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OSI Data Link Layer

Network Fundamentals Chapter 7

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Objectives

Explain the role of Data Link layer protocols in data transmission.


Describe how the Data Link layer prepares data for transmission on network media. Describe the different types of media access control methods.

Identify several common logical network topologies and describe how the logical topology determines the media access control method for that network.
Explain the purpose of encapsulating packets into frames to facilitate media access. Describe the Layer 2 frame structure and identify generic fields. Explain the role of key frame header and trailer fields including addressing, QoS, type of protocol and Frame Check Sequence.

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


The Data Link layer performs two basic services:
Allows the upper layers to access the media using techniques such as framing Controls how data is placed onto the media and is received from the media using techniques such as media access control and error detection

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Frame - The Data Link layer PDU
Node - The Layer 2 notation for network devices connected to a common medium Media/medium (physical)* - The physical means for the transfer of information between two nodes Network (physical)** - Two or more nodes connected to a common medium

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


The Data Link layer is responsible for the exchange of frames between nodes over the media of a physical network.
Medium or media = the material that carries the signals = physical copper cable, optical fiber, or atmosphere
In this chapter media does not refer to media such as audio, animation, television, and video content in multimedia

Logical networks are defined at the Network layer by hierarchical addressing scheme. Physical networks represent the interconnection of devices on a common media. Sometimes, a physical network is also referred to as a network segment.
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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Describe why Data Link layer protocols are required to control media access

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Describe why Data Link layer protocols are required to control media access
In any given exchange of Network layer packets, there may be numerous Data Link layer and media transitions. At each hop along the path, an intermediary device - usually a router - accepts frames from a medium, decapsulates the frame, and then forwards the packet in a new frame appropriate to the medium of that segment of the physical network.

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Describe the role of framing in preparing a packet for transmission on a given media

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Describe the role of framing in preparing a packet for transmission on a given media

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Data Link layer protocols require control information to enable the protocols to function.
Control information may tell: Which nodes are in communication with each other When communication between individual nodes begins and when it ends Which errors occurred while the nodes communicated Which nodes will communicate next

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


The Data Link layer encapsule packets with a header and a trailer to create a frame. Data Link layer frame includes: Data - The packet from the Network layer Header - Contains control information, such addressing, and is located at the beginning of the PDU Trailer - Contains control information added to the end of the PDU

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Describe the role the Data Link layer plays in linking the software and hardware layers

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Fields on a frame

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Fields on a frame header
Start and stop indicator fields - The beginning and end limits of the frame Naming or addressing fields Type field - The type of PDU contained in the frame Quality - control fields A data field -The frame payload (Network layer packet) Error check and mark the end of the frame. Not all protocols include all of these fields. The standards for a specific Data Link protocol define the actual frame format.
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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Data Link Sublayers:
Logical Link Control (LLC) places information in the frame that identifies which Network layer protocol is being used for the frame. This information allows multiple Layer 3 protocols, such as IP and IPX, to utilize the same network interface and media. Media Access Control (MAC) provides Data Link layer addressing and delimiting of data according to the physical signaling requirements of the medium and the type of Data Link layer protocol in use.

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Data Link Layer Accessing the Media


Identify several sources for the protocols and standards used by the Data Link layer

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Media Access Control Techniques


Explain the necessity for controlling access to the media

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Media Access Control Techniques


Identify two media access control methods for shared media and the basic characteristics of each

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Media Access Control Techniques


Identify two media access control methods for shared media and the basic characteristics of each

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Media Access Control Techniques


Define Full Duplex and Half Duplex as it relates to Media Access Control for non-shared media

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Media Access Control Techniques


Define Full Duplex and Half Duplex as it relates to Media Access Control for non-shared media

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Media Access Control Techniques


Describe the purpose of a logical topology and identify several common logical topologies

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Media Access Control Techniques


Topology is the arrangement or relationship of the network devices and the interconnections between them. Two topology types: physical and logical topologies. The physical topology is an arrangement of the nodes and the physical connections between them. The representation of how the media is used to interconnect the devices is the physical topology. A logical topology is the way a network transfers frames from one node to the next. These logical signal paths are defined by Data Link layer protocols. The Data Link layer "sees" the logical topology of a network when controlling data access to the media. It is the logical topology that influences the type of network framing and media access control used. Logical and physical topologies typically used in networks are:
Point-to-Point Multi-Access Ring
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Media Access Control Techniques


Point-to-point topologies, the media access control protocol can be very simple. All frames on the media can only travel to or from the two nodes. The frames are placed on the media by the node at one end and taken off the media by the node at the other end of the point-to-point circuit.

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Media Access Control Techniques


Multi-Access Topology Requires a Data Link media access control method to regulate the transmission of data to reduce collisions between different signals. Typically use CSMA/CD or CSMA/CA. However, token passing methods can also be used. The Data Link layer protocol specifies the media access control method that will provide the appropriate balance between frame control, frame protection, and network overhead.

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Media Access Control Techniques


Logical ring topology, each node in turn receives a frame. If the frame is not addressed to the node, the node passes the frame to the next node. This allows a ring to use a controlled media access control technique called token passing. Nodes in a logical ring topology remove the frame from the ring, examine the address, and send it on if it is not addressed for that node. In a ring, all nodes around the ring between the source and destination node examine the frame.

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Media Access Control Addressing and Framing Data


the structure of the frame and the fields contained in the header and trailer vary according to the protocol. the amount of control information needed in the frame varies to match the media access control requirements of the media and logical topology.

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Media access control addressing and framing data


Describe the role of the frame header in the Data Link layer and identify the fields commonly found in protocols specifying the header structure

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Media access control addressing and framing data


Typical frame header fields include:
Start Frame field - Indicates the beginning of the frame Source and Destination address fields - Indicates the source and destination nodes on the media Priority/Quality of Service field - Indicates a particular type of communication service for processing Type field - Indicates the upper layer service contained in the frame Logical connection control field - Used to establish a logical connection between nodes Physical link control field - Used to establish the media link Flow control field - Used to start and stop traffic over the media Congestion control field - Indicates congestion in the media

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Media access control addressing and framing data


Frame is only used to transport data between nodes across the local media, the Data Link layer address is only used for local delivery. Addresses at this layer have no meaning beyond the local network. Compare this to Layer 3, where addresses in the packet header are carried from source host to destination host regardless of the number of network hops along the route.
Point-to-point topologies, with just two interconnected nodes, do not require addressing.

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Media access control addressing and framing data


Describe the importance of the trailer in the Data Link layer and its implications for use on Ethernet, a "nonreliable" media

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Ethernet Protocol

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Summary

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Soal-soal
1-8 from Quiz 9. Sebutkan tiga data nama link layer protocol menurut standar IEEE. 10. Tuliskan contoh sebuah MAC address dalam hexa. 11. Tuliskan contoh sebuah IP address (yang tidak dimulai angka 1) 12. Apakah gunanya field destination pada sebuah ethernet frame header. 13. Sebutkan enam nama-nama fields pada sebuah network header. 14. Uraikanlah dengan rinci, bagaimana caranya (proses) sebuah segment dikirim sejak segment masih di dalam satu komputer sampai ia diterima di aplikasi komputer tujuan.
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Summary
Soal-soal:

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