Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Line Current Differential Application on Short Lines

Presentation to SSCET
October 26th, 2012

Slide 1

Content
Goals of Protection Definition of Short Lines Challenges Posed by Short Lines Line Current Differential Explained Benefits of Line Current Differential Application Example

Goals of Protection Security Speed


Dependability: the degree of certainty that the relay will operate correctly. Security: the relay will not operate incorrectly Very high power during fault conditions: delays translate into increased damage: faster protection tends to compromise relay system security and selectivity.

Sensitivit y Selectivit y Simplicity

The minimum operating quantities allows the relay to detect an abnormal condition. High-impedance ground faults, voltage unbalance and high sourceto- line impedance ratio affect the sensitivity or coordination: ability of the relay system to minimize outages as a result of a fault by operating as fast as possible within their primary zone. simple to apply and to obtain maximum protection

What is a short line?

Classification of line length depends on: Source-to-line Impedance Ratio (SIR), and Nominal voltage Length considerations: Short Lines: SIR > 4 Medium Lines: 0.5 < SIR < 4 Long Lines: SIR < 0.5
Slide 4

Challenges of Short Lines


Sensitivity of Overcurrent Elements

Challenges of Short Lines


Coordination of Distance Elements

Challenges of Short Lines


Operation Time of Distance Elements

Distance Relay Basics

I*Z
Intended REACH point F1 Z V=I*ZF

I*Z - V

RELAY (V,I)

For internal faults: IZ V and V approximately in phase (mho) IZ V and IZ approximately in phase (reactance)

Distance Relay Basics

I*Z
F2 Intended REACH point V=I*ZF

I*Z - V

RELAY (V,I)

For external faults: IZ V and V approximately out of phase (mho) IZ V and IZ approximately out of phase (reactance)

Distance Relay Basics


100 80 60 40
Voltage [V]

vA

vB

vC

100

Reactance comparator [V]

20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 5 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

50

SPOL
0

-50

iA
4 3
Current [A]

SOP
-100 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 power cycles

2 1 0 -1 -2 -3

iB, iC

-0.5

0.5

1.5

Distance Relay Basics


Relay
System Voltage at the relay: Lin e

VR VN

f LOC [ PU ] f LOC [ PU ] SIR

Consider SIR = 0.1 Fault location 75% 90% 100% 110% Voltage (%) 88.24 90.00 90.91 91.67 Voltage change (%) 2.76 0.91 N/A 0.76

Distance Relay Basics


Relay System Lin e

Voltage at the relay:

VR VN

f LOC [ PU ] f LOC [ PU ] SIR

Consider SIR = 30
Fault location 75% 90% 100% 110% Voltage (%) 2.4390 2.9126 3.2258 3.5370 Voltage change (%) 0.7868 0.3132 N/A 0.3112

Current Differential Relay Basics

Unit Protection Communications Channel Required

Current Differential Relay Basics


Clock Synchronization
Relay 1
Send start bit Store T1i-3=0 0

Relay 2
Initial clocks mismatch=1.4ms or 30

Communication path
0
8.33 ms

Measure channel delay to shift local phasor by angle equal to the half of the round trip delay:

Send start bit Store T2i-3=0 Capture T2i-2=2.3

Capture T1i-2=5.1

5.1

2.3
8.33 ms

Send T1i-2=5.1

8.33 8.33 Send T2i-2=2.3

8.33 ms

13.43 Store T2i-2=2.3

Store T1i-2=5.1 10.53


8.33 ms

Send T1i-1=16.66

16.66 16.66
8.33 ms

Send T2i-1=16.66 Store T1i-1=8.33 Capture T2i=18.96

Store T2i-1=16.66 Capture T1i=21.76 T1i-3=0 T2i-2=2.3 T2i-1=16.66 T1i=21.76 a1=2.3-0=2.3 b1=21.76-16.66=5.1 1=(2.3-5.1)/2= = -1.4ms (ahead)

21.76

18.96 T2i-3=0 T1i-2=5.1 T1i-1=16.66 T2i=18.96 a2=5.1-0=5.1 b2=18.96-16.66=2.3 2=(5.1-2.3)/2= = +1.4ms (behind)

Speed up

Slow down
0 30

t1

t2

Current Differential Relay Basics


Clock Synchronization

Current Differential Relay Basics


Communications Channel Noise
A sum of squared differences between the actual waveform and an ideal sinusoid over last window is a measure of a goodness of fit (a measurement error)
The goodness of fit is an accuracy index for the digital measurement

window

The goodness of fit reflects inaccuracy due to: transients CT saturation inrush currents and other signal distortions electrical noise

time

The goodness of fit can be used by the relay to alter the traditional restraint signal (dynamic restraint) and improve security

Current Differential Relay Basics


Traditional vs. Adaptive Restraint Differential
I loc pu
20

OPERATE

Restraint 2

16

RESTRAINT
BP=8 , P=2, S1=30%, S2=50 % BP=4, P=1, S 1=30%, S2=50%
10

Restraint 1 Pickup

BP=4 , P=1, S1=20%, S2=40 %

Traditional characteristics

OPERATE
0

I rem pu
4 0 8 12 16 20

Adaptive characteristics

Current Differential Relay Basics


Adaptive Restraint Differential
Total restraint = Traditional restraint + Adaptive restraint (Error factor) Imaginary (I /I )
LOC REM

OPERATE

Error factor is high


Real (ILOC/IREM)

REST.
Error factor is low

Summary
SIR, not just line impedance, defines a short line. Overcurrent protection is less secure than alternatives. The sensitivity and speed of distance relaying are adversely impacted, and coordination becomes more complex. Line current differential provides good sensitivity, speed and alleviates coordination issues.

Application Examples

Summary SUB
A 51

SUB C

SUB D

SUB E

51 51 51 87L BLUE relay sees the most current. Coordination time intervals are By eliminating one of the 51 acceptable. elements, we have increased the If line between Sub B andand Sub C coordination time interval are out of service, made system coordination easier. coordination time interval between D and C is unacceptable. 51 51

SUB B

51 time

51

87L

current

Application Example

50 miles ZL = 0.01 pu 500 kV ZS = 0.01 pu 14 miles ZL = 0.003 pu 62 miles ZL = 0.013 pu ZS = 0.01 pu

SIR = 3.33 SIR = 6.67 Short line, weak source


5 2 5 2

SIR = 0.76 SIR = 1.54

230 kV

500 kV ZS = 0.02 pu

Application Example

Protection Scheme Needs


High speed operation Weighted towards security Must protect short line without overreaching

Ability to handle weak source

Application Example

POTT Scheme
RO RO

52

52

Trip CB

Trip CB

RO

85R

Receive Receive Transmit

Receive Receive Transmit

85R

RO

Plus: good security, distance relay, simple comms Minus: Communications channel, weak infeed conditions

Application Example

Hybrid POTT
RO RU B RO B RU

52

52

Trip CB

Receive RO WI Receive
85R

This end identical

RO WI

Receive Transmit RU B

RU B Transmit
0 T

Echo

Application Example

Line Differential
52 52

Trip CB

Trip CB

RCVR R XMTR

RCVR R XMTR

Local + Remote Current

Local + Remote Current

Plus: good security, good for short lines

Minus: Complex communications channel

References
IEEE C37.113 Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Transmission Lines (1999) (draft 2011)
Draft contains new information regarding short lines.

Relaying Short Lines (Alexander, Andrichak, Tyska)


GE Publication GER-3735.

Slide 27

Questions