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Information Technology INT1001

Lecture 8 Networks
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Computers Are Your Future


Tenth Edition

Chapter 8: Networks: Communicating & Sharing Resources

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Networks: Communicating & Sharing Resources

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Network Fundamentals

A network links multiple computer systems to enable them to share data and resources. The two main categories of computer networks are:

Local area network (LAN) Wide area network (WAN)


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Network Fundamentals

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Network Fundamentals

A local area network (LAN)


May be wireless or connected through cables Covers a limited geographic area Links computer systems that can be thousands of miles apart May require long-distance transmission media
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A wide area network (WAN)

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Network Fundamentals

Communication devices

Required to convert data into signals that can be transferred over wired or wireless media Convert data to and from analog signals to digital signals Assist in digital communication Enhance signal strength Enable effective data transfer
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Network Fundamentals

Communication devices include:


Computers Modems Routers Switches Network interface cards (NICs)

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Network Fundamentals

A computer is called a client or a node when it is part of a network. A node can be any computer or peripheral device on a network. A computer needs a network interface card (NIC) to connect to a network.
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Network Fundamentals

Routers

Connect two or more networks Determine the best route to transmit data Provide a function similar to that of a router Move data within one network

Switches

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Network Fundamentals

The majority of networks have a file server, a special computer that holds the networks programs, data files, and network operating system (NOS). Network operating systems provide file directories for file and resource location, computerized software update distribution, and Internet services support.
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Advantages & Disadvantages of Networking

Advantages of networking

Disadvantages of networking

Hardware cost reduction Sharing of information, data, and applications Data management centralization Linking of people

Loss of autonomy Lack of privacy Security threats Productivity loss

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Local Area Networks

Local area networks can be classified as either peer-to-peer or client/server. Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks:

Share files without a file server Are easy to set up Are normally used for home or small offices Slow down if there are too many users
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Local Area Networks

Client/server networks:

Made up of one or more file servers and clients Client requests sent to server Wired or wireless connections Do not slow down with heavy usage

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Local Area Networks

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Local Area Networks

A network topology

The physical design of a LAN Responsible for resolving the problem of contention

Conflict that occurs when two or more computers on the network attempt to transmit at the same time

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Local Area Networks

Three types of LAN topologies are:

Bus topology, which is used primarily in comparatively small environments such as a home or small office. Star topology, which works best in environments such as office buildings, computer labs, and WANs. Ring topology, which is best used within a division of a company or on one floor of a multiple floor building.
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Local Area Networks

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Local Area Networks

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Local Area Networks

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Local Area Networks

Protocols are the standards used by networks to permit communication between network-connected devices. A networks protocol suite contains the protocols of the network and specifies its network architecture, or how the network works.
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Local Area Networks

Ethernet is the most-used local area network protocol. The two versions of Ethernet, which use twisted-pair wiring and switches, are:

Wi-Fi uses radio waves to provide a wireless LAN standard.


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10Base-T (10 Mbps) 100Base-T (100 Mbps)

Local Area Networks

Popular LAN Protocols

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Local Area Networks

Popular Wireless Networking Standards

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Wide Area Networks

Wide area networks are used to link computers spread over large geographic areas. The two distinguishing components of a WAN, not part of a local area network, are:

A point of presence (POP) A backbone

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Wide Area Networks

A point of presence (POP) is the connection point of a WAN used by individuals to obtain access to the network. Backbones are transmission lines that have the ability to handle the massive traffic associated with a WAN.

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Wide Area Networks

Protocols

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Internet Protocol (IP)

Defines how Internet-connected computers can exchange, control, and confirm messages Provides a distinct identification to any computer connected to the Internet the IP address Together, they define how the Internet works

TCP/IP

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Wide Area Networks

The technologies on which WAN protocols are based include:

Circuit switching, used by the public switched telephone network (PSTN), sends data is sent over a physical end-to-end circuit between the sending and receiving computers. Packet switching, used by the Internet, divide and send outgoing messages as packets, which are reassembled upon receipt.
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Wide Area Networks

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Wide Area Networks

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Wide Area Networks

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Wide Area Networks

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Wide Area Networks

Circuit switching

Data sent over a physical circuit Best when avoiding delivery delay is vital High-speed electronic switches make connections

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Wide Area Networks

Packet switching

Packet switching vs. circuit switching


Message divided into numbered packets Sent to router to distribute Packets sent through multiple paths Message reconstituted More efficient Less expensive More reliable

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Wide Area Networks

WAN applications include:


E-mail Conferencing Document exchange Remote database access

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Home Network

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Wired Home Networks

Home networks:

Provide users with the ability to share files and other resources Can be configured as either wired or wireless Utilize the Ethernet communications standard to stipulate how data is transmitted
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Wired Home Networks

Computers on an Ethernet network are linked through a communication device such as a switch or router.

A switch permits the transmission of data on a single network. A router permits the transmission of data on multiple networks, including the Internet.
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Wired Home Networks

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Wired Home Networks

Home power-line networks connect computers through the electrical wiring.

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Wireless Home Networks

Home Wi-Fi network


A wireless network Uses radio signals to transmit data Data transmission accomplished through network access points

Communications devices Wireless routers

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Wireless Home Networks

Wireless home networks can be:


Peer-to-peer Client/server

Peripherals must be within the range of the network routerapproximately 100 to 300 feet. Wireless networks use the 802.11 specification for wireless transmission.
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Wireless Home Networks

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The Future of Home Networking

In the future, home networking systems:


Will most likely be wireless Will provide such features as:

Controlling household appliances Preparing food Maintaining a homes appearance Managing home network events

Temperature regulation Communication


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What Youve Learned

Computer networks of two or more linked computers share resources and exchange data. The two main types of networks are local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). There are advantages and disadvantages to using a computer network.
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What Youve Learned

The two main categories of local area networks are peer-to-peer and client/server. The topologies of a LAN include the bus topology, the ring topology, and the star topology. The manner in which network devices communicate is defined by protocols.
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What Youve Learned

The Ethernet is the most popular LAN protocol. Distinguishing components of a WAN, when compared with a LAN, are its point of presence (POP) and backbones. WAN connections may be made through analog telephone calls or digital hookups.
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What Youve Learned

The technologies on which WAN protocols are based use either circuit switching (PSTN) or packet switching (the Internet).

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