changed and controled.

Lines and Connections


Carry the fluid from the pump to where the work will be done and back.
Come in various sizes and shapes Are a major source of repair

Cylinders and motors

Do the work the system was designed for. Convert hydraulic force into mechanical motion.
Cylinders
Convert hydraulic force into recipricating motion Can be single acting or double acting Convert hydraulic force into rotary motion

Motors

The Check Valve


A simple one way valve which uses a poppet to control fluid flow.
Can be used to control
Fluid direction Circuit pressures

The Reservoir
Is the storage container for the hydraulic fluid

Maintains constant supply of fluid to the pump Helps in fluid filtration Acts as a heat sink and is a major part of the fluid heat dissipation system.

Control Valves
Control valves are used to control the pressure, direction and volume of oil flow in hydraulic systems.
There are three types of control valves
Pressure control Direction control Volume Control

Relief Valves
Hydraulic systems are designed to operate at certain pressures. Relief valves are built into the system as a protection device.

Pressure through the Orifice Effect

Hydraulic Fundamentals
The Orifice Effect
In hydraulics it is common to use the term pump pressure. However the pump does not produce pressure only flow. When flow is restricted pressure is created.

In the system we have here the pump is producing a flow of 1gallon per minute but note that do to the lack of any restriction the system pressure is zero.

Hydraulic Fundamentals
An orifice offers a restriction to pump flow
When oil flows through the orifice, pressure is created on the upstream side of the orifice. In this example it could be stated that a pressure of 30 psi is needed to send a flow of 1GPM through this orifice.

Hydraulic Fundamentals
Oil flow to tank or reservoir blocked
A positive displacement pump will continue to pump 1 GPM of oil into the system. When the system is full pressure develops throughout the system. The two gauge readings will be the same. Pressure will continue to increase until flow is diverted to another tank or circuit. This is usually done with a relief valve. If this was not done pressure would continue to rise until there was a failure in the system.

Hydraulic Fundamentals
Restriction in Series
There are two basic types of circuits, series and parallel. Relief valves in this circuit (Orifices can also be arrange in this configuration) offer a resistance that is similar to resistors in an electrical system. Oil must flow through each resistance before it returns to the tank. The total resistance is equal to the sum of all the individual resistances.

Hydraulic Fundamentals
Restriction in Parallel
In a parallel circuit system fluid will take the path of least resistance. Here the pump supplies oil for each of the three circuits. Circuit one has the highest priority and circuit three has the lowest. When the pump supplies oil the passages to the left of all circuits is being filled and pressurized. When this pressure reaches 30psi circuit one opens and begins to fill. One circuit one reaches 60psi circuit two opens and begins to pressurize When circuit two reaches 90psi circuit three opens and begins to fill.

Homework
Read chapter

Lab
Bottle Jack Lab