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21ST SEPTEMBER, 12

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE
PRESENTATION ON

PROVINCIAL STYLE OF DECCAN

BY

EKTA KAPOOR

MEGHA JAIN SECTION A

NITISH GOEL

INTRODUCTION
The first to establish Islamic rule in Deccan plateau was the Bahamani dynasty. Gulbarga was its capital in 1347 but later shifted to Bidar in 1424 which was then ruled by the barid shahi kings. The architects of Gulbarga belong to the earliest phase of Muslim rule in southern part of India.

ARCHITECTURAL STYLE

It was influenced by tughlaq dynasty as Gulbarga was initially the part of tughlaq dynasty. The Brahmins and master architects did not encourage the Muslim rulers to depend on the skills of Hindu architects to build mosques and tombs for them . The Muslim rulers of the south were not so keen to perpetuate another Gujarat's style architecture in their domination

INTRODUCTION

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BAHMAN SHAHS FORTRESS AT GULBARGA


BAHMAN SHAHS FORTRESS AT GULBARGA

Ala-ud-din bahman shah built a strong fort at gulbarga nearly 3km in circumference with semi circular bastions and gigantic battlements punctuated at regular intervals. It was protected by a 30 m wide moat . He surrounded his city of gulbarga with 15.2 m thick fortress wall . The fort is an excellent example of defence architecture much inspired by similar works in syria.

JAMI MASJID
Jami masjid built( 1367) within the fort , has the rare distinction of being the only fully covered mosque in the country . Inspired by the form of muslim religious edifices in eastern Europe - a domed and vaulted hall of the basilica type.

BAHMAN SHAHS FORTRESS AT GULBARGA

BAHMAN SHAHS FORTRESS AND JAMI MASJID

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JAMI MASJID
unlike other mosques this one does not have a courtyard . rectangular plan of 66mt by 52mt , interior contains rows of isles forming 68 bays , each roofed by a cupola . bays differ in size . plain domes supported on plain piers central dome rises over clerestorey letting in light and air distinctive feature unusually wide archways raised over unusually low in posts .


ELEVATION AND FLOOR PLAN

EXTERIOR OF MOSQUE SHOWING ARCHED ENTRANCES

JAMI MISJID

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in front of central mihrab , a large dome and medium sized dome in the four corners exist exterior of mosque consists of arched openings the concept of a structure with fully covered interior remained unabsorbed in the indo-islamic architectural tradition it has a distinctly Persian design using a row of pillars it was designed by RAFI a Persian architect. the minbar is usually of the plain pattern of 3 modest stone steps.

MAP OF GULBARGA

JAMI MISJID OF GULBARGA

BIGGEST DOME OF JAMI MASJID IN FRONT OF MIRAB

JAMI MISJID

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JAMI MASJID
around three sides of the central rectangle are wide cloister and on the western side is the sanctuary the external building was finished in plaster.

CLERESTOREY LETTING IN LIGHT AND AIR

The earliest group of tombs consisting of battered walls, sunken archways, heavy battlement parapet, fluted corner finial and a low dome is derived from the tughlaq prototype of Delhi.

TYPICAL ISLAMIC ARCH

JAMI MISJID

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SHAH BAZAAR MASJID


This mosque shows evidence of a strong influence from the Delhi Tughluq period and also some Iranian elements were introduced. This mosque, built in the north side of the Gulbarga fort, is the earlier of two mosques built under Muhammad Shah reign. It has an imposing figure and various similarities with the great mosques in the Firozabad palace complex in Delhi can be seen. Its prayer room is crowned by 90 small inconspicuous domes, in juxtaposition to the imposing dome on the main gate in the east. The inside of the prayer room has 15 arch-shaped entrances and is 6 spans in depth. Pillars between arches are painted in white with no decoration; it is a simple structure but the simplicity itself creates an imperial atmosphere. The space from here to the east gate is filled by a yard and no side rooms or corridors can be seen. (Matsuo Ara)

SHAH BAZAAR MASJID

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HAFT GUMBAZ
contains memorials of four kings of the bahamani dynasty it is a group of seven tombs in the east of the city designed on the lines of south indian tomb style of early ages. entrance is small , thick walls surround the interior semi circular dome. The arches of the outer arcade are specially noteworthy : of obtuse angle at the apex, of wide span, and springing from very low imposts. the 40 ft high outer faces are divided into two apparent storeys with blind arches in each.

HAFT GUMBAZ

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TOMB OF MUJAHID SHAH


Tombs of seven rulers after the middle period of the Bahmani Dynasty were built in the outskirts of Gulbarga, separated from the tombs of two predecessors. This tomb of the 3rd sultan (1375-78) remains at the west end of the tombs in this area. The tomb is built on a low but a large basement, crowned by a dome and having 3 arch-shaped entrances in different sizes on each wall except the west and the north. It is a tomb with considerable dignity, built on a Bahmani style square plan.

TOMB OF HAZRAT GESU DARAZ


Square domed structure with double storey faade containing nine sunken arches above and flanking the central arch. Most attractive is the immense arch springing from two high towers pierced with arched window openings. Decorated with stucco multi lobed arches, bands and roundels.

TOMB OF MUJAHID SHAH AND HAZRAT GESU DARAZ

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TOMB OF GIYATH AL-DIN


It is a domed tomb built on a square plan on a low basement. It has a battlement at the edge and small towers at the four corners of the roof. At the doublearched entrance, there is a screen of Jali; despite of his tragic life, his tomb looks more splendid than tombs of the other sultans. Probably because he was a minor sultan, his tomb is smaller in scale compared to the above tomb of the 8th sultan.

TOMB OF SHAMS AL-DIN


This tomb is built as if it is connected with the tomb of Giyath al-Din, sharing the same basement and two tombs show various similarities. However, the gentle inclination of the walls is more prominent in this tomb. Like the above tomb, it shows significant influence from buildings in the Delhi Tughluq period.

TOMB OF GIYATH AL-DIN AND SHAMS AL-DIN

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TOMB OF FIROZ SHAH BAHMANI


He was the last ruler in Gulbarga. In fact, his tomb looks most majestic among all tombs built in Haft Gumbaz, as if to reflect his position. This tomb, built in Tughluq style with two domes, is not two independent buildings adjacent to each other, unlike the tombs of his predecessors in two generations. It is a single building of extended walls. This rectangular building has a total of 6 openings, two on the north and south sides and one in the east and west sides. The walls are divided into two tiers in all directions. All archshaped niches in the upper part form openwork windows. The lower part of the walls, having a double-arch-shaped entrance surrounded by windows of Jali screen, also has double-archshaped niches like the upper part. The south entrance, seeming to be the front, has a prominent structure and decorations. The arch-shaped entrances and the upper part of the niches are decorated with a circular pattern, giving dignity to this building. The mihrab in the west side, lines of arch-shaped niches and squinches inside of the tomb chamber show a more complex form and display more excellence than other mausoleums in this region. It is assumed to have been built in 1422.

TOMB OF FORZ SHAH BAHMANI

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CHOR GUMBAZ
It is a majestic tomb remaining in the north side of the old fort city, and is said to have been built in 1420 for a famous Sufi saint of this area named Bandeh Nawaz Gesu Daraz. The four walls are divided into two tiers, and on each wall there are arch-shaped entrances and windows at the centre and two arch-shaped niches with circular patterns at the upper part in right and left: it is a grand exterior. Small kiosk-like architecture at the four corners of the roof surrounding dome has an interesting structure, possessing an entrance with a stair. What is more remarkable is the squinch seen inside and the double lines of lotus petals under the ceiling, and small arch-shaped niches forming a small line above the lotus petals. This unique decoration is not seen in any other buildings.

CHOR GUMBAZ

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TOMB OF HASAN GANGU BAHMANI


The tomb of Hasan Gangu Bahmani, who established a foundation of Bahman power from 1347 to 1358, remains to the west of the old fort, with the tombs of the 2nd and 5th . These tombs compose the first mausoleum complex of the royal family. This tomb of the first sultan is built on a basement and has a simple structure over a square plan with a battlemented dome. Because of its founding year, it was significantly influenced by tombs of the Delhi Tughluq period.

TOMB OF HASAN GANGU BAHMANI

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TOMB OF MUHAMMAD SHAH BAHMANI


The tomb of the second sultan of Bahmani, Muhammad Shah Bahamani, is built to the west of the forementioned Tomb of Hasan Gangu Bahamani, on the same axis. Its founding date is assumed to be 1375. It is a tomb of simple early Bahmani style with a square plan and a dome. Compared to the other tombs, its dome is wider and flatter. However, what is interesting is that mihrab at the west side of the tomb's chamber has an elaborate shape, unlike the simple features of the exterior of this tomb. In addition, at the west side of this tomb at a little distance, there is an independent mihrab wall built. This wall has a form similar to wall mosque in Delhi. (Naoko Fukami)

TOMB OF MUHAMMAD SHAH BAHMANI

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BIDAR
The capital was shifted from Gulbarga to bidar by ahmed shah, the ninth rular of the dynasty. The cheif building productions are: Fortress, palaces Two mosque within fort Madarassa Royal tombs

BIDAR

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FORTRESS OF BIDAR
Larger in area than that of Gulbarga but is built on much of the same system and principles.

IMPERIAL BUILDINGS WITHIN THE FORT


I. II. Mahal or palaces Rang mahal or painted palace-a large structure with colored decoration III. Zenana mahal-a fine edifice IV. Takt mahal or throne room, also called durbar hallor diwan-i-am or public audience hall V. other amenities within the fort were: WATER PALACES, TANK, FOUNTAIN BESIDES ORNAMENTAL GARDENS, HAMMAMS-the bathing areas

FORTRESS OF BIDAR

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JAMI MASJID
This mosque was built by a governor dispatched to this area, called Muhammad. This is the oldest mosque in Bidar district that seems to have been built as Jama Masjid in the fort. It has a similar form and structure to old mosque remaining in Gulbarga. This mosque was also known as Zanani Masjid. This name came from the fact that it was originally situated within the Zanana area at the south-east of the old fort. This mosque are 5 spans in depth. There are total 19 entrances, including 15 large arches in the east front. The mosques has a large roof. In the central part of the roof, there is a dome supported by a drum. The south and north part of the domed roof are decorated by many small domes in 5 lines, corresponding to the spans. However, these domes cannot be observed very well from the front yard, as openwork battlements of cross arch patterns obstruct the view. The large dome is situated in the central part covering 3 spans in depth and width. Inside of the transitional part of the dome, cross-arches dating from the Timur architecture are employed. In the prayer room of 5 spans in depth, arches are supported by thick and round pillars. It is one of the distinctive features of the mosque. There are simple foil decorations at the top of the pillars. These decorations are rarely seen in mosques in the Medieval South Asian architecture. The name of the mosque, "Solah Khamb" means "16 pillars". This probably came from the 16 pillars used in 15 arch-shaped entrances on the east front. The central main prayer room has a large mihrab with simple minbar in the centre. The room shapes octagonal with squinch-shaped arches. In the upper part of the room, cross arches are employed and 24 apices are made. As the entire room is painted in white, the decorations look simple.

JAMI MASJID

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MADRASSA OF KHWAJA MUHMUD GAWAN


Seems like a piece of Persia planted in India. Built in AD 1472 by Mahmud Gawan Rectangular (62m x 55m ) three tiered structure Consists of series of lecture halls, library, mosques and professors and students rooms arranged around open to sky central courtyard measuring 30.4 m square. The entrance facade on the east emphasised by 2 100 ft high persian minarets on eiter side of a lofty gateway.

MADRASSA OF KHWAJA MUHMID GAWAN

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SOLA KHUMBA
Built in 1327 during the rule of Muhammad Tughlaq. Plain and sombre almost to austerity and simple solemnity of the creed. Dome is raised on a fairly tall sixteen-sided drum pierced with arched openings. Long prayer hall divided into 19 x 5 domed bays. Columns are circular and massive. Mihrab is framed by multi lobed arch. Solah Khamba Mosque in the fort was built in 1327. Its long prayer hall has nineteen passageways; each passage is five compartments deep. In plan, the mosque measures 295 feet (90 m) x 77 feet (23 m). The main prayer hall is supported by 18 piers; the other areas of the mosque are supported by 60 round piers. All the piers support a roof which has 84 domes. The domes are flat with features of pendentives. Massive circular columns supporting the structure are fashioned with leafy motifs at the top. The Mihrab (prayer niche) located on the rear wall is enclosed by a cusped arch. The bays form a large chamber in the entrance. Squinches support the dome with braces designed as elephant trunks. The outer arcade lacks any original features, the parapet of pierced interlocking battlements were a later addition. The main dome has flattish shape and is supported on a circular drum, which is embellished with relief of trefoil crenellations

SOLA KHUMBA

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TOMBS OF ALI BARID SHAH AND KASIM BARID BIDRA


The tombs were built in the middle of 30 arce plot in deccan garden The tomb of sultan ali barid is nearly 7 feet hight It has a big dome supported by 4 pillars Has a grand pavillion based on high plat form built with green granite and laterite rock The inside and outside walls of the tomb have been embssed with inscribed tiles It has shikhara made of an alloy of gold He also built some empty tombs for members of his herim outside the pabillion which is in south west corner of the platform having several rows of graves

TOMB OF ALI BARID SHAH AND KASIM BARID BIDRA

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TOMBS OF ALI BARID SHAH AND KASIM BARID BIDRA


Persian style charbah once surrounded the tomb inside of the dome is laid with coloured tiles with verses of khuran The inner walls are also fitted with coloured tiles Both sided of the entrance are designed with flowered pannels

TOMB OF ALI BARID SHAH AND KASIM BARID BIDRA

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GOLCONDA
Golconda is situated about 5 km to the west of Hyderabad old city. The Qutub Shah Dynasty, which became independent from Baihmani Dynasty in Bidar, made this city its capital after reconstructing the Hindu fort. Under the same dynasty, the palace complex was added to the fort and the city walls surrounding were arranged. The fort is situated in the southwest area within the city walls that extend about 1.5 km from east to west and north to south. The city walls have 8 gates. Outside of the east gate leading to Hyderabad, there is a large reservoir outstretching and to the northeast of the reservoir. Graveyard of the royal family of Qutb Shah extend to the north-west outside of the city walls .In addition, there are some mosques from the Qutb Shah period remaining inside and outside of the city walls. 1.FORT (12th C. rebuilt , in the last half of 14th C.) 2.IBRAHIM'S MOSQUE (155080) 3.TOMB OF QULI QUTB SHAH (c. 1543) 4.TOMB OF SUBHAN QULI QUTB SHAH (c. 1550) 5.BAOLI (The last half of 16th C. to 17th C.) 6.TOMB OF JAMSHID QULI QUTB SHAH (c. 1550)

GOLCONDA

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FORT
1.The area where Golconda fort and its city walls exist was originally a territory of power of Kakatiya based in Walangal in the 12th century. 2.It was then the original form of the current fort was built on a hill. However, at that time, the fort was not like the current solid fort using stone and it is said to have been a simple "kacchha" structure using clay. 3. Later on this hillside fort built was obtained by Muhammad Shah I of the Baihmani Dynasty in the late 14th century and the Golconda region was called "Muhammadnagar" for a while. 4. From the beginning to the end of the 16th century, the current stone-made solid fort was built. Also the fort of "pakka" structure, remains of which can be still seen, was built after the period. 5. The main fort of Golconda is constructed the northeastern area of the 8 km periphery of the fortress. Currently it is mostly in ruin, but one can still observe the features of the fort/palace that utilizes the natural bedrock. 6. To the northeast of the large outside fort, there is an area, which was added in 1720. Its size is one fifth of the main fortress. It is sometimes called "new fortress". 7. To the east of the Golconda fortress, there is a main fort built on a small hill. To the southeast, there is an area surrounded by a double fort, which still can be seen today. 8. To the main fort of Golconda, named Barah Hisar or a large hill, one can go through Fateh Darwazah (meaning "the gate of victory") and continue straight on to the northeast. 9. From the front gate(named Barah Hisar Darwazah), one can go inside the fort. This solid arch-shaped darwazah has battlements as well as a watch tower. 10. Entering from a curved passage, one can go inside the fort only by passing through a large wooden door. It is very secure and well-designed.

FORT

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BAHAR HISAR GATE

FROM SOUTH

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1.This mosque is situated at the upper part of the fort, south-southeast of Baradari at the top of Golconda fort. 2. It was built by the 3rd sultan of the Qutub Shahi named Ibrahim Quli Qutb Shah (1550-80). Thus it is called by the same name. 3. It is a small mosque with three entrances and one span in depth. The entire roof is surrounded by a parapet with battlements. Two towers are located on the south and north sides, with its bulbous-shaped dome and two balconies so that, this mosque is in a unique style of the medieval Deccan architecture. The central mihrab and bays of its either sides are also unique.

IBRAHIMS MOSQUE

EAST

SOUTH EAST
IBRAHIMS MOSQUE

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1.It is the tomb of the first sultan of the Qutb Shahi kingdom of Golconda named Quli Qutb Shah (1512-43). 2. It is built on a basement and has a dome surrounded by lotus petals. However, compared to tombs of other sultans and royal families, its decoration is simpler as it is a building of an earlier period. The inside of the tomb chamber is currently painted in white. The square chamber with corner alcoves transformed to octagonal crossing double or triple arches and was surrounded by a cornice with crossed arches, transformed to a 16-gon in the second transition. These decorations produce a unique atmosphere of domed room. The black marble tomb stone in the centre of the basement is the tomb of the sultan.

TOMB OF QULI QUTB SHAH

SOUTH EAST

SOUTH EAST INTERIOR

TOMB OF QULI QUTB SHAH

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1. Subhan Quli Qutb Shah became the 3rd sultan when he was 7 years old after the death of his father Jamshid in 1550 but he died in the same year. 2. His tomb was built to the north of his father's tomb and it is situated to the west of the tomb of the first sultan Quli Qutb Shah on the same basement. 3. The exterior of this tomb built on a square plan has multiple arches and splendid decorations that are unique in Deccan architecture. Parapets on the roof and the base of the dome are also decorated with rich patterns. 4. Unlike other tombs, the bulbous dome is uniquely decorated by sculptured ribs. Despite the fact that this is a tomb for a young sultan, its structure is splendid.

TOMB OF SUBHAN QULI QUTB SHAH

FROM SOUTH WEST

TOMB OF SHUBAN QULI QUTB SHAH

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1.What is amazing in the great fort of Golconda is its strategy for obtaining and storing water, especially in pumping facilities and water storage. 2. It seems that obtaining water was one of the most important issues for the rulers of Golconda, itself in an important position in Deccan, being main fort built on a hill introduce a well for water storage, or baoli built within a cemetery of Qutb Shah royal family . 3. It seems that a well for water storage, called baoli in north India was also called "wav" which includes wells furnished with stairs. 4. This baoli built outside the city wall has corridors with single and double arches on its two sides and it is a majestic well equipped with a square tank. 5. It provides a proper pumping facility, one side of which has a ditch through which water is taken. The historical background of its foundation is unknown. However, judging from its style of arch, it can be seen as a building from the Qutb Shah period. It is still in use today.

BAOLI

FROM NORTH

FROM SOUTH WEST


BAOLI

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1.The tomb of the 2nd sultan Jamshid Shah (reign 1543-50) is situated at the south-west end of the tombs of Qutb Shahi sultans. 2. Unlike the other square tombs, only this tomb is octagonal with two tiered articulation of the faade. 3. Each tier is surrounded by parapets with unique decorations of this period, and each of the eight sides is decorated by a double arch. On the top tier, there is a small tower in the corner. 4. However, the dome is not different from that of other tombs. Tombs built on an octangular plan are rare within Deccan architecture. Inside the tomb chamber, surrounded by noble niches with triple arch, there are three tomb stones, the biggest of which belongs to this sultan.

TOMB OF JAMSHID QULI QUTB SHAH

INTERIOR SOUTH EAST

EXTERIOR SOUTH EAST

TOMB OF JAMSHID QULI QUTB SHAH

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HYDERABAD
1. In 1589, the 5th ruler of the Qutb Shah Dynasty, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah constructed a new capital, moving the capital from Golconda to Hyderabad. After the Mugalid emperor Aurangzeb conquered Golconda in 1687, Mecca Masjid were repaired and the city wall was built. After the 18th century it lived on as the stronghold of Deccan control of the Nizam family that was established by Asaf Jah . 2. The town is constructed on the south shore of the Musi river. The city walls form an inverted triangle. 3. Their construction was begun by the last Mugalid ruler Mubaliz Khan and completed by Nizam ul-Mulk. 4. 4. Buildings dating back to the Qutb Shah period include Chahar Minar at the crossing of the centre of Hyderabad, Jama Masjid at its north-east built in 1597, a hospitalDar al-Shifais situated to the northeast of Jama Masjid and Mecca Masjid, whose construction started in 1614 and was completed by the Mugalid emperor Aurangzeb, located to the south-east of Chahar Minar. 5. In the Qutb Shah period, there were no city walls in Hyderabad. A bridge called Purana Pula was built where a road from Golconda in the west area meets the Musi river, and if one follows the road to the east, one can reach Chahar Minar. The northwest area of Chahar Minar became a palace complex where many palace buildings and gardens could be seen, but currently there is no trace of them.

HYDERABAD

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CHAHAR MINAR
This building is situated at the crossing of a main road running from the north to the south in the old city of Hyderabad. It is a building representing the Qutb Shahi period. Especially after the French tourist Thevenot visited Hyderabad and appreciated its excellency, it came to be widely known in the West. As evidenced in the fact that this building is still used in a design of notes and stamps, it is one of the most famous buildings representing the historical remains of not only Hyderabad and Deccan region but the whole India. it is said that this building was founded by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah in 1590-91. The minars referred to in the name have balconies with small five- tiered openings, and crown a dome in the four corners of this building. The balcony in the second tier (with 7 arches) and the third tier (with 15 small arches) connecting the tower gives a splendid atmosphere to this building. The first tier of the minar has a basement with stairs leading in all four directions. It also has large arch-shaped entrances in all directions. Either side of the entrance is decorated by 4 arch-shaped niches, creating a majestic atmosphere for the minar. These arch-shaped entrances are at the junction of the main streets of Hyderabad, showing this minar is the symbol of this city. Currently, there is a small Hindu shrine built at the bottom of this great minar, which itself symbolizes Indian Islamic culture. This seems to suggest the tensions in the Hindu-Muslim relationship in India. For those well- informed about history, it is a building, which reminds one of the social and political turmoil in the Hyderabad region around the time of Indian independence. (Matsuo Ara)

CHAHAR MINAR

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FROM SOUTH

INTERNAL SHIFT PART


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BRIEF HISTORY OF BIJAPUR


Yusuf Adil Khan, a Turkish protege of the famous Mahmud Gawan of Bidar, and Governor of Bijapur, asserted his independence from Bidar soon after his mentor had been unjustly murdered by Mohammad III in AD 1481. Inspired by the exemplary zeal of Gawan, Yusuf Adil set up a court at Bijapur that was singularly free of any signs of bigotry. He himself was responsible only for building the walls of the citadel, a fortress irregularly circular in plan, a few imperial buildings and two small mosques prepared from despoiled temples. However, he seems to have inspired in his successors a structural ardor that resulted in Bijapur being among the few cities that have the most profuse display of fine buildings in India.

ABUL MUZZAFFAR YUSUF ADIL KHAN SAWI

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CIVIC AMENITIES & TOWN PLANNING


Apart from a cluster of fine buildings all of which were erected in a short burst of energy and speed within just a hundred years (AD 1550 to AD 1660) , the rulers had no inclination for any sort of systematic and appreciable concept of town planning. Although the six gates in the six mile( 9.6km) circumference of the city wall are connected to the heart of the city by radial roads, there is no definite alignment or pattern in these arteries of thoroughfare, rather, they seem to have expanded in a haphazard manner with the growth of the city. The need was felt by successive Adil Shahi kings to add suburbs like Shahpur on the north and Ainpur on east. It was only the suburbs of Nauraspur on the west, that at one time seem to have been connected to the citadel of Bijapur by the grand bazaar of Mohammed Shah. In spite of the apparent lack of grandiose aspects of town planning, the necessary civic amenities were carefully provided for. Ali Adil Shah I had many extensive waterworks constructed. Extensive network of underground catchment tunnels and underground eathern pipes were laid to feed the various waterworks such as the Taj Bauri , the Chand Bauri and Kumatgi. From these bauris which themselves became grand water pavilions and places of royal retreat, water was transported to the various parts of the city. Also, as in Ahmedabad, the bauris themselves became of restful retreat and royal picnics. Of these, the more formally organized waterworks was at Kumatgi.

TOWN PLANNING

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PLAN OF BIJAPUR
BIJAPUR

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CHAND BAURI
One of the deepest and largest step wells in India. It was built in the 9th century 3500 narrow steps in 13 stories and is 100 feet deep

CHAND BAURI

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ARQ- QILA CITADEL


It was within the walled enclosure of the original citadel popularly known as the Arq-quila, that all famous buildings were located, such as the 'palaces and private apartments of the king and his family, various public buildings such as the civil and criminal courts, the military and revenue offices and treasury interspersed with courts of gardens, fountains, cisterns and running water. Though the gardens and fountains have now vanished from the Arq-Quila, the prolific output of the Adil Shahis is reflected in the very statistics of the structures. There are as many as fifty examples of mosques and over a score each of tombs palaces. These are to be found scattered at almost every town and corner of the streets of the city, covering an area of 2.5 square miles. All these monuments were erected by a school of craftsmen that took the architecture of the Jami Masjid of Gulbarga and the tombs of the Barids at Bidar as its chief source of inspiration. From the former was borrowed the austere dignity of the stilted dome, the plain surfaces and the suavity of the arch, while from the latter came the bulbous or lotus dome which under the Bijapur builders became a thing of exotic beauty.

ARQ-QILA CITADEL

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JAMI MASJID
OF BIJAPUR

The influence of the Gulbarga moSque is most apparent in Adil Shahi's Jami Masjid of Bijapur, erected in AD 1570. This building marks the true take off point for the construction of the more significant architectural masterpieces of Bijapur. With the building of the Jami Masjid, Bijapur architecture had come a long way from the days of the early mosques of Karim-ud-din ( AD 1320) and Khwaja Jahan ( AD 1480), both constructed with despoiled Hindu temple material, and the coarse rubble, masoned and plastered three-arched and bulbous domed small mosques of Maliq Jahan, the Mecaa Masjid. All these earlier mosques varied only in minor architectural detail, and without exception consisted of three conjoined square chambers fronted by wide Gulbarga type arches with minarets planted in varying positions in the front facade. In the great Jami Masjid of Adil Shahi, though undoubtedly the idea of covered central court was duly discarded and the slightly more fanciful ogee arch of the Gulbarga cloisters was transformed into a more stately and dignified arch of the four center variety, the classic spirit of the prototype, nevertheless, pervades this mosque. The friday mosque was never fully completed, its eastern wall and entrance gateway and minarets at the corners being left unfinished.

JAMI MASJID

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JAMI MASJID
OF BIJAPUR

The liwan, measuring 208ft x 107ft ( 63m x 33m), a central dome rising up over the mehrab bay, and the unfinished northern and southern wings speak volumes of the architectural style. A single dome of the hemispherical variety covering the nice central bays rise up over a richly ornamented square clerestory platform, and at its apex is planted the familiar crescent finial symbolic of the Turkish origin of the Adil Shahi dynasty. The rest of the liwan is roofed over by shallow circular domes over square bays formed by masonry piers. These shallow domes seem intentionally concealed with the thickness of the roof. The seven stately arches of the facade of the liwan are shaded by a deep horizontal chajja supported over a row of closely spaced brackets. The routine exterior in most mosques would be formed of the large blank masonry surfaces of the walls surrounding the liwan and the side wings. In this mosque these surfaces are cleverly contrived as a double row of deep arched niches, the lower one being blind, and the other admitting light and air into the liwan. This restrained but interesting treatment of the facade is reminiscent of the elevations of the madrassa of Mohammed Gawan at Bidar. It is however the interior of the liwan with its white plastered surfaces judiciously ornamented with deep grooved bands supplementing the robustness of masonry piers spanned by low imposed arches, that creates an impression of solemnity in this places of worship.

JAMI MASJID

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JAMI MASJID
built by Ali Adil Shah (1557-1580) In 1578 after the victory of Vijaya Nagara in Rakkasagi

JAMI MASJID

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PLAN OF JAMI MASJID

JAMI MASJID

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TOMBS OF BIJAPUR
Most of the tombs were roofed by onerous and at times oppressive domes, the light from the skies was prevented from reaching anywhere near the graves of the kings. Interiors were so dark and gloomy that it was impossible for the eye to discern much without the aid of artificial light. On the contrary, Ali Adil Shah(the patron of the Jami Masjid) had love for open and airy structures. This was evident from the vast arched openings of the faced of the two-storeyed Gagan Mahal which was at one time his residence and council chamber. In his great humility, Ali Adil Shah had himself buried in an open, airy and almost veranda like modest structure in the south-west of the city.

G A G A N

M A H A L

TOMBS OF BIJAPUR

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RAUZA OF IBRAHIM
The shafts of the minarets ,with their rich horizontal mouldings, recall those of the mosque of Ahmedabad. That is until one notices the spherical cupola resting with the petal leaf at the apex, instead of the rather ungainly pyramid of the Gujarat style. The deep chajja with its multiple brackets and the richly battlemented parapet stretching from one minaret to the other is punctuated by short turrets that repeat the pulsating rhythm of the arches below. From behind and over this richly sculptured base and within the frame of the minarets, rises the square stylobate of the inner chamber, and also richly embellished and crowned by the familiar lotus dome set within a ring of large petal-shaped merlons

TOMB IN THE IBRAHIM OF RAUZA,BIJAPUR (1615AD)

RAUZA OF IBRAHIM

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PLAN OF RAUZA IBRAHIM


JAMI MASJID

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SECRET OF THE HANGING CEILING


In order to raise the dome to a satisfactory external height ,and yet not create a deep well of darkness in the interior ,the 40ft (12m) square chamber is roofed over at an intermediate level by a crafting ceiling. The flat portion measures 24ft(7.3m) square and virtually floats over 7ft (2m) deep brackets projecting from the walls around . The only explanation preferred for this unbeamed and seemingly unsupported ceiling not having fallen down in the possible use some secret formula for the rich mix of the mortar by the Bijapur builders . This mix not only enabled the area to be spanned but also kept in place the under layer of stones which are merely butt jointed with each other. Whatever be the clue to this miraculous construction, there is little doubt that the architectural style of the tomb and its complementary mosque which echoes the volumes and forms the tomb, arouses strong mixed emotions .

HANGING CEILING

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MEHTAR MAHAL
It is an entrance gateway to a small mosque. In this small but tall facade, the Bijapur builders truly went to town in decorating it not only with flat geometric patterns but fanciful brackets ,deep balconies and sloping chajjas all framed within the two slender minarets. With the construction of the Ibrahim Rauza and the Mehtar Mahal ,their seemingly thirst for enrichment of detail appears to have been finally quenched. Sultan Mohammed (AD 1626) astutely realized that in richness of embellishment the Ibrahim Rauza was not to be outclassed , and decided to built a tomb for himself that could not be outdone in sheer massiveness and size . It is to the great credit of his builders that his ambitions were more than fulfilled. They built for him a tomb that was roofed by a dome that came to be rated as the largest anywhere in the world- the famous GOL GUMBAZ of Bijapur.

MEHTAR MAHAL, BIJAPUR (1620AD)

MEHTAR MAHAL

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GOL GUMBAZ

GOL GUMBAZ WALL ART

This tomb of Sultan Mohammed commenced construction in AD 1656,and its rubble masonry walls were still being plastered when the ruler died. That immensity of size was the major criterion for erecting this tomb is apparent from the building plan which is simply a square hall enclosed by four lofty walls ,buttressed by octagonal towers at the corner, and the whole surmounted by a hemispherical dome For the simple square is almost of 136ft (41.5M) side inside and as much as 205ft (62.5m) outside ; the for lofty walls are over 10ft ( 3m) thick and 110ft (33.5m) high; the diameter of octagonal buttresses is 35ft (7.6m) rising to a height of 150ft (45.7m);the hemispherical dome is of 144ft (44m) diameter outside and 125ft (38m) diameter inside; its apex is over 200ft (60.9m) from ground level. The whole structure in height alone is thus the equivalent of a 20 storeyed structure of modern times.

GOL GUMBAZ

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GOL GUMBAZ
GOL GUMBAZ

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METHOD OF INTERSECTING ARCHES


OF GOL GUMBAZ

It would be apparent then from these statistics, a study of the plan and rather plain exterior of the monument, that the moving spirit behind this great building venture was not a conventionally trained architect but a daring structural engineer. It is indeed remarkable that without precedent to prove his skill, the master builder could persuade Sultan Mohammed that he would be able to successfully build for him a monument of such gigantic proportions. The crux of the whole design, as described earlier, became that of supporting the circular dome over the cube below and intelligibly managing the phase of transition from the cube to the dome above. Earlier this had been managed by a lintel, a series of pendentive or squinch arches across the corner of the cube below depending on the size of the Gol Gumbaz, none of these methods could be applied. The span across the corners of the square itself would be of the order of 75ft(24m), and by this conventional method the diameter and consequently the load of the dome would have been twice that of the present dome. Thus the problem was to somehow reduce the size of the dome while retaining the huge size of the square hall below. This was solved by the builders by employing what has come to be known as the METHOD OF INTERSECTING ARCHES .This procedure had been earlier adopted for erecting the dome over the Jami Masjid at Bijapur. But in the Jami Masjid, it seemed to have been used to produce a pleasing interior composition, while in the case of Gol Gumbaz, it was a sheer structural necessity.

INTERSECTING ARCHES

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METHOD OF INTERSECTING ARCHES


The geometric essence of this solution in inscribing within the large square, two smaller overlapping squares, by dividing each side of the large square into three equal divisions and joining together the alternate points of division. Eight points of intersection of the two smaller squares produced an octagon within the Large square of a size smaller than the octagon produced merely by chamfering the corners of the square. Continuing with the geometric analysis, it the octagon that could Now be gradually made to approximate to the required circular plan of the dome. Structurally, the location of eight corners of the octagon in space was determined by erecting tall arches along each of the sides of the intersecting squares. The points at which these arches intersected in the volume above the large square became the corners of the octagonal platform over which a circular ring of masonry acting as the drum for the dome could be erected.
OF GOL GUMBAZ

INTERSECTING ARCHES

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LARGEST DOME IN THE WORLD


The hemispherical dome of an average thickness of as much as 10 ft (3 m) at its springing point was constructed out of concentric over sailing layers of brick masonry cast in concrete formed out of a mix of ballast and rich lime mortar. Such a homogeneous shell or monoblock of virtually brick reinforced concrete was constructed without the use of any scaffolding or shuttering of timber, except for the section near the crown In principle, the construction of this dome differed vastly from the roman, byzantine or renaissance dome. In the roman and byzantine domes, a massive load had to be appended on the outer surfaces of the haunches of the domes to restrain the corresponding thrust of the dome. The renaissance builders, on the other hand, used cumbersome rings of iron chains to surround the drum of the dome. The Bijapur dome, which is poised over a larger square space below, spans the largest uninterrupted floor space in the world, of the order of more than 18,000 sq ft (1,627 m). A gallery is formed fortuitously formed at the balcony level above the apex of intersecting arches. Because of its immense size, the outer surfaces proved much too vast to be organized into a pleasing architectural composition. Thus three of the outer walls are composed of arches filled with screens formed out of dull brown local basalt. The fat, octagonal seven- storeyed turrets contribute little to the elegance of the elevation, apart from being structurally redundant. In the Gol Gumbaz, this restraint was provided by the masonry poised over the intersecting arches within the dome. The dome of the Gol Gumbaz can be seen externally in its full splendor.

LARGEST DOME

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LARGEST DOME IN THE WORLD


The stupendous effort of building the dome appeared to have exhausted the creative energies if the Bijapur builders, as well as the strength of the Empire it must, however, be said to the builders credit that their ambitions remained undaunted, though these were duly tempered by the political situation prevailing at that time. Both the Mughals and the Marathas had been making little dents into the power of the Adil Shahis at Bijapur. And thus, though the foundation of a building envisaged to be as large as the Gol Gumbaz and identical configuration were laid out at Ainpur as a tomb for Jahan Begum, a smaller chamber was introduced within. This would have avoided the necessity of building yet another great dome. After the death of Ali Adil Shahi II in AD 1672 and the accession of his son Sikander, not much remains to be told of the Bijapur story. Aurangzeb lived in the city of Bijapur for some years after its fall. Finally, in AD 1724, it was ceded to the Maratha Peshwa, who found in its public buildings a 'mine of materials,' the palaces were stripped of all their woodworks: beams, doors, windows were ruthlessly torn out and carted away. But as we have discovered in reviewing the architectural remains of the Bijapur builders efforts, the spirit of their enterprise could not be 'carted away.' Even in its derelict splendor, the remains of the handiwork of the short lived Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur point to the task and the high power of art and erection which they evince.'

LARGEST DOME

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