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Optimization: Introduction

Episode: I

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Contents
Global indicators Typical Radio Network Problem Coverage Problem Interference problem Unbalanced power budget problem Congestion problem

Problems and responsible

parties
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
4 stages of a call establishment, 2 stages (1&2) for location update :
1. Radio link establishment Phase 2. SDCCH Phase
then only Circuit Switch call

3. TCH assignment Phase 4. Alerting/Connect Phase

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Mobile Originated Call (MOC) MS


CHANNEL REQUEST CHANNEL REQUIRED (RACH) CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH) CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMEND IMMEDIATE ASSIGN (AGCH) SABM (L3 info) (SDCCH) UA (L3 info) (SDCCH) LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST (IN CASE OF LU) AUTHENTICATION REQUEST AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE ESTABLISH IND (L3 info) CR (Connection Request: L3 INFO) CC (Connection Complete)

Global Indicators
2. SDCCH Phase

BTS

BSC

MSC

1. Radio Link Establishment Phase

CIPHERING MODE COMMAND CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPT (IN CASE OF LU) TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE (IN CASE OF LU) SETUP CALL PROCEEDING

ASSIGNMENT REQUEST PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH) CHANNEL ALLOCATION ACK. ASSIGNMENT COMMEND (SDCCH) SABM TCH ESTABLISH INDICATION UA (L3 info) TCH allocation

3. TCH Assignment Phase


ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE

ALERTING CONNECT

4. Alert and Connect Phase

CONNECT ACK.

CONVERSATION

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Handover : Intracell HO
MS
Measurement Report MEASUREMENT RESULT PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST (old channel) PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM (old channel) CHANNEL ACTIVATION (new channel) CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK (new channel) ASSIGNMENT CMD SABM (L3 info) (SDCCH) UA (L3 info) (SDCCH) ASSIGNMENT CMP ESTABLISH COMPLETE (new channel) HANDOVER PERFORMED RF CHANNEL RELEASE (old channel) RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (old channel) ESTABLISH IND (new channel) ASSIGNMENT COMMEND (old channel)

BTS

BSC

MSC

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Handover : Internal HO
MS Serving Cell
Meas. Report MEASUREMENT RESULT CHANNEL ACTIVATION CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK. HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND HANDOVER ACCESS HANDOVER DETECTION PHYSICAL INFORMATION

Target Cell

BSC

MSC

SABM (L3 info) UA (L3 info) ESTABLISH INDICATION HANDOVER COMPLETE HO CMP HANDOVER PERFORMED

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Handover : External HO
MS Serving Cell
MEAS_REPORT MEAS_RESULT HO_REQUIRED CR (HO_REQUEST) CC CHANNEL_ACTIVATION CHANNEL_ACT_ACK HO_COMMAND HO_REQUEST_ACK (HO_COMMAND) HO_ACCESS HO_ACCESS HO_DETECTION HO_DETECTION PHYSICAL_INFO SABM (L3 info) ESTABLISH_INDICATION HO_COMPLETE HO_COMPLETE CLEAR_COMMAND Release of TCH
Cause: HO_SUCCESSFUL

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MS

UA (L3 info)

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators :

Optimization: Introduction

SDCCH Congestion SDCCH Assignment Failure SDCCH Drop TCH Assignment Failure Call Drop Call Setup Success Call Success Outgoing Handover Incoming Handover Handover Causes Distribution (Better/Level/Quality/MCHO/...)
Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH Congestion :
MS
CHANNEL REQUEST CHANNEL REQUIRED (RACH)

BTS

BSC

NO FREE SDCCH !!!


IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMEND IMM. ASS. REJECT (OPTION) (AGCH)

MS will try to request again for a certain of times If still failures, it will Wait for a certain of time without reception of

immediate_assign message Try an automatic cell_reselection in case of LU (no impact for subscriber) Notify a network error for call establishment (call setup failure for subscriber)
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH Congestion : Main causes
Too much SDCCH normal traffic for cell

SDCCH design
Logical cell design, extra TRX, new site

Common Transport Effect


Difficult to avoid for small cells LA border at crowded area

Abnormal SDCCH traffic phantom channel requests


Inadequate LAC design, causing too much

LU
Redesign LAC Problem with neighbor cells belong to other

LAC
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes
MS
CHANNEL REQUEST CHANNEL REQUIRED (RACH) CHANNEL ACTIVATION (SDCCH) CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMEND IMMEDIATE ASSIGN (AGCH)

BTS

BSC

MSC

???

no message from MS

Real radio problems Unbalanced power budget Bad coverage Interference

In case of radio failure, MS will retry as in case of SDCCH congestion


Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes

Phantom/Ghost/Spurious/Dummy...RACH

Channel request received but not sent : 3 causes 1. Noise decoding 2. Reception of channel request sent to a neighbor cell 3. Reception of HO_ACCESS sent to a neighbor cell

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes : Phantom RACH
1.

Noise decoding

GSM 05.05: 0.02% of RACH Frame can be decoded without error without real input signal (this extra-load has no impact for the system) BCCH not combined: 156 phantom RACCH/hour (or about 0.08 Erlang SDCCH) BCCH combined: 83 phantom RACH/hour During period with low real traffic (night), high rate of phantom RACH No impact for subscriber But impact on indicator SDCCH RF access failure

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes : Phantom RACH
2.

Channel request sent to neighbor cell

Subscriber is not impacted ( the real transaction is performed elsewhere) But SDCCH RF access failure is impacted Usual radio planning rules are sufficient to avoid the trouble (BSIC and BCCH frequency plan)

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH RF Failure : main causes : Phantom RACH
3.

Channel request due to handover

During HO, first message sent to target cell is HO access which is an access burst like channel_request If received on BCCH, can be understood as a channel-request This case is the most dangerous MS is sending usually a sequence of HO Access message, every frame !! In some cases, this can create phantom RACH if the frequency of TCH is co- or adjacent to one of the interfered BCCH Can block very easily SDCCH
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
SDCCH Drop :
MS
Radio connection loss
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION (cause : radio link failure) CLEAR REQUEST (cause : radio interface failure)

BTS

BSC

MSC

Loss of connection during SDCCH phase =

SDCCH Drop 3 causes of SDCCH drop Radio problems when connected on SDCCH BSS problems (Transcoder and Internal BSS problems) Call lost during an SDCCH HO (handover failure without reversion to old channel)
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
TCH assign failure : Congestion
MS BTS BSC
ASSIGNMNET REQUEST

MSC

no RTCH available on request cell

ASSIGNMENT FAILURE cause No Radio Resources Available

4 sub causes of congestion


A: Queuing is not allowed B: Queue is full C: T11 expired D: RTCH requests is de-queued due to a

high priority (i.e. emergency call) request to be queued


Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
TCH assign failure : Radio
MS BTS
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH) CHANNEL ALLOCATION ACK. ASSIGNMENT COMMEND (SDCCH) TCH TCH allocation

BSC
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST

MSC

Radio Problem
ASSIGNMENT FAILURE Radio interface failure

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
TCH assign failure : BSS
MS BTS
PHYSICAL CONTEXT REQUEST PHYSICAL CONTEXT CONFIRM CHANNEL ACTIVATION (TCH) CHANNEL ALLOCATION ACK. ASSIGNMENT COMMEND (SDCCH) TCH allocation

BSC
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST

MSC

BSS Problem

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
TCH Drop : Radio
MS BTS BSC MSC

Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time


Radio Problem
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION (cause : radio link failure) CLEAR REQUEST (cause : radio interface failure)

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
TCH Drop : BSS
MS BTS BSC MSC
Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time
Radio Problem
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION (Remote transcoder failure) CLEAR REQUEST (Equipment failure)

Transcoder reported problem


Abis transmission Problem: Microwave,

Microwave antenna, fixed line problems. Problem on TC boards (hardware problem)

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
TCH Drop : BSS
MS BTS BSC MSC

Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time


CLEAR REQUEST O&M intervention Radio interface failure

BSS problem

Other BSS problem (excluding TC)


Hardware or software failures of BSC/BTS

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
TCH Drop : Handover
MS BTS BSC MSC

Alerting Connection Phase or Communication : at any time

HO failure without reversion

CLEAR REQUEST Radio interface message failure

Call drop during handover

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Intracell HO Failures
Congestion Reversion to Old Channel (ROC) Drop Radio

BSS problem

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Intracell HO Failures : Congestion
MS
Measurement Report MEASUREMENT RESULT No Free TCH/SDCCH

Serving BTS

BSC

MSC

Intracell HO Failures : Drop


MS
ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COMMAND (old channel)

BTS

BSC

MSC

Release of old and new channels

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Intracell HO Failures : Reversion to Old Channel
MS
ASSIGNMENT CMD SABM (new channel) ESTABLISH IND (new channel) UA (new channel)

Serving BTS
ASSIGNMENT COMMEND (old channel)

Serving BSC

MSC

X X

SABM (new channel) UA (new channel) SABM (old channel) UA (old channel) ASSIGNMENT FAIL ASSIGNMNENT FAILURE RF CHANNEL RELEASE (old channel) RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK (old channel)

ESTABLISH INDICATION (old channel)

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Internal HO Failures
MS Serving Cell
HO CMD

: Reversion to Old Channel


BSC MSC

Target Cell
HANDOVER COMMAND

HANDOVER ACCESS HANDOVER DETECTION PHYSICAL INFORMATION

SABM (L3 info) UA (L3 info) ESTABLISH INDICATION HANDOVER COMPLETE SABM ESTABLISH INDICATION UM HO FAILURE HO FAILURE Release of new channel

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Internal HO Failures
MS Serving Cell
Meas. Report MEASUREMENT RESULT CHANNEL ACTIVATION CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK. HO CMD HANDOVER COMMAND

: Drop
BSC MSC

Target Cell

Clear_request Clear_command Release of old and new TCH

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
External HO Failures : Congestion
MS Serving Cell
MEAS_REPORT MEAS_RESULT HO_REQUIRED CR (HO_REQUEST) HO_FAILURE Cause: no radio resource available

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MS

HO_REQUIRED_REJECT

External HO Failures : A int. Congestion


MS Serving Cell
MEAS_REPORT MEAS_RESULT HO_REQUIRED CR (HO_REQUEST) HO_FAILURE Cause: terrestrial circuit already allocated Requested trerestrial resource unavailable BSS not equipped

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MS

HO_REQUIRED_REJECT

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
External HO Failures : Reversion to Old Channel
MS Serving Cell
MEAS_REPORT MEAS_RESULT HO_REQUIRED CR (HO_REQUEST) CC CHANNEL_ACTIVATION CHANNEL_ACT_ACK HO_COMMAND HO_REQUEST_ACK (HO_COMMAND)

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MS

X
SABM ESTABLISH_INDICATION UA HO_FAILURE(reversion to pld channel) CLEAR_COMMAND Radio interface fail: Reversion to old channel Release connection

HO_ACCESS HO_ACCESS

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
External HO Failures : Drop
MS Serving Cell
MEAS_REPORT MEAS_RESULT HO_REQUIRED CR (HO_REQUEST) CC CHANNEL_ACTIVATION CHANNEL_ACT_ACK HO_COMMAND HO_REQUEST_ACK (HO_COMMAND)

BSC

MSC

BSC

Target Cell

MS

X X
SABM SABM SABM

HO_ACCESS HO_ACCESS

X X X
CLEAR_COMMAND Radio interface fail Release connection

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : SDCCH Congestion Rate

Definition: Rate of SDCCH not allocated during

radio link establishment procedure due to congestion on Air interface Comment: Check SDCCH Erlang : if not critical, SDCCH availability/allocation problem, or HO access on a nearby cell side effect or interference on the carrier handling SDCCH (the last 2 can lead to high rate if Phantom RACH
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : SDCCH Assign Failure Rate

Definition: Rate of SDCCH seizure failed (BSS

problem, radio access problem) during radio link establishment procedure over the total amount of SDCCH seizure requests during radio link establishment procedure

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : SDCCH Drop Rate

Definition: Rate of dropped SDCCH (SDCCH

is established for any transaction OC, TC, LU, ...)


Comment: Drop radio + Drop HO + Drop

BSS
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : TCH Assign Failure/Congestion Rate

Definition: TCH Assign Failure Rate: Rate of RTCH

seizure failed (BSS problem, radio access problem) during normal assignment procedure over the total amount or RTCH request for normal assignment procedure TCH Assign Congestion Rate: Rate of RTCH not allocated during normal assignment due to congestion on Air interface
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Call Drop Rate

Definition: Rate of dropped calls over the total

amount of calls with a successful end Comment: Drop BSS + Drop radio + Drop HO TCH drop occurring after successful assignment but before speech connection are considered as call drop even if from customers point of view it is a call setup failure
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Call Setup Success Rate

Definition: Rate of calls going until TCH successful

assignment, that is not interrupted by SDCCH drop neither by assignment failures Comment: Subscriber : call not established at the first attempt
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Call Success Rate (BSS view)

Definition: Rate of calls going until normal release,

that is not interrupted by SDCCH drop neither by assignment failures and neither by CALL DROP Comment: 1 call success = 1 call successfully established Without any call drop
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Outgoing Handover Success Rate

Definition: Rate of outgoing external and internal

intercell TCH and SDCCH handover successes over the total amount of outgoing external and internal intercell TCH and SDCCH handover required

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Incoming Handover Success Rate

Definition: Rate of incoming external and internal

intercell TCH and SDCCH handover successes over the total amount of outgoing external and internal intercell TCH and SDCCH handover requests

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Global Indicators
Important indicators : Handover Cause Distribution

Definition: Distribution of Handover requests by cause:

UL Qual, UL Lev, DL Qual, DL Lev, Better Cell, UL Interference, DL Interference, Interband, Micro cells HO, Concentric cell causes

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Typical Radio Problems


i. Coverage Problem ii. Interference problem iii. Unbalanced power budget problem iv. Congestion problem

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Typical Radio Problems


Several sources of information for optimization
QoS indicators Coverage predictions Customer complaints Drive tests Abis/A traces Other teams information (NSS statistics)

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

i. Coverage Problem
Bad coverage : A network facing coverage problems has bad RxLev. RxQual can be bad at the same time. Sometimes the RxLev can look OK on the street (i.e. from drivetest) but coverage inside the buildings can be poor due to building losses. Building losses can range from 10 to 30 dB or more.
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

i. Coverage Problem
Indications :

Customers complain about dropped calls and/or No Network OMC QoS indicators
TCH failure rate Call drop rate Low proportion of better cell HO High rate of DL & UL Level HO (possibly also DL/UL quality HO)

A interface indicators
High rate of Clear Request message, cause radio interface failure

Drive Test
Poor RxLev ( < -95 dBm)
Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization: Introduction

i. Coverage Problem
Investigation and Optimization : If actual coverage is not the one predicted by planning tool
Check antenna system (azimuth, crossed sector?) Check prediction in the tool (EIRP, Clutter Type, Obstructing building?). Most of the time the prediction will be incorrect, as it is only a computer simulation Increase or decrease antenna down-tilt Check BTS output power set in the OMC-R (BS_TXPWR_MAX: should always be set at 0)
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

i. Coverage Problem
Investigation and Optimization : If actual coverage OK compared to predicted ones
Improve coverage by adding Macro site, Microcell site (Border or Shadow areas), or IBC site (In-building coverage). Use parameter setting ex. Bi-layer Handover.

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

i. Coverage Problem
Example on thresholds :
From Drive test or Abis Interface
RxLev

<

-95 dBm

and RxQual

>

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Interference : A network facing interferences problems presents good RxLev and bad RxQual in the same time on some areas.

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Indications :

Customers complain about bad speech quality (noisy calls) and/or call drops OMC QoS indicators
SDCCH/TCH Drop Low proportion of better cell HO High rate of DL/UL quality HO and interference HO Low HO success rate

A interface indicators
High rate of Clear Request message, cause radio interface failure

Drive Test
RxQual > 4 with RxLev > -85 dBm

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Typical causes :
GSM interferences Co-channel adjacent Non GSM Interference Other Mobile Network Other RF sources

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Co-channel interference :
C/I = Carrier-to-interference ratio +12 dB is taken into account for
+12 dB Level

Alcatel ( +9 dB according to GSM standard) (i.e. interference can be 9 12 dB weaker than serving cell to cause poor RxQual).
f(cell1)=f(cell2) Frequency

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Co-channel interference :
Indications

Downlink and/or Uplink Interference High rate of quality handover, call drop, and call setup failure Drive test analysis Lumpini: Co-channel checking Check prediction to verify which cell could be causing the interference Frequency plan C/I < 12 dB
Prepared by Performance Team

Investigation

Optimization: Introduction

ii. Interference Problem


Co-channel interference :
Optimization

Antenna optimization Change frequency Reduce BTS power (not an option in TA Orange network) Concentric cell

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Co-channel interference: Optimization: Concentric cell
Concept Conclusion from Alcatel trial on

Oranges network (Suburban area)

Concentric cell is difficult to

optimize, and hence is rarely used in the network today.


Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Adjacent channel interference :
C/A = Carrier-to-adjacent ratio -6 dB is taken into account for Alcatel ( -9 dB

according to GSM standard).


Level f(cell1) f(cell2)

-6 dB

E.g. f(cell1)= Ch.573 f(cell2)= Ch.574

f(cell2)=f(cell1)+1

Frequency

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Adjacent channel interference :
Indications Downlink and/or Uplink Interference High rate of quality handover, call drop, and call failure Investigation Adjacent HO statistics (if they are defined as neighbors). If they often handover, then adjacent channel interference could be a problem. Drive test analysis Lumpini: Adjacent channel checking Cell coverage prediction Frequency plan C/I < -6 dB
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Adjacent channel interference :
Optimization

Antenna optimization Change frequency Reduce BTS power (not an option in TA Orange network) Concentric cell

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Interference : Forced Directed Retry
MS should connect to Cell_A, but no

TCH available. MS connects to Cell_B with forced directed retry MS is emitting at high level (due to long distance from Cell_B)
UL interference for Cell_C

Cell_B: Ch.573

Cell_B is emitting at high level (if DL PC

is being used)
DL interference at Cell_C

MS is serving on the 2nd or 3rd best

Cell_A: Ch.569 Cell_C: Ch.572

server: increases chances of interference problem (poor C/I & C/A as C is lower)
Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

ii. Interference Problem


Non GSM interference :
Other mobile network

Inter-modulation with GSM BTS/MS receiver Radar Shop anti-theft mechanism Medical devices Other man-made radio transmission Illegal usage of GSM frequencies (e.g. illegal imported devices, illegal usage of other organization, ...) ...
Prepared by Performance Team

Other RF interferers

Optimization: Introduction

iii. Unbalance power budget Problem


A cell facing unbalanced power budget problems

presents a too high path-loss difference between UL and DL (often DL>UL) Lower Rx diversity gain of cross polarized antenna in rural area compared to dense area Crossed feeders Traffic not directly in boresight of antenna, where cross-polar discrimination is lower Loose connectors Faulty antenna, feeder, TMA Rule : try to have delta as small as possible to avoid access network possible only in 1 direction (usually BTS->MS : OK and MS->BTS : NOK), i.e. uplink limited
Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization: Introduction

iii. Unbalance power budget Problem


Indicators :

OMC QoS indicators


High ratio of Uplink level Handover cause Low incoming HO success rate DL level looks OK for HO, but UL is too weak when HO is attempted Degradation of TCH failures and OC call drop indicators

A interface indicators
High rate of Clear Request message, cause radio interface failure

O&M Alarms
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) TMA

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

iii. Unbalance power budget Problem


Investigation :

Abis monitoring:
ABS(delta Path loss) > 10 Check if problem is occurring for 1 TRX or all. ABS(delta path loss) = ABS(UL Path loss DL Path loss) UL Path loss = MS transmitted power measured received UL level DL Path loss = BTS transmitted power combiner loss measured received DL level Large difference between uplink and downlink level triggered HO.

Use PM observation counter (in OMC-R)


RT11

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

iii. Unbalance power budget Problem


Optimization : This equipment

should be checked
TRX

types (MP, HP) Antennas or common RF components, TMA (common to all TRX of the BTS) TRX RF cables, LNA

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

iv. TCH congestion Problem


TCH Congestion :
TCH Congestion rate (TCH

Assignment Phase) is too high (more than 2%) Rule : try to meet the offered traffic (asked by users) by providing the right number of resources (TRX extension)
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

iv. TCH congestion Problem


Indications :

Customers complain about Network busy OMC QoS indicators

High TCH Congestion rate, RTCH Assignment fail-Congestion Low incoming Intra/Inter BSC HO success rate (no TCH available) High Directed Retry rate or Congestion Relief (Motorola) if activated A interface indicators: BSS Congestion failure in OC High rate of Assignment Failure message, No radio resource available

Drive Test
Handover to better cell is slow, or never occurs
Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization: Introduction

iv. TCH congestion Problem


Optimization :

Special events : Foreseeable: football match, important meeting, Exhibition, etc. Add some extra TRXs Add special mobile BTSs (Cell on Wheel) Activate HR (may not always be possible due to BSC capacity limitations) Not foreseeable: car crash on the highway
Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization: Introduction

iv. TCH congestion Problem


Optimization :

Daily periodic problems : At busy hour: Hardware solution : Add TRX(s) Concentric cell New site Optimize cell boundaries (i.e. antenna optimization) to share traffic with surrounding cells

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

iv. TCH congestion Problem


Optimization :

Daily periodic problems : At busy hour: Software solution : Directed Retry Traffic Handover Half Rate (Alcatel) Congestion Relief (Motorola) Flow control (Motorola)

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Problems and responsible parties


Coverage problem : If the measured RxLev does not match the prediction
Check the prediction, check panoramic pictures for obstructions Field Operation team to check physical configuration (tilt, azimuth, antenna height...). Also check for faults in the antenna system (VSWR, sweep antennas, DTF test, etc.) If Field Operation find no problem, antenna optimization may be required (if necessary)
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Problems and responsible parties


Coverage problem :
If

the field reality match the prediction


RF team to add new sites (tri-sector, micro cellular, indoor cells) to improve poor/no coverage area (Optimizer requests for some new sites to RF team regarding to the drive test result)

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Problems and responsible parties


Interference problem :

Optimization team to identify the interference source and request Spectrum Management team to correct it in case of internal source (new frequency planning...)

Unbalanced power budget problem :

Field Operation team to check the impacted BTS (Antenna, TMA, RF cables, LNA, diversity system...) according to request from Optimizer.

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Problems and responsible parties


TCH Congestion problem :
Regional

RF to request TRX expansion.

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization: Introduction

Episode: II

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization: Contents
Organization Alcatel KPIs

Optimization Workflow
Optimization Process Optimization Tools Report Links

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization: Organization
Div/Dept Access Eng & Performance 2EN1110 No. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 Access Eng & Performance 2EN1110 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 Access Eng & Performance 2EN1110 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 Mr. Mr. Ms. Mr. Mr. Ms. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Ms. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Ms. Mr. Ms. Mr. Mr. Mr. Ms. Mr. Mr. Mr. Mr. Ms. Name In English Initial Mr. Ms. Mr. Mr. First Xavier Sanida Rob Andrew Vacant Prasong Ferri Aekkorn Lilly Vacant Vacant Vacant Nazli Aphiwan Pnot Vacant Vorrachitt Warakorn Sirasith Stephane Michael Atinan Thitinun Supakorn Sutthida Phairoj Boonyarith Vacant Vacant Vacant Vacant Vacant Pongpunt Somyos Prasit Nikhom Laurent Kachaprid Sarasit Vacant Vacant Vacant Linda Wasan Santiphap Suratsawadee Vacant Vacant Renaud Kittisak Vacant Lelong Kiatmonkong Renou Taweesin Utta Kongsettakhonchai . . Thanddokmai Tharalerd Jeayang Lertwilai Hemonet Booramyakorn Wichaikhtkha Veerachitt Angkaphaiboonsakul Phanupornprapong Tella Powell Tumsatan Limpaphinun Chumnongrark Dullaya - anukit Thamrongthanyawong Saovapakiran . . . . . . Abdullah Malaithong Limpiphiphatn . . Kullama Tafreshi Poomseetana Sarujikumjornwatana . . Lepez Sengyai Werner Barton . . Last Initial Name in Thai First Last Position ANTE & Performance Mgr. Administrator Engineering Mgr. Motorola Interface BKK RF Interface Alcatel Interface Spectrum Management Spectrum Eng. Spectrum Eng. Spectrum Eng. Spectrum Eng. Spectrum Eng. Technical Support Mgr. Software Eng. Software Eng. Software Eng. Frequency Planner (Contractor) Frequency Planner (Contractor) Frequency Planner (Contractor) Performance Mgr. Optimization Mgr. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Optimization Eng. BKK Drive Test Technician Drive Test Technician Drive Test Technician Drive Test Technician Optimization Mgr Alcatel Optimization Eng. Alcatel Optimization Eng. Alcatel Optimization Eng. Alcatel Optimization Eng. Alcatel Optimization Eng. Alcatel Optimization Mgr Motorola Optimization Eng. Motorola Optimization Eng. Motorola Optimization Eng. Motorola Optimization Eng. Motorola Optimization Eng. Motorola BSS Eng. BSS Eng. BSS Eng. 3658 3972 5144 5156 0 9100 6555 0 6502 0051 0715 3483 3737 5064 4982 5021 5186 0 9100 6696 0 9100 6683 0 9100 6693 0 9100 6695 2235 2388 2445 2490 3655 2533 2376 5178 5178 5177 5177 5028 5173 5177 0 9100 6686 0 9100 6688 0 9100 6689 0 9100 6690 0 9100 6694 0 9100 6692 0 9100 6687 1045 1872 2448 0437 2244 4005 4006 4027 4025 4026 5111 5189 4981 4983 4985 4984 5196 5027 0 6622 2907 0 1833 4452 0 1802 2114 0 9100 6262 0 9100 6681 0 9100 6684 0 9100 6691 0 9100 6682 0 9100 6685 0 6502 0053 0 6502 0052 0609 1846 3028 5153 5143 5219 0 9100 6423 0 9100 6428 0 9100 6209 0058 0991 0239 4022 4986 5150 5149 5093 0 9100 6432 0 9100 6426 0 9100 6427 0 6501 0054 ID No. 2912 0723 1086 0570 Ext. 4995 5174 5152 5151 Orange Mobile 09-100-6680 0 9100 6677 0 9100 6466 0 9100 6424

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Alcatel KPIs : Network Statistics


TYPE OF MEASURE INDICATORS Drive test for radio coverage. Down link RXLEV OBJECTIVE FAT and Phase 2 See next page. OBJECTIVE PAT Phase 1A and 1B

Drive test for Quality of Service indicators

CSSR

>= 98 %

>= 96 %

RXQUAL CSSR Measured at OMCR (Statistical BSS Quality of Service Indicators) TCH Blocking Rate SDCCH Blocking Rate TCH Drop Rate HOSR

90 % of call 85 % of call samples below or samples below or equal to RXQUAL 3 equal to RXQUAL 3 >= 98% <= 2 % <= 1 % <= 2 % >= 95% <= 2 % <= 1 % <= 3% >= 94%

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Alcatel KPIs : Drivetest Statistics


% of Samples above or equal to threshold ("Valid Measurement Sample Percentage") 98% 96% 93% 93% 93% Minimum Radio Coverage Field Strength Acceptance Threshold on Street Level - 75 dBm - 82 dBm - 87 dBm - 97 dBm - 87 dBm

Service Area

Dense Urban Urban Suburban Rural Highways

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization : Workflow
The following are activities of one Radio Network Optimization Engineer (RNOE) managing the areas
Check Data Alerts Trouble Ticket (TT) Weekly Dashboard BGW Lists CAT Status Daily Dashboard Worst Cell Lists Prioritization List Check Frequency Check Neighbors Check Parameters Neighbors Analysis

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization : Workflow
The following activities are not weekly activities
Neighbors for new sites Traffic Study Analysis Antenna Optimization Drive Test Analysis & CAT Reports A/Abis Trace Analysis Customer Complaints

Meeting
Special Studies and

Problem Log (Potatoes) Drive Test Reports CAT Drive Tests

Requests Documentation

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization : Process
The following are processes based on Remedy
Optimization Tasks Cell-by-cell parameter change/Massive parameter change Neighbor addition/deletion
Correction Tasks Cell-by-cell parameter change/Massive parameter change Neighbor addition/deletion Spectrum Management Tasks Frequency change request Retune request
Optimization: Introduction Prepared by Performance Team

Optimization : Tools
The following are some tools used by an Optimizer
RNO : Radio Network
OMC-R : Operation

Optimization tool (A956) Drive Test Tools


TEMS GREYSON ACTIX (post process tool)

MapInfo Lunpini Nbclient


Optimization: Introduction

and Maintenance Center-Radio NPA : Network Performance Analyzer (A985) INMS ASSET Net Monitor

Prepared by Performance Team

Report Links
G:\Working Document\Net Ops\Network

Performance\@_THAI\BGW_&_Top20
G:\Working Document\Net Ops\Network

Performance\@_THAI\Weekly_Dashboard
G:\Working Document\Net Ops\Network

Performance\@_THAI\Daily_Dashboard_&_Alerts

Optimization: Introduction

Prepared by Performance Team