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Faculty of Applied Engineering and Urban Planning Civil Engineering Department 2nd Semester 2008/2009

Project Scheduling
Week ( 6 + 7 ) Lec. ( 11 + 12 + 13 + 14 )

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CH4: Project Scheduling

Construction Project management functions:
1. Planning 2. Organization Scheduling 3. Supervision 4. Control 1. Time 2. Cost 3. Quality 4. Performance

Scheduling = Planning + Time

Scheduling is the determination of the timing of the activities comprising the project to enable managers to execute the project in a timely manner.
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CH4: Project Scheduling

The project scheduling is used for:

2. Having resources available on site in the correct time.

3. Making correction actions if schedule shows that the plan will result in
late completion.

4. Assessing the value of penalties on project late completion. 5. Determining the project cash flow.

6. Evaluating the effect of change orders on the project completion time.

7. Determining the value of project delay and the responsible parties.
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4.2 The Critical Path Method (CPM)

The critical path can be defined as the longest possible path through the "network" of project activities.

(CPM) is the most widely technique used for scheduling, it calculates the minimum completion time for a project along with the possible start and finish times for the project activities.

The critical path itself represents the set or sequence of activities

which will take the longest time to complete.

The duration of the critical path is the sum of the activities'

durations along the path.

Duration of the critical path represents the minimum time required

to complete a project.

Any delays along the critical path would delay the project.

More than one critical path may be among all the project activities,
so completion of the entire project could be delayed by delaying activities along any one of the critical paths.
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a project consisting of two activities performed in parallel that each

requires three days would have each activity critical for a completion in three days.

Critical path scheduling assumes that a project has been divided into
activities of fixed duration and well defined predecessor relationships.

A predecessor relationship implies that one activity must come

before another in the schedule

The CPM is a systematic scheduling method for a project network and involves
four main steps:

1. A forward path to determine activities early-start times; 2. A backward path to determine activities late-finish times; 3. Float calculations ( Free & Total ) float; and 4. Identifying critical activities.

4.3.1 Activity-on-node networks calculations The objective of arrow network analysis is to compute each event in the network its early and late timings. These times are defined as Early event time (ET) is the earliest time at which an event can occur,

considering the duration of preceding activities.

Late event time (LT) Is the latest time at which an event can occur if the project is to be completed on schedule. 1. Forward Path: ETj = ETi + dx ETj LTj

ETi

LTi

x dx

j
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1. Forward Path:

6 Project Start=0 0 Es+d=EF 0+3=3 3

5 B 3

3+3=6 9+5=14

d1
C 4 E 5
9 6+0=6 3+4=7 9+0=9

14

A d=3

3 D 6
9 3+6=9

9 d2

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2. Backward Path

LS = LF d

3-3=0
0

9-3=6 9-4=5 9-6=3 3

5
B 3 C 4 D 6
9

9-0=9

0 1 A 3

3 3

d1 E 5
9

14 14

9 d2 9

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14-5=9 LF-d=LS

9-0=9

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3. Float Calculations:
First, let's tabulate the information we have as shown in next Table One important aspect is Total-Float (TF) calculations, which determine the

Total Float (TF)

= LF EF = LS ES . TF :

Free Float (FF) = ETj ETi d or FF = smallest ES (of succeeding activities) EF (of current activity) . FF :

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3. Float Calculations:
Total Float (TF) = LF EF = LS ES . TF :
TF
ES EF A LS LF ES A LS LF AON EF

AOA

Free Float (FF) = ETj ETi d

or FF = smallest ES (of succeeding activities) EF (of current activity) . FF :

ES

EF
A

ES

EF B

ES

EF A

ES B

EF

i
LS

j
LF

i
LS

j
LF LS

LF

LS

LF

AOA

AOA 12

Total Float (TF) Free Float (FF) or FF

Activity Duration

= LF EF = LS ES = ETj ETi d = smallest ES (of succeeding activities) EF (of current activity)

Early Start (ES) Late Start Early Finish (EF) Late Finish (LF) Total Float (TF)
Critical Activity

(LS) 0 6 5 3 9

A B C D E

3 3 4 6 5

0 3 3 3 9

3 6 7 9 14

3 9 9 9 14

0 3 2 0 0

4.3.2 Precedence Diagram Method (PDM):

Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) is the CPM scheduling method used for AON networks and it follows the same four steps of the CPM for AOA method. Forward Path Forward path can proceed from one activity to the other; the process is as

3 6 B(3) 6,7,or 9
Early start Early finish

9 14 E(5)

A(3)

C(4)

Late finish

9
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Backward Path:

3 6

6 9

B(3)

Early start

Early finish

9 14 E(5) 9 14

A(3)

C(4)

Name (duration) Late start Late finish

0 3
6,5, or 3

D(6) 3 9

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Floats
Start
Activity A 7 days Project duration = 24 days Activity B 13 days

Completion
Activity C 4 days

CASE 1: All activities are critical: total float and free floats for all activities = 0

Start
Activity A 7 days

Activity D 8 days

Total Float = 5 Free Float = 5 Activity B 13 days

Completion
Activity C 4 days

CASE 2: Activity sequence in which one activity has total and free float

Start
Activity A 7 days

Total Float of D = 5 Total Float of E = 5 Free Float of D = 0 Free Float = 5 Activity D Activity E 5 days 3 days Activity B 13 days

Completion
Activity C 4 days
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CASE 3: Activity sequence illustrating total and free float

Start Event

Floats - 2
TLi TEj

Finish Event

TEi

TLj

Activity duration

Total Float

Activity duration

Free Float

Activity duration

Independent Float

Areas of shared float

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Float Calculations:
Total Float (TF) = LF EF = LS ES
Free Float (FF) = ETj ETi d
Activity Duration ES LF LS EF TF
Critical Act.

A B C D E

3 3 4 6 5

0 3 3 3 9

3 9 9 9 14

0 6 5 3 9

3 6 7 9 14

0 3 2 0 0

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PDM Calculations (PDM = Precedence Diagram Method) 2/ 0 4/4 Example 0/ 0

3 6 B 3 6 3 0/ 0 0 3 A 3 0 3 0/ 0 3 8 C 5 3 8 1/ 0 3 10 D 7 4 11 6 10 10 16 E 4 8 12 H 6 14 20 0/0 12 20 J 8 Fn

0/ 0 6 12 F 6 6 12 0/ 0 8 G 4 8 12

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20
TF/FF ES Act Dur LS LF EF

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1/1 10 19 I 9 11 20

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= ETj ETi d

Precedence Relationships - Lead & Lag

FFij Lag time for a finish-to-finish relationship. (The succeeding activity finishes this amount of time after the completion of the preceding activity.) SSij Lead time for a start-to-start relationship. (The preceding activity starts this much earlier than the start of the succeeding activity.) FSij Lag time for a finish-to-finish relationship. (The succeeding activity starts this amount of time after the completion of the preceding activity.) SFij Lead time for a start-to-finish relationship. (The preceding activity starts this much earlier than the completion of the succeeding activity.)
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PRECEDENCE LOGIC
1. Preceding Activities. Which activities must be finished before this activity may begin ? What is the time lag? (finish to start.) Which activities must be started before this activity may begin? What is the lead time (start to start.)

Which activities must be finished before this activity may be completed? What is the lag time? (Finish to finish) Which activities must be started before this activity is completed? What is the lead time ? (start to finish.)

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Follow: PRECEDENCE LOGIC

2. Succeeding Activities Which activities can begin after the finish of this activity? What is the time lag? (finish to start.) Which activities can begin after the start of this activity? What is the lead time? ( Start to start ) Which activities can be completed after the finish of this activity? What is the lag time? (Finish to finish.) Which activities can finish after the start of this activity? What is the lead time? (Start to finish.) 3. Concurrent Activities. Which activities can be carried out at the same time? (Start to start equals zero, that is, SS = 0 in this case.)
R. RUSTOM 22

FF ij

Forward Pass

ES DESC. EF
SS ij

Di

FS ij

j
SF ij

ES

DESC.

Dj EF

FF jk

Backward Pass

LS DESC. LF
SS jk

Dj

FS jk

k
SF jk

LS

DESC.

Dk LF

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PDM Activity Diagramming Methods

Activity No.
Finish Side Start Side

Activity No.
Start Side
ES EF

DESCRIPTION
Duration RESP.

DESCRIPTION
LS Duration LF

RESP.

METHOD 1
Activity No.
Start Side
DUR TF

METHOD 2
Activity No.
Start Side
ES EF

DESCRIPTION

DESCRIPTION
LS Duration LF

ES LS

EF LF

RESP.

METHOD 3

METHOD 4
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Finish Side

Finish Side

Finish Side

Logical Relationships of PDM

12 Layout & Excavate 20 Install fuel tanks 12 Layout & Excavate

GO

GO

GO

12 Install exterior Conduit & piping

5 EL START - TO - START
10 10

5 EL FINISH - TO - FINISH

5 EL Relationship with Lag

Contract Award 2 GO

18 Install fuel tanks 2 ME

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FINISH - TO - START

START - TO - FINISH

FORWARD PATH
Step 1

Step 2

EF j ES j D j

BACKWARD PATH
Step 1

Step 2

LS i LFi Di

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Total Float

TFi LFi EFi

Free Float

ES j FSij EFi ES j SSij ESi EFj FFij EFi EFj SFij ESi

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6 B 7 ESi + SSij 1 +5 = 6
SS5

13

EFi + FSij 13 + 2
FS2
EFi + FFij-Dj 13 + 2 -10

15 F 3 21

ESi + SFij - Dj 15 + 7 -5 18 23 28
SF7
ESi + SSij 21 + 2

ESi + SSij 23 + 1

K 5

EFi + FFij - Dj 28 + 2 - 8
FF2, SS1

11 C 10

21

FF2

SS2

31
ESi + SSij 16 + 10 EFi + FFij - Dj 31 + 2 - 5

38 28 L 5 33
ESi+SSij 28+3

46 N 8

FS0
ESi +SSij 11 + 5

11 A 10

FS0 FS0 11

G 10

SS5

EFij+FSij 37+1

21 D 10
EFi + FFij - Dj 21 + 1 - 7

16 31 SS10, FF2 H 15
16 23 I 7 FS0
FS2
EFi+FSij 23 + 2

SS3

38

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EFi + FFi - Di 11 + 0 - 4
FF0

FF1
EFi + FSij 11 +5

EFi + FSij 14 + 3

31 37 M 6

FS1

FS3

7
E 4

11

FS5

11 J 3

14

FORWARD PASS
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6 LSj - SSij + Di 26 26 - 5 + 10 11 SS5 1 11 A 10 1 11

SF0 SF0

13 B 7 33 21

LSj - FSij 35 - 2 15
FS2

LFj - Sfij + Di 42 - 7 + 3 23 28 18 F 3
SF7
LSj - SSij + Di 37 - 2 + 10

16 - 5 + 10

K 5 37 42

LSj - SSj - Di 38 - 1 + 5 LFj - FFij 46 - 2

FF2, SS1

FF2

SS2
LSj - SSij + Di 28 - 10 + 15 28

38 33 LSj - SSij + Di L 5 28 33
FS2 31 - 3 + 5 SS3

46
N 8

C 10 11 21 11 21

SS5

35 45 16 31

SS10, FF2

LFi - FFij 33 - 2

31 37

FS1

38

46

D 10
15 25
FF0

LFj - FFij 26 - 1
FF1

H 15

M 6
31
FS3

LSj - FSij 38 - 1 37

7 E 4 11

11

16 31 LSj - FSij 16 23 19 - 5 I
FS5

LSj - FSij 28 - 2

7 19 26 SF0

11 14 J 3 25 28

14

LSj - FSij 31 - 3

BACKWARD PASS
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20/0 ESj - FSij - EFi 15 18 ESj - Sfij - ESi 28 - 7 - 15 14/14 15 - 2-13 20/0 23 28 F SF7 6 13 3 FS2 K 35 38 5 ESj - SSij - ESi B EFj - FFij - EFi 14/0 31 - 2 - 13 6-5-1 7 37 42 FF2 31 21 SS2 26 33 ESj - SSij - ESi ESj - FSij -EFi SS5 aG 0/0 21 - 0 - 21 23 - 2 - 21 ESj - FSij - ESj 0/0 11 - 0 - 1 10 0/0 11 21 FS0 EFj - FFij - EFi28 33 1 11 FS0 C ESj - SSij - ESi 35 45 33 - 2 - 31 16 - 5 - 11 L 10 ESj - SSij - ESi A 0/0 28 - 10 - 16 5 SS5 11 21 10 31 16 ESj - FSij - Efi 28 33 11 - 0 - 11 SS10, FF2 1 11 4/1 H FS0 11 21 ESj - FFij - EFi 15 FS2 23 1 21 D 16 31 FF1 ESj - FSij - EFi FF0 10 28 - 2 - 23 3/3 15 25 ESj - FSij - EFi 16 23 ESj - FFij -EFi 16 - 5 - 11 14/14 3/0 FS5 I 11 - 0 - 11 11 14 7 11 7 J E 19 26 3 4 FS0 25 28 11 14 ESj - FSij - EFi
11 - 0 - 11

FF2, SS1

ESj - SSij - ESi 31 - 3 28

0/0 38 46 N 8 38 46
FS1

SS3

0/0 31 37

M 6
31 37
FS3

4.4 Time-Scaled Diagrams:

Time-scaled diagrams are used extensively in the construction industry. Such diagrams enable one to determine immediately which activities are scheduled to proceed at any point in time . to monitor field progress. it can be used to determine resources need. The time scale used in time-scaled diagrams can be either the calendar dates or the working periods (ordinary dates), or using both at the same time. Its disadvantage is that it needs a great effort to be modified or updated. Also, it can not be used to represent overlapping activities.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

B 3
A 3 C 4 D 6

3
2 E 5

Timescaled diagram

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The TF for activity A equals the smallest of the sum of the floats along all paths from the end of activity A to the end of the project. The float on path ABE = 3, path ACE = 2 and path ADE = 0, then the TF of activity A = 0. The calculations are shown in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2 Time-scaled diagram calculations

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4.5 Schedule Presentation: After the AOA and AON calculations are made, it is important to present their results in a format that is clear and understandable to all the parties involved in the project. The simplest form is the Bar chart or Gantt chart, named after the person who first used it. A bar chart is a time versus activity chart in which activities are plotted using their early or late times. a) Early bar chat

b) Late bar chart

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The bar chart representation: It shows various details. Float times of activities, critical activities can be shown in a different color, or bold borders, as shown in Figure 4.12. The bar chart can also be used for accumulating total daily resources and / or costs, as shown at the bottom part of Figure 6.13. In this figure, the numbers on each activity represent the number of labors needed.

Figure 4.13: Using bar chart to accumulate resources

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4.6 Criticisms to Network Techniques: 1- Assume all required resources are available:
The CPM calculations do not incorporate resources into their formulation. Also, as they deal with activity durations only, it can result in large resource fluctuations. Dealing with limited resources and resource leveling, therefore, has to be done separately after the analysis.

The formulations of CPM and PDM methods do not incorporate a deadline duration to constrain project duration.

3- Ignore project costs:

Since CPM and PDM methods deal mainly with activities durations, they do not deal with any aspects related to minimize project cost.

4- Use deterministic durations:

The basic assumption in CPM and PDM formulations is that activity durations are deterministic. In reality, however, activity durations take certain probability distribution that reflect the effect of project conditions on resource productivity 36 and the level of uncertainty involved in the project.

4.7 Solved Examples Example 3.1 For the project data in Table 4.3, answer the following questions: a) Draw an AOA network of the project? b) Perform forward path and backward path calculations c) What is the effect of delaying activity D by 3 days?

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Solution: a, b
8 8 8,or10

3
2,or 8 0 0 2 2

B 6

E 6

14,or12 14 14 16 16

A 2

G 5

2 C 3 4
9,or 5 9 11

D 1
F 3

c) Total float of activity D = LF ES d = 11 8 1 = 2.

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Example 3.2 Perform PDM calculations for the small project below and determine activity times. Durations are shown on the activities.

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Solution:
1 5 5 6 6 7

I(2)
12 14 9or9or14 14 16

B(4) 1 0 1 5

D(1) 5 6

G(1) 6 7 12or7 7
14

L(2)
14 16

A(1) 0 1
1or6

J(7) 7 14

C(1) 6 7
7or8

E(2) 7 9

H(1) 9 10
5or4

9
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F(2)

K(4)
10 14

8 10

Example 3.3 For the activities listed in the table below, draw the time-scaled diagram and mark the critical path. Determine the completion time for the project. Tabulate activities times and floats.

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Solution:

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Example 3.4 Perform PDM calculations for the small AoN network shown here. Pay special attention to the different relationships and the lag times shown on them.

SS2

B(3) 4 7 5 or 7 or 2=9-2-5

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Solution:

A(3) 0 3

C(4) 3 7

E(5) 7 12

4 or 3 or 5=4-2+3

D(6) 4
10

FF2 12-2=10

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 4

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Exercise 4

(Cont.)

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