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Wireless Transmission Microwave Basics

WT CoTr Training November 2004 Kari Halinen

NOKIA

Microwave Basics 2004/KHa

Microwave Radios
Connection between two points Transmitter/ Receiver stations using freely propagating radio waves The advantages of microwave are:
Fast deployment Cheap equipment and low operating costs (almost free transmission medium) Can be part of standardized equipment configuration Flexible adaptation to a wide range of link lengths Can be made available almost everywhere

The drawback of microwaves:


Limited amount of free spectrum, spectrum administration necessary Difficult planning in regions with differing weather conditions (rain periods, monsoons) Sensitive against external damaging
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Path calculation process


TARGETS
availability error performance

interdependency

NETWORK CONFIGURATION
path lengths orientation

DESIG N New design round if needed


Diversity Protection

Use of

Ptx Prxth Ga Availability Error performance

capacity modulation method

Interference

1) Topology, interference condition and performance are tightly interdependent!!


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2) Both error performance and availability objectives should be fulfilled (often above 17GHz - availability dominates)

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Points to consider
Operating band
below or above 17 GHz (rain attenuation)

Choice of frequencies and polarization


often higher frequencies for shorter hops availability of channels interference situation

Path design
full Fresnel zone clearance beware of reflections!

Modulation method
effect on system value tolerance to interference

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Points to consider (cont.)


Tx power
effect on interference automatic/ adjustable transmitted level !?

Rx threshold power
capacity, modulation method

Antenna gain
higher frequency brings higher gain control of interference

Protection method
possible effect on system value HSB, ( space diversity usually below 17 GHz only)

Hop design and overall network performance


Meeting the error performance and availability targets

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Characteristics of frequency bands


Frequency band (GHz) Hop length (km) Antenna diameter (m) Dominating fading type
Polarization Atmospheric attenuation (db/km) Attenuation due rain (dB/km) 20mm/h

7
20-70 0.6-3
multipath

8
20-50 0.6-3
multipath

13
5-40

15
5-30

18
5-25 0.3-1.8
rain multipath

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3-18 0.2-1.8
rain (multipath)

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2-15 0.2-1.2
rain

38
1-6 0.2-0.6
rain

58
<1 0.2
rain

0.6-1.8 0.3-1.8
multipath multi-path

V&H -

V&H -

V&H -

V&H 0.03 -

V&H 0.1 1

V&H 0.2 2

V 0.1 3

V 0.12 5

V 12 7

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Frequency band
Frequency band

Low band (LO)

High band (HI)


A B C

Individual frequency channels

Subbands

Duplex spacing
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Channel spacing

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Example: FlexiHopper 15GHz


Frequency band 14.5 GHz - 15.35GHz
Channel Spacing/ Channel Bandwidth for diffrent capacities Duplex spacing 420MHz

Sub-bands A, B, C LO A, B, C HI
Duplex spacing 644MHz Sub-bands M LO M HI

Capacity dependent Frequency tuning range for individual subbands


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Radio Hop Frequency arrangement


Duplex
FlexiHopper OU
Ch 1 Ch 1

FlexiHopper OU

Tx A (LO)
Ch 1

BW

BW

Tx A (HI)
Ch 1 Ch 1

Rx A( HI)
Ch 1 Channel Bandwidth

Rx A (LO)

FlexiHopper subband HW variant A LO

Capacity (Mbit/s)

CH BW (MHz) Pi/4-DQPSK

CH BW (MHz) 32TCM

FlexiHopper subband HW variant A HI

2x2 4x2 8x2 16 x 2


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3.5 7 14 28
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Line of Sight (LOS)


LOS means that there is a visibility between the antennas Also 1st Fresnel zone must be free of obstacles
1st Fresnel zone

(GHz 2.5km ) 7
5.2m

5km
7.3m

10km
10.4m

20km
14.6m

Terrain profile Radius of the 1st Fresnel zone vs. distance

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3.2m 2.2m

4.6m 3.1m

6.5m 4.4m

9.1m

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Terrain Profile
275
250

h1

225

clearance
200

h2

175

150

125

The terrain profile can be fed to the planing system from digital maps. The analysis is used for defining the antenna hights and thus securing the LOS and clearance of the first fresnel zone. The clearance should be adequate but not too big because of the possible terrain reflections.
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Multipath Fading (flat or selective)


different layers of the atmosphere reflected signal (warm) (cold) + Single use Space diversity

direct signal

reflected signal

water surface or flat ground


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Phase difference of signals received via different paths cause fading

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Rain Fading
Prx unfaded Fading margin Prx faded Prxt
h

dB/km

Attenuation of rain along the radio path causes fading


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Rain attenuation (dB/km)


(vertical polarization)

100

specific attenuation

10

9,3

1,7

0,1

10 mm/h 20 mm/h 40 mm/h 60 mm/h 100 mm/h 150 mm/h

0,01 1
7

10

20 30 40

100

frequency (GHz)
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Interference
Uncorrelated signal from other direction Correlated signal from front-back radiation

Co-channel
Wanted signal Interfering signal

Correlated signal from adjacent or cross-polarized signal over the same hop.

Adjacent channel

Uncorrelated = fades independently, because the propagation paths and conditions are different. (Worse case: wanted signal fades - interfering does not) Correlated = fades simultaneously, because of the same propagation path and conditions.
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Wanted signal

Interfering signal

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Interference causes treshold degradation


This has to be taken in to account in link budget and availability calculations For example FlexiHopper: The interfering signal is similarly modulated carrier

Co-channel

E-6 treshold degradation is less than 1db when =23db

Adjacent channel
E-6 treshold degradation is less than 3db when = 5db

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Link Power Budget to obtain Fading Margin


(Transmit power) PTx

GA1(antenna gain)
f (frequency)

L
O

(free-space loss)

GA
2

PRx (received power)


(treshold)

d
Free-space loss:

(distance)

PTH (for BER E-6)


Example: FlexiHopper 38GHz with30cm antennas. Hop length 5km. Capacity 4x2Mbps

LO = 92.5 + 20log(d) + 20log(f) + Lat


Unfaded Received Signal Level:

PRx = PTx + GA1 LO + GA2


Fading Margin:

FM = PTH - PRx
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(atmospheric attenuation)

LO = 138.6 dB PRx = -44.8 dBm PTH = -85 dBm FM = 40.2 dB

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Atmospheric Attenuation
100,00

10,00

La
dB/km

1,00

Arctic Standard Tropic

0,10

0,01 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Frequency (GHz)


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Quality objectives for a Microwave Hop


Calculations are based on the obtained Fading Margin Error performance objective
Error performance results from four phenomena, Severely Errored Seconds (SES), Degraded Minutes (DM), Errored Seconds (ES) and Residual Bit Error Rate (RBER). In practice the link quality design is normally based on SES if error performance is considered to be the limiting factor

Availability objective
Is the most important performance objective in tropic and other climates having relatively heavy rain seasons, with microwave radios above about 11 GHz In temperate climates, unavailability caused by rain tends to dominate above about 20 GHz

In short-haul digital microwave systems, the link availability is normally the limiting factor
The exact transition region between availability and error performance limitation also depends on how the error performance objectives are set

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Error Performance
During the available time, the error performance is defined using the following concepts:
Severely Errored Seconds (SES): bit error ratio BER>10E-3, integration time one second Degraded Minutes (DM): bit error ratio BER>10E-6, integration time one minute Errored Seconds (ES): intervals of one second containing at least one error Residual Bit Error Ratio (RBER): the BER under nonfading conditions measured over 15 minutes or more

In practice the design is most often based on SES if error performance is considered to be the limiting factor

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Link Availability
Link availability is the percentage of time when the link is in operation
Link is unavailable when the Bit Error Ratio (BER) is greater than 10-3 for at least 10 consecutive seconds Unavailable time ends when BER for each second is better than 10-3 for at least 10 consecutive seconds. These ten seconds are considered to be available time Grade High grade Medium grade Local grade Availability 99.999% 99.995% 99.94% Unavailability 0.001% 0.005% 0.06% Unavailable per year 5.3 min 26.3 min 5.3 hours

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Integrated Network Planning


NetAct Planner
Radio Planner
2G Radio Network Planning

WCDMA Planner
3G Radio Network Planning

Quality Planner
Field Measurement Analysis

Common Database & Environment

Link Planner
Microwave Link Planning

Rollout Planner
Site Acquisition & Project Tracking

Transmission Planner
Transmission and ATM/IP Network Planning

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NetAct Link Planner


Integrated microwave link planning tool for 2G, 2.5G and 3G Line of sight checking Interference analysis Intermodulation analysis Link performance calculations Multi-user platform WindowsTM based OracleTM database

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Link Planner Features


2D and 3D Views
In 2D view, a planner can See
Network connections Link types Frequencies Capacities

BTS routes
Interference

View
Site visibility with Fresnel clearance

3D view is a bird view 3D visualization of a map

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Link Planner Features


Line of Sight Support
In 2D view, a planner can see Site visibility Site visibility with Fresnel zone

In 3D view, a planner can have


A bird view to check LOS With Line Of Site wizard, a planner can find out

LOS and/or Fresnel clearance


Obstruction or clearance in meters And generate a Report for findings

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Link Planner Features


Height Profile
With Height profiler, a planner can view profile of

Between 2 sites
From Site to point Between 2 points Point to multipoint

visualize
Fresnel Zones Reflections Clearance / Obstruction

Hop length
Diffraction loss locate obstacles minimize antenna heights
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Network Design
Link Power Budget and Availability
Supported calculations ITU-R P.530-10 ITU-R P.530-7 Vigants Supported diversities Frequency diversity Angle diversity Space diversity Space(2) + frequency diversity Space(4) + frequency diversity

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Network Design
Interference Analysis
Interference analyses
Interference wizard Cumulative analyze Co & adjacent channel cases Report 2D map view visualization Threshold degradation

Intermodulation analyses
Report Graphical display

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Link Planner Benefits


Feature
2D and 3D views Line of Sight support Height profiler

Benefit
A planner is able to use digital map information for link planning. With 3D view planner is able watch the link as a bird. A planner can run Line of Sight checks and can generate report for this. Initial planning can be done in office thus increasing productivity. A planner can display the profile of the link and see line of sight and Fresnel zone clearance. Enables sharing created microwave links between all planners. Planners can work with those microwave links they are responsible. Increases productivity. Enables efficient planning of microwave links as commonly used link and hub configuration can be saved to the Link database. Increases productivity and consistency of the plans. Enables operator to define flags and filters for links to organise and display them efficiently. Enables operator to define commonly used microwave radios, antennas and feeders into common database. Increases consistency of plans. Enables operator to analyse point-to-multi point microwave radio equipment in planning of microwave radio network.

Link database
Templates Flags and filters Equipment database Point-to-multi point support

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Link Planner 4.2 New Features


Feature
ITU-T G821/826 support

Description
A Planner can define required availability calculation rules accordingly.

Height Profiler enhancements


Absolute antenna location support High/low conflict report Automatic rain zone calculation Enhanced equipment availability modelling Map Info link export

Supports links over multi-resolution map.


Obstacle locator enables identification of obstacles along link profile. And obstacle coordinates & height identification on report and Map View. Enables specifying antennas in precise location either to relative to property or to absolute GPS position. Link calculations and visualisation between antennas will be done according these absolute locations. A planner can generate a report that tells if the plan has high/low frequency band conflicts inside the links. The tools will calculate rain zone based on coordinates.

A planner can define different MTTR value for each property, which allows different values for Urban / Suburban / Rural sites. A planner can export link data from Link Planner to MapInfo-application.

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Conclusion
Microwave hop planning is a complicated task
a great variety of parameters must be taken into account

Proper planning is a must


to obtain the required transmission quality

Planing tools (such as NetAct LinkPlanner) are recommended to be used


to obtain the optimal planning results

Also planning servises are recommend to be used


for proper usage of tool (requires an experienced user) for iterative planning rounds for quality of the total network

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