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Because the total power developed by engine , depends not on the volume of fuel but on the energy it contains. Energy content is decided by number of molecules that can combine with oxygen in the engine. We know each molecule has some weight , and one pound of fuel has the same number of molecules regardless of temperature . Therefore total number of molecules (available energy)is best indicated by measuring the total fuel weight.

Effect Of Fuel Temperature Change

To measure fuel quantity by weight ,the measuring

device must sensitive to change in both volume and density to eliminate undesirable effects due to temperature.

Calibration of systems
The assumption is made that the relation b/w relative permittivity(k) and density of given fuel is constant.
The relationship is called as capacitive index


k-1/density. But indicating system calibrated to this expression still subject to error

Compensated Gauge Systems

While the capacitive varies from one fuel to another, this variation tends to follow the permittivity. Thus, if a gauge system can also detect changes in the permittivity of a fuel as it departs from its nominal value, then the density may be inferred to a greater accuracy, resulting in an even greater reduction of indication errors

Circuit connection of compensator capacitor

Although the application of compensator probes

provides greater accuracy but fails to give desired value i.e true weight of fuel. To overcome this problem we need to measure the variation in density. Then apply the corresponding values as continueous correction signals to the measuring and indicating circuits


Construction of probes
In majority of applications probes utilize tubes made of aluminium suitably protected against the effects of corrosion, short circuiting and grounding. In some cases, the outer tube may be aluminium, while the inner tube is non-conducting plastic material coated with

metallised film to serve as a capacitor plate.

The tubes are held apart concentrically by insulating crosspins for the purpose of initial calibration and characterization to suit individual tank shapes and sizes.

The concentricity is varied throughout the length of the probe. This is accomplished by having an inner tube whose diameter varies along its length, or off-centering it by means of spacers which differ in length. In some type of probes, characterization is effected by varying the area of an inner tubes conducting surface at various points over its length.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Rubber ring Nylon sleeve Outer tube Inner tube Rubber ring Nylon sleeve Insulating cross pin Bracket Miniature co-axial connector

Mounting arrangements vary depending on whether the probes are to be secured to the top and bottom sections of a tank or to be secured to tank baffles, ribs or spars. Probes are connected to indicating system wiring

harnesses via terminal blocks which, depending on design

provide for either co-axial or screw type terminal connections.

The compensator probe consist of three tubes. the outer and the inner tubes are of low impedance and the middle one is of high impedance. A tuning plate is provided for calibration of probe and for controlling capacitance fringing. Since the probe is up which would cause the probe to sense a stagnant sample of fuel.

To prevent this, a wash tube is provided so that during

refueling operations, a stream of fuel is directed up through the bottom of the probe, thereby washing it out.

Location of probes
The ideal location is either at the turbine blades or at the

turbine entry but certain practical differences are involved which includes the application of thermocouple probes at these locations. These probes are installed at such locations as exhaust units as at fig(a) and fig(b) b/w high and low pressure. For accurate measurement it is necessary to sample temp from a no points evenly distributed over a cross section of gas flow. This is because temp differences can exist in various zones & layers of the flow through the turbine and exhaust units.

Probes of grouping
A measurement s/m always consists of group of thermocouples

probes and connected in parallel so as to measure the avg good temp condition. In fig The probe in a group may contain single hot junction or pairs of junctions called as short reach and long reach. Probes and their chromel and alumel cables are made up into design a appropriate to the type of engine and no of probes required. Fig(d) shows the eight probes arrangement comprising of 16 hot junctions. The cable passes through the steel tube and it terminates at the at a main junction box which serves as a take-off point for the connection for the indicators and other units requiring EGT data. Terminals studs are made up of chromel and alumel in order to ensure the correct polarities of cable, the diameter of the alumel are larger than the chromel studs.