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Cynthia Thomas 120508001

Oct 10,1933 Bachelors degree Masters degree Ph.D

Director of Nursing of the Clinical research center at the University of Tennessee in Memphis 1971 to 1976- completed her graduate studies at New York University. She also worked and taught with nursing theorist Martha Rogers. 1977- Professor in charge of graduate study in nursing at Pennsylvania State. 1984- Nurse theorist at the University of Minnesota. 1996- Retired from teaching.

Received Outstanding Alumnus Award from the University of Tennessee College of Nursing in both 1975 and 2002 1976 Newman was admitted into the American Academy of Nurses 1979 American Journal of Nursing scholar Newman participated as a member of the nurse theorist task force (1978-1982) with the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) 1984 Received the Distinguished Alumnus Award from the Division of Nursing at New York University

1988 Admitted into the hall of fame at the University Of Mississippi School Of Nursing 1996 Received the E. Louis Grant Award for Nursing Excellence from the University of Minnesota Published three books, and several journal articles Theory Development in Nursing (July 1, 1979)

Health As Expanding Consciousness (1986 and 1994) Served on several editorial review panels Currently a member of the advisory board of Advances in Nursing Science

Ilya Prigogine-Theory of Dissipative Structures Newman incorporated Prigogines theory as an explanation for the timing of nursing presence as the patient fluctuates from one level of organization to a higher level Emergence of new order at higher level of organization Period of disorganization, unpredictability and uncertainty Normal Predictable Fluctuation

Figure 1. Prigogines Theory of Dissipative Structures applied to HEC nursing .

Normal Predictable Fluctuation

Period of disorganization, unpredictability and uncertainty

Emergence of new order at higher level of organization

Time when partnership with an HEC nurse can be of great benefit

Arthur Young-Stages of Human Evolution Discussion of the importance of insight, pattern recognition, and choice provided the impetus for the integration of Newmans basic concepts of movement, space, time, and consciousness into a dynamic portrayal of health and life.

Figure 2. Parallel between Newmans Theory of Expanding Consciousness and Youngs Stages of Human Evolution.

Itzhak Bentov-Life as a Process of Expanding Consciousness. Consciousness as evolving and being coextensive with the universe supports Newmans theory of Health is the process of expanding consciousness. Newman used Bentovs conceptualization of time as an index of consciousness to demonstrate expanding consciousness across life span.

Richard Moss-Presentation of love as the highest level of consciousness Affirming of Newmans views of the nature of health and nursing.

To see health as the pattern of the whole, one needs to see disease not as a separate entity but as a manifestation of the evolving pattern of personenvironment interaction. The paradigm shift is: From treatment of symptoms to a search for pattern. From viewing disease and disruption as negative to viewing them as part of the self-organizing process of expanding consciousness. From viewing the nursing role as addressing the problems of disease to assisting people to get in touch with their own pattern of expanding consciousness

Nursing the goal of nursing is not to make people well or to prevent their getting sick, but to assist people to utilize the power that is within them as they evolve toward higher levels of consciousness

Figure 3. Interaction pattern of two persons

A holographic model of intervention



client, Patient, person, individual and human being are used interchagedly.

Larger whole which contains the consciousness of the individual. Newman recognizes that interaction between person and environment as a key process that creates unique configuration at each level

Health Health is the pattern of the whole, and ... wholeness cannot be gained or lost, in a way that becoming ill does not diminish wholeness but wholeness takes on a new form. (Newman,1999) Health is the major concept of Newmans theory of expanding consciousness. Health is considered as a fusion of disease and non-disease creates health

Health Health is the pattern of whole of a person and includes disease s a meaningful manifestation of the pattern of the whole, based on the fact that life is an ongoing process of expanding manifestation (Newman,1986)

It is the information that depicts the whole and the understanding of the meaning of all the relationships at once. Identifies the wholeness of the person unfolds in time and cannot be predicted dynamic (in constant movement) identified across space and time Pattern is what identifies the person as a particular person

Health assessment framework based on 9 patterns of person environment interactions that guide a nurse in making holistic observations consist of following dimensions: choosing, communicating, exchanging, feeling, knowing, moving perceiving relating valuing

Movement-space-time -Dimensions of merging patterns of consciousness. -Represent the person as a center of consciousness.

A reflection of consciousness. An individual conveys his or her awareness of self through the movement involved in language, posture, and body movement. The rhythm and pattern which are reflected in movement are an indication of internal organization of the person and his perception of the world. Provides a means of communication beyond that which language can convey.

The unbounded three-dimensional expanse in which all matter exists The region that lies beyond the atmosphere, and all that it contains Distance or interval Holographic sense: Each moment has an explicate order and also enfolds all others, meaning that each moment of our lives contains all others of all time.

A measurement of consciousness perceived duration or subjective time.

Time and Space Inextricably linked to each other and has a complementary relationship. When ones life space is decreased, as by either physical or social immobility, ones time is increased.

These pathological conditions can be considered a manifestation of the total pattern of the individual. The pattern of the individual that eventually manifests itself as pathology is primary and exists prior to structural or functional changes Removal of the pathology in itself will not change the pattern of the individual. If becoming ill is the only way an individuals pattern can manifest itself, then that is health for that person. Health is the expansion of consciousness.

Semantic clarity is evident in the definitions, descriptions, and dimensions of the concepts of the theory.

The deeper meaning of the theory of health as expending consciousness is complex. The theory as a whole must be understood, nut just the isolated concepts. If an individual wanted to use a positivist approach, As Newman have advocated in the 1994 edition of her book, Health as Expanding Consciousness requires a high level of understanding the theory in praxis research.

Generality The concepts in Newmans theory are broad in scope because they all relate to health. The theory has been applied in several different cultures and is applicable across the spectrum of nursing care situations.

Empirical Precision In the early stages of development, aspects of the theory were operationalized and tested within a traditional scientific method. However, quantitative methods are inadequate in capturing the dynamic, changing nature of this theory.

Derivable Consequences The focus of Newmans theory provides an evolving guide for all health-related disciplines. To understand the phenomenon health, this unique view of health challenges nurses to make a difference in nursing practice by the application of this theory.






Tomey, A. M. & Alligood., M. R., (2006). Nursing Theorists and Their Work. 6th edition. Mosby Inc. George, Julia B. (1995) Nursing Theories - the base for professional nursing practice. Norwalk, Connecticut. Appleton & Lange Weingourt, Rita(1998) Using Margaret A. Newman's theory of health with elderly nursing home residents. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3804/is_199807/ai_n8795466 http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=pe4wvuhT01UC&dq=margaret +newman+nursing&printsec=frontcover&source=in&hl=en&ei=sbxNS r2vDobq7APCm9yBBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=12 Picard, C and Jones, Dorothy (2004). Giving Voice to What We Know: Margaret Newmans Theory of Health as Expanding Consciousness in Nursing Practice, Research, and Education, Jones and Bartlett Publishing. http/www.healthasexpandingconsciousness.org/Downloads/HECPre sentation.pdf

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www.scrbd.com/doc/5611804/Models -and- Theories-of-Nursing www.scrbd.com/doc/10899031/nursing-Theory http://library.utmem.edu/exhibits/newman/ http://escholarship.bc.edu/dissertations/AAI3008589 http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_george_nurstheory_5/0,2535,88787,00.htm http://www.healthasexpandingconsciousness.org/home/ http://www.enursescribe.com/nurse_theorists.htm Jones, D. A. (2006). Newmans health as expanding consciousness *Electronic version+. Nursing Science Quarterly, 19(4), 330-332. Moch, S. D. (1998). Health within illness: concept development through research and practice [Electronic version]. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28(2), 305-310. Neill, J. (2002). Transcendence and transformation in the life patterns of women living with rheumatoid arthritis [Electronic version]. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(4), 27-47. Newman, M. A. (2010). Overview. In Health as expanding consciousness. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from http://healthasexpandingconsciousness.org/home/index.php?option=com_content &task=view&id=5&Itemid=6 Newman, M. A. (2003). A world of no boundaries [Electronic version]. Advances in Nursing Science, 26(4), 240-245. Newman. M. A. (2002). The pattern that connects [Electronic version]. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(3), 1-7. Pharris, M. D. (2005). Margaret A. Newmans theory of health as expanding consciousness and its applications. In M. E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (2nd ed.). (pp. 217233). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis. Pharris, M. D. (2002). Coming to know ourselves as a community through a nursing partnership with adolescents convicted of murder [Electronic version]. Advances in Nursing Science, 24(3), 21-42. Pharris, M. D. and Endo, E. (2007). Flying free: the evolving nature of nursing practice guided by the theory of health as expanding consciousness [Electronic version].Nursing Science Quarterly, 20(2), 136-140. Yamashita, M. (1999). Newmans theory of health applied in family caregiving in Canada [Electronic version]. Nursing Science Quarterly, 12(73), 73-79.