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Leading: Human

Factors and Motivation

• Leading is defined as the process of
influencing people so that they will
contribute to organization and group
– Involves considering of human factors,
motivation and some other internal human
– Aim is to establish an environment where
individuals will work together in groups to
achieve common objective.

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• The willingness to exert high
levels of effort to reach
organizational goals, conditioned by
the effort’s ability to satisfy some
individual need.

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The Need-Want-Satisfaction

Need Want Tensions

Satisfaction Actions

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Mcgregor’s Theory X and
Theory Y
• Theory X Assumptions:
1. Average human beings have an inherent dislike
of work and will avoid it if they can.
2. Because of this human characteristic of disliking
work, most people must be coerced, controlled,
directed, and threatened with punishment to get
them to put forth adequate effort toward the
achievement of organizational objectives.
3. Average human beings prefer to be directed,
wish to avoid responsibility, have relatively little
ambition and want security above all.

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• Theory Y Assumptions:
1. The expenditure of physical effort and mental effort in work
is as natural as play or rest.
2. External control and the threat of punishment are not the
only means for producing effort toward organizational
objectives. People will exercise self direction and self control
in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
3. The degree of commitment to objectives is in proportion to
the size of the rewards associated with their achievement.
4. Average human beings learn under proper conditions, not
only to accept responsibility but also to seek it.
5. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of
imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of
organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed
in the population.
6. Under the conditions of modern industrial life, the intellectual
potentialities of the average human being are only partially

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
General Examples Organizational Examples

Self- Challenging
Achievement actualization job

Status Esteem

Friendship Belongingness
at work

Stability Security

Food Physiology

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Weaknesses of Maslow’s
• Five levels of need are not always
• Ordering or importance of needs
is not always the same
(importance vary with change in

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The Two-Factor Theory of
Motivation (Proponent : Fredrick
Motivation Factors
• Achievement
• Recognition
• The work itself
• Responsibility
• Advancement
and growth

Satisfaction No satisfaction

Hygiene Factors
• Supervisors
• Working conditions
• Interpersonal relations
• Pay and security
• Company policies and

Dissatisfaction No dissatisfaction
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– Criticisms of the Two-Factor Theory
• Interview findings are subject to
different explanations.
• Sample population was not
• Subsequent research has not
upheld theory.

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Expectancy Theory
Proponent : Victor Vroom

• Basics of expectancy theory:

– A theory of motivation that suggests
that motivation depends on two things
– valence and expectancy.
– Force = valence x expectancy
– So for motivation to occur both these
elements must have values greater
than zero i.e. positive.

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• The expectancy model:
Outcome Valence

Environment Outcome Valence

Motivation Effort Performance Outcome Valence

Ability Outcome Valence

Outcome Valence

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• Suggests that motivation leads to effort, when
combined with ability and environmental factors,
that results in performance which, in turn, leads
to various outcomes that have value
(valence) to employees.
• Efforts to performance expectancy
– Strong (1.00) , unrelated (0) or some what
related (0 – 1.00)
• Performance to outcome expectancy
– High (1.00), indifferent (0) or moderate (0 –
• Out comes and valence
– Positive, negative or indifferent.

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Equity Theory
Proponent: J. Stacy Adams

• Equity theory refers to an individual’s

subjective judgments about the fairness of
the reward she or he got relative to the
inputs (effort, experience, education etc.) in
comparison with the rewards of others.
• There should be a balance of the
output/input relationship for one person in
comparison with that for another person.

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outcomes (self) outcomes (other)
inputs (self) inputs (other)

• Results:
– Inequitable: dissatisfaction, reduced output,
– Equitable: continuation at the same level
– More than equitable: harder work, discounted

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Reinforcement Theory
• An approach to motivation that explain
the role of rewards as they cause
behavior to change or remain the same
over time.
– Assumes that behavior that results in
rewarding consequences is likely to be
repeated, whereas behavior that results
in punishing consequences is less likely to
be repeated.

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• Kinds of reinforcements
– Positive reinforcement (e.g. praise)
– Avoidance (e.g. escaping reprimands)
– Punishment ( e.g. fines)
– Extinction (e.g. withdrawing incentives)

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