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How does a computer work?

By Benjamin Worden
Parts of a computer
• CD-Rom (RAM)

• Hard drive Scanner

• Printed Keyboard
circuit
board

• Heat sink Power supply


• Graphics card Printer

• Mouse Web cam

• Monitor Operating
system
• Charles Future
Babbage computers

Early Computer
computers Time line

Modern Microsoft
computers
• The Internet Microprocessors

• Viruses

• Speakers
CD-Rom
• CD-ROMs are Compact Discs that contain
data accessible to, but not writable by a
computer. CD-ROMs are
popularly used to distribute
computer software,
including games and
multimedia applications, though any data
can be stored (up to the capacity limit of a
disc).
Hard drive
• A hard drive is a storage device which
stores digitally encoded data on rapidly
rotating platters with magnetic surfaces.
Printed circuit board
• A printed circuit board is used to
mechanically support and electrically
connect electronic components using
conductive pathways from copper sheets
laminated onto a substrate.
Heat sink
• Heat sinks function by efficiently transferring heat from
an object at a relatively high temperature to a second
object at a lower temperature with a much greater heat.
This rapid transfer of thermal energy
quickly brings the first object into
thermal equilibrium with the second,
lowering the temperature of the first object,
fulfilling the heat sink's role as a cooling
device. Efficient function of a heat sink relies
on rapid transfer of thermal energy from the
first object to the heat sink, and the heat sink to the
second object.
(RAM) Random access memory
• Random access memory is a form of
computer data storage. Today it takes the
form of integrated circuits that allow the
stored data to be accessed in any order,
or at random.
Scanner
• In computing, a scanner is a device that optically
scans images, printed text,handwriting, or an
object, and converts it to digital image. Hand-
held scanners , where the device is moved by
hand is used for industrial
design, reverse engineering,
test and measurement, orthotics,
gaming and
other applications.
Keyboard
• In computing, a keyboard is an input device, partially modelled after the typewriter keyboard,
which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, which act as mechanical levers or electronic
switches. A keyboard typically has characters engraved or printed on the keys and each press of
a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, to produce some symbols
requires pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. While most keyboard
keys produce letters, numbers or signs, other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce
actions or computer commands. In normal usage, the keyboard is used to type text and numbers
into a word processor, text editoror other program. A computer keyboard distinguishes each
physical key from every other and reports all key presses to the controlling software. Keyboards
are also used for computer gaming, either with regular keyboards or by using special gaming
keyboards, which can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations. A keyboard is also used
to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete
combination, which brings up a task window or shuts down the machine.
Power Supply
• A power supply unit is the component that supplies power to a
computer. More specifically, a power supply is designed to convert
100-120 volts (North America and Japan) or 220-240 Volts (New
Zealand, Europe, South America, Africa, Asia and Australia.) Some
power supplies have a switch to change between 230 Volts and
115 Volts. Other models have automatic sensors that switch input
voltage automatically, or are able to accept any
voltage between those limits.Power supplies also
are designed to turn on and off using a signal
from the motherboard, and provide support
for modern functions such as the standby mode,
available in many computers.
Graphics card
• A Graphic cards function is to generate
and output images. Some Graphic cards
offer added functions, such as video
capture, TV tuner adapter,MPEG
decoding or the ability to connect to
multiple monitors.
Mouse
• In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions
by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its
supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an
object held under one of the user's hands, with one or
more buttons. It sometimes features other elements,
such as wheels, which allow the user
to perform various system-dependent
operations. The mouse's motion
typically translates into the motion of a
pointer on a display, which allows for
fine control of a Graphic User
Interface.
Monitor
• A monitor is a piece of electrical
equipment which displays images
generated from the video output
of devices such as computers,
without producing a permanent
record. A monitor can generate and format a
picture from a video sent by the signals source.
Within the signals source there is a display
adapter to generate videos in a format
compatible with the monitor.
Printer
• In computing, a printer produces a hard copy of
documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical
print media such as paper. Many printers are used as
peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable. Some
printers have built-in network interfaces and can serve as
a hardcopy device for any user on the network. Individual
printers are often
designed to support both local
and network connected users at the
same time.
Web cam
• Webcams are video capturing devices
connected to computers or computer
networks if connected to the networks
Ethernet or Wi-Fi. They are well-known for
their low manufacturing costs and flexible
applications.
Operating System
• An Operating system is responsible for the management
and coordination of activities and the sharing of the
limited resources of the computer. The operating system
acts as a host for applications that are run on the
machine. As a host, one of the purposes of an operating
system is to handle the details of the operation of the
hardware. Almost all computers, including handheld
computers, desktop computers, supercomputers, and
even video game consoles, use an operating system of
some type. Some of the oldest models may however use
an embedded operating system, that may be contained
on a compact disk or other data storage device.
Charles Babbage
• Charles Babbage was an English mathematician, philosopher, inventor and
mechanical engineer who originated the concept of a programmable
computer. Parts of his
uncompleted mechanisms are on display in
the London Science Museum. In 1991, a
perfectly functioning difference engine was
constructed from Babbage's original plans.
Built to tolerances achievable in the 19th
century,
the success of the finished engine
indicated that Babbage's machine would
have worked. Nine years later, the Science
Museum completed the printer Babbage had
designed for the difference engine, an astonishingly
complex device for the 19th century.
Early computers
• By 1946 there had been two major purely electronic digital
computers built. The ENIAC in the USA. and the Colossus in the
UK. The first colossus was designed and built at the Post office
research Laboratories at Doris Hill in North London in 1943 under Dr
Tommy Flowers, for the code breaking centre at Bletchley park to
help in breaking the German Lorenz codes. In all 10 were built and
they were extensively used in the last 16 months of war in Europe.
The ENIAC was built at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering.
It was first working (in secret) in 1945, and was unveiled to the
public in February 1946.
Modern computers
• Modern computers based on tiny integrated circuits
are millions to billions of times more capable than
the early machines, and occupy a fraction of the
space. Simple computers are small enough to fit into
a wristwatch, and can be powered by a watch
battery. Personal computers in their various forms
are icons of the Information Age, what most people
think of as a "computer", but the embedded
computers found in devices ranging
from fighter aircraft to industrial
robots, digital cameras, and children's
toys are the most numerous.
Future computers
• No body really knows what computers will be
like in the future. But the chances are that they’ll
be much smaller than they are today. Early
computers were the size of a room and now they
are much smaller than that. Throughout the
years the microchip has begun
smaller and smaller. Now
scientists know that we can
reduce the size of the same
tasks down to the size of a
single atom. This is a big development in
computer technology.
Computer Timeline
Year Inventers/ Inventions Computer history

1936 Konrad Zuse/ Z1 Computer. First Freely Programmable


Computer.

1951 John Presper Eckert/ UNIVAC First computer able to pick


Computer. Presidential Winners.

1954 John Backus/ FORTRAN The first successful high level


Computer. language programmer.

1962 Steve Russell/ Spacewar The first computer game


Computer game. Invented.

1970 Intel 1103 computer memory. The worlds first available


RAM chip.
Year Inventers/ Inventions Computer History
1971 Faggin, Hoff and Mazor/ The First microprocessor.
Intel 4004 computer
microprocessor.
1979 Seymour Rubenstein. The first Word processers.
1983 Apple Lisa computer The first home computer with GUI
(Graphical user interface).
1985 Microsoft Windows. Microsoft begins the friendly war
with apple.
1990 Microsoft Windows. Microsoft exceeds $1 billion in sales
and becomes the first company
to do so.

1936-1990
Microsoft
• Microsoft corporation is an America-based multinational computer technology
corporation that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of
software products for computing devices. Headquartered in Redmond, Washington,
USA, its best selling products are the Microsoft Windows operating system and the
Microsoft Office suite of productivity software.The company markets both computer
hardware products such as the Microsoft mouse as well as home entertainment
products such as the Xbox, Xbox 360, Zune and MSN TV. The ensuing rise of the
company's stock price has made four billionaires and an estimated 12,000
millionaires from Microsoft employees.Throughout its history the company has been
the target of criticism, including monopolistic business practices and anti-competitive
business practices including refusal to deal and tying.
The Internet
• The internet is a global network of interconnected computers,
enabling users to share information along multiple channels.
Typically, a computer that connects to the Internet can access
information from a vast array of available servers and other
computers by moving information from them to the computer's local
memory. The same connection allows that computer to send
information to servers on the network; that information is in turn
accessed and potentially modified by a variety of other
interconnected computers. A majority of widely accessible
information on the Internet consists of inter-linked hypertext
documents and other resources of the world wide Web (WWW).
Computer users typically manage sent and received information with
web browsers; other software for users' interface with computer
networks includes specialized programs for electronic mail, online
chat, file transfer and file sharing.
Viruses
• A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer
without the permission or knowledge of the owner. A true virus can only spread from
one computer to another when its host is taken to the target computer; for instance
because a user sent it over a network or the Internet, or carried it on a removable
medium such as a floppy disk, CD, DVD, or USB drive. Viruses can increase their
chances of spreading to other computers by infecting files on a network file system or
a file system that is accessed by another computer.
The term "computer virus" is sometimes used as a catch-all phrase to include all
types of malware. Malware includes computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, most
root kits, spyware, dishonest adware, crime ware, and other malicious and unwanted
software, including true viruses. Viruses are sometimes confused with computer
worms and Trojan horses, which are technically different. A worm can exploit security
vulnerabilities to spread itself to other computers without needing to be transferred as
part of a host, and a Trojan horse is a program that appears harmless but has a
hidden agenda.
Speakers
Computer speakers, or multimedia speakers, are
external speakers, commonly equipped with a low-power
internal amplifier. The standard audio connection is a
3.5mm (1/8 inch) stereo jack plug often colour-coded
lime green for computer sound cards. A plug and socket
for a two-wire coaxial cable that is widely used to
connect analogue audio and video components. Rows of
RCA sockets are found on the backs of stereo amplifiers
and numerous A/V products. The prong is 1/8" thick by
5/16" long.
Microprocessor
• A Microprocessor incorporates most or all of the
functions of a central processing unit on a single
integrated circuit. The first microprocessors emerged in
the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators,
using Binary-coded decimal arithmetic on 4-bit words.
Other embedded uses of 4- and 8-bit microprocessors,
such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation
etc, followed rather quickly. Affordable 8-bit
microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the
first general purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s.