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Inter-standard Packet Data Roaming

CDG International Roaming Team Meeting Orlando, June 26-27, 2003


David Zhang david.zhang@aicent.com CTO, & VP of Engineering Aicent, Inc.
Copyright 2002 Aicent, Inc.

Agenda

Market demand for inter-standard roaming Requirements and solution highlights Discussion for option 1 and option 2 Summary

26 June 2003 CDG Meeting, Orlando

Copyright 2003 Aicent, Inc.

Brief Introduction about Aicent

Headquarter in San Jose, CA; offices in major Asia cities


Founders and core team from GRIC, worlds largest ISP roaming
service provider

Aicent operates one of worlds largest GPRS Roaming eXchanges (GRX)


Directly connected to 20+ leading GPRS operators
Representing 200M+ mobile users

Currently handle data roaming traffic with 100+ GPRS operators


Extensive international peering agreements

Active contributing member in GSMA


Major Task Forces: GRX, MMS, WLAN

CDG Roaming Team member since Q4, 2002


Focusing on CDMA packet data roaming and IO-MMS

26 June 2003 CDG Meeting, Orlando

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Market Demand For Inter-standard Roaming

Roaming coverage complementary to CDMA countries


CDMA in 59 countries, 166 operators (per CDG) GSM in 197 countries, 400+ operators (per GSMA)
Most significantly: Western Europe, Singapore, etc.

Premium roaming revenues from GPRS/UMTS operators


150+ GPRS/UMTS operators as of today

Technology harmonization
Dual-mode chipset becoming available Standard body co-operation
OMA, 3GPP, 3GPP2, GSMA, CDG, IETF, TIA

Dual-technology operators
Both CDMA and GPRS/UMTS
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Inter-standard Packet Data Roaming Requirements

Mobile devices and SIMs (Handsets, Aircard)


GPRS phone + SIM/R-UIM; CDMA phone + SIM Dual mode CDMA/GPRS phone

Network
IIF (Interworking and Interoperability Function)
GSM/ANSI-41

IP interconnectivity and network element locating


Authentication Security and QoS DNS, AAA

Billing
CDR Mediation Billing record conversion (TAP3/CIBER), Data Clearing and
Financial Settlement, Fraud Management

Roaming Agreement
5 Copyright 2003 Aicent, Inc.

26 June 2003 CDG Meeting, Orlando

Solution Option Highlights

Option 1:
CDMA roaming in GPRS using GGSN in CDMA
GPRS (SGSN) CDMA (GGSN)

Option 2:
CDMA and GPRS two-way roaming using Mobile IP
GPRS (GGSN/FA) CDMA (HA) CDMA (PDSN/FA) GPRS (HA)

26 June 2003 CDG Meeting, Orlando

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CDMA roaming in GPRS using GGSN in CDMA

Discussion for Option 1

26 June 2003 CDG Meeting, Orlando

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Components for CDMA --> GPRS Roaming


GPRS Network
VLR DNS SGSN BS
Data Clearing & Settlement

C7/SS7 IIF

CDMA 1X Network
HLR DNS GGSN BS

DNS

GRX/CRX

CDMA terminal Registration via signaling network SGSN attach in GPRS network PDP activation at GGSN in CDMA with APN Inter-OP IP backbone and locating GGSN Data clearing and settlement
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26 June 2003 CDG Meeting, Orlando

GPRS Capable Handset for CDMA Roamer

Terminal supporting both CDMA 1X and GPRS


Qualcomms MSM6500 chipset solution Dual-mode CDMA 1X/GPRS handset with UIM card Single mode GPRS handset with one SIM/R-UIM

Terminal supporting GPRS setting


APN (Access Point Name) to be provisioned user-name@domain/password (optional)

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Signaling Control Interface via IIF Reference Model


MC
N Q E D D E SMS -IWMSC

SMS -SC
SMS -GMSC

AC

HLR

IIF

D D

VLR

HLR VLR MSC SGSN

AuC

MSC

Gr

TIA/EIA-41 Network Entities

GSM Network Entities

Interworking and Interoperability Function IIF: (J-STD-038) - Subscriber location registration - MAP Interface between (Originating/Gateway MSC Serving MSC interface) - Interface for MC/SMS-SC and serving MSC - Resides in GSM, ANSI-41, or both, or at a 3rd party

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GPRS SGSN Attach (Example) (J-STD-038)


MS GPRS Attach Req (IMSI) SGSN IIF HLR

a Authentication Info Authentication Info Ack b c d e Update GPRS Location Req (IMSI, SGSN Address) REGNOT Regnot ack Insert Sub Data Insert Sub Data Ack f g h i j Update GPRS Location Ack k l ANSI-41 NETWORK

Authentication Req Authentication Res

GPRS Attach Accept GSM NETWORK

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GPRS Reference Model In GPRS Operator Environment


3GPP TS 23.060 Rel6
E Gd MSC/VLR A R TE MT Iu Uu UTRAN Gb TE MT BSS Gs Iu SGSN Gn Ga Gp D Ge Gr Gc Gi GGSN Ga Billing System Packet TE Data Network HLR SMS -GMSC SMS -IWMSC C

SM -SC CAMEL GSM SCF

Um
SGSN

Gn

CGF
GGSN Gf EIR

Other PLMN

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GPRS Roaming Network Model


GSMA PRD IR 34

Operator A GPRS Roaming Network Operator B Operator D

Operators interconnected by GRX


Highly secure and closed
IP interconnection QoS IP backbone Highly scalable

GRX
Operator C
DNS DNS

GRX
DNS

Operator G

GRX

Operator E

Operator F

Key components
APN DNS for GGSN location

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CDMA to GRPS roaming via GRX/CRX


Visiting GPRS Operator
PE

GRX/CRX
Root DNS

PE

Home CDMA 1X Operator

HLR

CGF

SGSN
BSC BTS CDMA 1X Roamer
DNS Gn Subnet BG PDP DNS BG Gn Subnet

WAP GW

GGSN
DNS

AAA

Assuming CDMA 1X roamer has been attached to local SGSN When the roamer requests PDP Context Activation, local SGSN executes the activation procedure based on roamers APN and the policies set in Home HLR, where HPLMN ONLY should be set in this case Local SGSN composes the DNS query strings in the format of apn.mncxxx.mccxxx.gprs to query local DNS Local DNS locates the domain via GRX Root DNS, and continue to query the CDMA operators Home DNS according to the information acquired from GRX Root DNS, and resolve the IP address of CDMA Operators GGSN that serves the APN. With the IP address of CDMA Operators GGSN, local SGSN set up an GTP-U tunnel to the remote GGSN Further, CDMA Operators GGSN assigns an IP address to the roaming terminal. Non-transparent: Require 2nd level authentication for user@corp.com/password with AAA Transparent: Do not require the 2nd level authentication The roamer accesses to CDMA operators home WAP Gateway or other services

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CDMAGPRS Roaming for Corporate Access


Visiting DNS Root DNS Home DNS GTP

GRX/CRX
SGSN

L2TP/IPSec GGSN AAA LNS

corp.com
Corp Server

john@corp.com/password

GPRS Operator

CDMA 1X Operator

Corp AAA (john@corp.com/pwd)

Wireless device registration and SGSN attachment PDP activation to find GGSN via APN and DNS Non-Transparent Authentication for the roamer with CDMA AAA relay to corp AAA Once the user authenticated ,

Build the GTP tunnel between SGSN and GGSN over GRX Launch L2TP (or IPSec) tunnel to Corporate tunnel server

End-to-end secure and high QoS access to Corporate servers

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New Network Elements in CDMA 1X Operator


C7/SS7 Network

GF

EIR HLR

CDMA 1X Operator
GC GI
GGSN Local packet Data Network

GR
SGSN GRX/CRX BG

Gp

Gn Subnet

GA
DNS CGF Existing Element New Element

According to 3GPPs logic architecture, CDMA 1X operator may introduce a few new network elements GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node) Gi, Ga, and Gc Interfaces (3GPP Release 6) CGF (Charging Gateway Function) Ga Interface (3GPP R99 and Rel 5) BG (Border Gateway) Gp Interface (BGP-4 Routing Protocol) DNS (Domain Name System) Supporting DNS query to locate GGSN IP address within the GPRS closed IP network domain 16

26 June 2003 CDG Meeting, Orlando

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CDR Mediation and Settlement


Visiting Operator (GPRS)
SGSN CGF
S-CDR

Home Operator (CDMA 1X)


GRX/CRX
GGSN CGF
G-CDR

AAA
RADIUS-CDR

BS TAP3
Data Clearing & Settlement

BS CIBER/TAP3

BS: Billing System CGF: Charging Gateway Function

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Deployment Effort For Option 1

Technical deployable today with less effort for CDMA operators


Additional equipment required (GGSN, BG, CGF, DNS)

Little effort required for GPRS operators Readiness of the technology and the service Immediate outbound roaming coverage in GSM countries Other equipment and commercial issues
Handsets, IIF Gateway, Roaming Agreement, Clearing and
Settlement

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Discussion for Option 2


CDMA and GPRS two-way roaming using MIP

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3GPP (TS 23.121, Release 99) Reference Model

This model can be applied to two-way roaming GGSN(FA) CDMA (HA) PDSN(FA) GPRS/UMTS (HA)

26 June 2003 CDG Meeting, Orlando

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GPRS/UMTS (GGSN/FA) CDMA (HA)

PDP context activation with MIP registration (PPP setup and GPRS/UMTS attach procedures not included)
IPv4 - Registration UMTS/GPRS + MIP , FA care-of address

TE
1. AT Command (APN)

MT
2. Activate PDP Context Request ( APN=MIPv4FA ) A. Select suitable GGSN

SGSN

GGSN/FA

Home Network

3. Create PDP Context Request ( APN=MIPv4FA ) 4. Create PDP Context Response (no PDP address)

5. Activate PDP Context Accept (no PDP address)

6. Agent Advertisement 7. MIP Registration Request

GRX CRX
8. MIP Registration Request 9. MIP Registration Reply

10. MIP Registration Reply

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CDMA (PDSN/FA) GPRS/UMTS (HA)

Similar to MIP CDMA-CDMA Roaming Need to implement MIP function on the handset IIF function Authentication based on MSISDN or

user@corp.com/password

Inter-operator backbone (GRX/CRX) CDR mediation and settlement

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Summary

Option 1: (CDMA roaming in GPRS using GGSN in CDMA)


Deployable today with less effort for CDMA operators
Additional equipment required (GGSN, BG, CGF, DNS)

Little effort required for GPRS operators Readiness of the technology and the service Immediate outbound roaming coverage in GSM countries

Option 2: (CDMA and GPRS two-way roaming using MIP)


Technology and solution under development Requirement of equipment upgrade for GPRS operators

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Copyright 2003 Aicent, Inc.

Thank You
david.zhang@aicent.com

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Copyright 2003 Aicent, Inc.