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Load transfer switches


Saman Rajapaksa Assistant manager-technical training ROTAX LTD

Classification of load transfer switches

a) type of construction

b) type of transition
c) type of source

d) type of application
e) compliance with different international standard publications

Type of construction

a) knife blade type

b) magnetic contactor type (IEC 60947-4-1)

c) circuit breaker type (IEC 60947-2)

d) power contactor type (IEC 60947-3) e) static type (IEC 62310)

Type of construction

Knife blade type

Non load breaking Manually operated Slow switching transfer process No arc chutes Limited life span Cheaper in cost

Magnetic contactor type

Electrically held contacts Drop out on loss of control voltage Mechanically interlocked Possibility to close both contactors together Not a true double throw device Padlocking not possible Manual operation not possible Low short circuit fault current rating

Circuit breaker type

Protection/switching combined changeover device comprises multi components Slow transfer speed due to motor operator Designed for short circuit making/breaking capabilities Side by side or superposed mounting Not a true double throw device

Power contactor type

Extremely High short circuit making capabilities Compact unit with less auxiliaries Inherent mechanical interlock due to double throw device One ordering code for the complete unit

Static type

Two live sources required Extremely fast switching transition in less than cycle Silicon controlled rectifier technology Used for critical loads with two reliable/ independent power sources High cost discourages standby applications

Type of Transition

type of source

Type of Application

Manual load transfer switch Semi automatic load transfer switch

Fully automatic load transfer switch

Manual load transfer switch

Independent manual operation Front/side (left/right) operating positions

Standard /delayed transition options

Complies with IEC 60947-3 standard

Semi automatic load transfer switch

Remote transfer switch equipment (RTSE) receiving external commands for switching Motor/solenoid operation Manual operation possible

Complies with IEC 60947-3 standard

Fully automatic load transfer switch

Comprises of a motorized load transfer switch with inbuilt controller Programmable control /operating sequence Sensing of supply voltage/frequency of mains/generator Complies with IEC 60947-6-1 standard

Compliance with standards

IEC 60947 - low voltage switch gear and control gear Part 2 - circuit breakers Part 3 - switches, disconnecters, Part 4-1 electromechanical contactors Part 6-1 - automatic transfer switch equipment IEC 62310 - static transfer switches

IEC 60947-6-1

Formulated for ATSE equipment Classifies ATSE as class PC and class CB Class PC capable of making /withstanding but not intended for breaking short circuit currents Class CB -capable of making/breaking short circuit currents with over current releases

Utilization categories (continued)

IEC 60947-3 utilization categories AC-20A/AC-20B- connect/disconnect under no load conditions AC-21A/AC-21B-switching resistive loads AC-22A/AC-22B-switching mixed resistive/inductive loads AC23-A/AC-23B switching motor/highly inductive loads

Utilization categories (continued)

IEC 60947-6-1 utilization categories AC -31A/AC-31B - non inductive loads AC- 33A/AC-33B -mixed motor/resistive loads AC-35A/ AC-35B electric discharge lamp loads AC-36A/ AC-36B- incandescent lamp loads

Salient features of ATSE equipment

Customer assembled switching units (circuit breakers/contactors etc) will not comply with IEC60947-6-1 Factory assembled switching units tested as per the standard by independent testing authorities ( eg; KEMA) comply with IEC 60947-6-1

Salient features of ATSE equipment (continued)