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Public Health policy

Concerned with the process whereby public agencies evaluate and determine health needs and the best way to address them, including the identification of appropriate resouces and finding mechanisms

1 a statement of a decision regarding a goal in health care and a plan for achieving that goal. For example, to prevent an epidemic, a program for inoculating a population is developed and implemented. 2 a field of study and practice in which the priorities and values underlying health resource allocation are determined

Some of terms
A policy ; an authoritative decision that made in the legislative, executive, or judicial branches of government Private policy; policy made by nongovernmental agencies and organization Public policy; policy made at the legislative, executive and judicial branches of federal, state, and local government that affect individual and institutional behaviors under the respective governments jurisdiction.

Some of terms
Health policy; policy that pertain to health or influence the pursuit of health Social policy; public policies and directives that promote the welfare of the public Policy analysis; a term used to describe both the overall policy making process as well as a specific component of that process.

6 steps of the policy making process

1. Agenda setting 2. Policy formulation 3. Policy adoption 4. Policy implementation 5. Policy assessment 6. Policy modification

Agenda setting; the initial and crucial phase in the policy making process to determine whether the particular problem passes through the window of policy. Policy formulation; the development or formulation of alternative policies to address a problem Policy adoption; the adoption of a policy alternative with the support of the legislative majority, consensus among agency directors, or a court decision

Policy implementation; the carrying out of an adopted policy by administrative units that mobilize human and financial resources to comply with the policy Policy assessment; policy analyst determine whether the implemented policy is in compliance with its statutory requirement and achieving its objectives in regard to the problem Policy modificationj; depending on the results of the policy assessment and the political climate, the policy could be maintained, modified, or eliminated.

The policy must be based on a consensus for concepts and action. A frame work for the policy has been developed to cover general and individual health situation and cultural situations, to cover a wide variety of political, economic, social and cultural situations, to serve as the repository of new concepts and ideas in health development, and to serve as a basis for the development on news national policies.

The principal purpose of the new policy is to stimulate individual countries to address the serious health challenges of the coming years of the new policy by all concerned.

Frame work for policy

Background Major influence on health Policy frame work
Strategic priorities Policy principles Main policy orientation Aspirational policy goals

From Policy to action

Policy formulation Approaches for policy formulation

The purpose in this section is to underline the most crucial situation political and economic transition, social and cultural evolution, and environmental and demographic changes with emphasis on population and poverty that have led to the need to renew the health policies at all levels

Major influence on health

Political, economic, environmental, social and cultural influence on health and health systems Epidemiological transition, health situation and trends Countries capacity to respond the health needs of their populations International capacity to respond to country needs

Strategic priorities
To reduce poverty and its health concequences To ensure equity of acces to, utilization of and outcome of the health system, with special measures for those most affected by inequities, such as woman; To ensure the place of health within the overall development framework, including securing adequate, equitable and sustained financing for health systems based on primary health care;

Strategic priorities
To secure the place of health within the overall development framework, including securing adequate, aquitable and sustained financing for health systems based on primary health care. To ensure the availability of newly acquired knowledge, whenever necessary and the rational application of existing knowledge and technology to the health development process;

Strategic priorities
To mobilize the various actors in international health work according to their mandates and capacities, within the framework of a coordinated country plan managed by the country and supported by WHO

Policy principles
To determined the principles that will ensure changes over the next years/decades on which the new policy of equity, solidarity, and health can be based.

Main policy orientations

The new policy for equity, solidarity and health will follow fundamental orientation reaffirming health for all and emphasizing that health is a fundamental human rihgts and a worldwide social goal. Yet the new policy approach based on the results of several years of implementation of the strategy, should concentrate on furthering for all, taking into account new problems and weaknesses that have been indentified. To this effect, four main areas for action have been selected and summurized in this section.

The four main area for action

Political action and advocacy for health Health protection and promotion Health system development, reform and management Combating ill-health

Aspirational policy goals

While detailed targets for the solution of health problems in countries or for realizing health programs should be set at several levels, a number of aspirational goals may be adopted with the policy at the global level. Some of these goals are the result of international conferences whose conclusions are relevant to the new policy, or of international decisions to reduce or eliminate a number of health problems. Others may indicate the importance to be given to concerted effort in certain directions.

From policy to action

Once the policy for equity, solidarity and health is approved at the international level, and its main recommendation translated into national situation, individual members states will select approach specific to their social and economic situation and culture, and deemphasize those which have been shown to be deficient during the past decade of implementing the health strategy.

From policy to action

Having selected their approaches Member State will follow a number of steps in policy formulation, thus ensuring that the main provisions of the policy are translated into their national or subnational context and implemented through the best combination of approaches.

From policy to action

This final component of the policy for equity, solidarity and health may appear merely managerial, yet lack of management has often been the major obstacle to the implementation of some of the best health policies in the world.

Policy formulation
Identification of demographic, political, economic, environmental and social factors which affect health and related trend analysis Assessment of the prospect for change, including assessment of the available financial, human, physical and intellectual resources. Elaboration of targets for different levels according to policy orientation and specific to each situation and serving to evaluate progress toward attaining aspirational goals of the policy.

Policy formulation
Selection of the most appropriate actions applying the principles of equity, sustainability, and affordability, with mechanisms to monitor implementation. Inclusion of these action in the national and local budget as the condition sine qua non for the implementation of the policy for equity, solidarity, and health.

Approaches for policy implementation

Specific country approaches taking into account political, economic, and social cultural aspects, as well as managerial traditions, will have to be deviced for: Policy issues; such as health financing, resources allocation policy Managerial issues; such as optimizing the use of the health sector resources, and resources management Intersectoral issues; such as advocacy and promotion of health as a condition for development, appropriate policy-making and planning.

A Call for new public health action

1. changing pattern of public health 2. education and of health personnel 3. life style and environment 4. population growth and development 5. integrated approach to health, the environment and socioeconomic development 6. research on health, environment and economic development 7. solidarity in development

A Call for new public health action

8. public involvement in dynamics of development 9. ethics and equity in health services and development 10.the public/private mix and human resources for health 11. appropriate technology for health 12. role of woman

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