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Spine Anatomy

Aamir Raoof Memon CMS 7690

Spinal Column
Spinal column or Vertebral Column consists of:
7 cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebrae 5 Sacral vertebrae (fused) 4 coccygeal vertebrae (fused)

Motion Segment Consist of:


2 adjacent vertebrae Intervertebral disc Ligamentous restrains

Three column concept


Anterior Middle Posterior

Spinal Segments
Upper Cervical Segment
Facilitate motion & stability Atlus & Axis C3-C7 Vertebrae have same anatomy Transition from mobile to fixed(prone to injury)
Rigid (provide stabilization) Associated with Vascular & Visceral injury Most common area of injury

Cervicothoracic Junction Thoracic Segment

Thoracolumbar Junction

Spinal Curves
Primary Spinal Curves (Kyphotic ): Concave anteriorly and convex posteriorly
Thoracic Kyphosis 20 -40 degrees increase with age Sacral Kyphosis Sacrum fused in a kyphotic curve

Secondary Spinal Curves (Lordotic ): Convex anteriorly and concave posteriorly

Cervical Lordosis 20-40 degrees Lumbar Lordosis 40-60 degrees decrease with age Most at L5 and S1

Spinal Cord
Spinal Cord extends from Foramena Magnum to T12/L1 Junction
Ends as Conus Medularis which has an extension called Cauda Equina, terminating as filum terminale covered with Pia matter and attach inferiorly to coccyx

Spinal Cord (Conti.)


It is enclosed in spinal canal & enclosed by meninges protected by the shield of bony vertebrae Dura and subarachnoid membrane extent upto S2 Central portion/Grey matter (neuronal cell bodies) Peripheral portion/White matter (axons) Lateral Spinothalamic tract for pain & temperature sensation Lateral Corticospinal tract for motor function Posterior column for position,vibration & deep pressure sensation

Spinal Nerves
Spinal Nerve Roots
8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 cocygeal

Dorsal+Ventral root = Spinal nerve Ventral root+Dorsal root ganglion are enclosed in IV foramen Neural Foramen Boundaries
Anteriorly Posteriorly Superiorly & Inferiorly Disc Facet Joint Pedicles

Blood supply to spinal cord


Blood supply to spinal cord is from:
Vertebral artery Deep cervical artery Intercostal artery Lumbar artery

Main arteries are:

Radicular arteries enter via foramen & supply spinal arteries

One Anterior Spinal artery (br: of Vertebral A) Two Posterior Spinal arteries

Disorders
Upper cervical spine (skull-C2) Thoracic and Thoracolumbar
Type A,B & C Craniocervical dislocation Osteoporotic wedge Atlantoaxial instability compression fracture (T1-T10) Occipital condyle fracture Jefferson fracture (C1 ring) Odontoid fracture Type-I,II,III Thoracolumbar (T11-S1) Burst fracture Hangmans fracture Chance fracture Wedge fracture Burst fracture Tear-drop fracture Facet subluxation/dislocation

Subaxial Cervical Spine (C3-C7)