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CHEM-111 General Chemistry Unit Three (b) Electronic Structure of Atoms by CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
CHEM-111 General Chemistry Unit Three (b) Electronic Structure of Atoms by CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
CHEM-111 General Chemistry Unit Three (b) Electronic Structure of Atoms by CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT
CHEM-111 General Chemistry Unit Three (b) Electronic Structure of Atoms by CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT

CHEM-111

General Chemistry Unit Three (b)

Electronic Structure of Atoms

by

CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT

The Electron Configurations of

Elements

The Way the Electrons are

Distributed Around the Nucleus of an Atom

Nucleus Electron cloud
Nucleus
Electron cloud

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION IN SINGLE ATOM

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION IN SINGLE ATOM

Electrons exist in a number of cloud-like

shell or energy levels ,one inside the

other

The first innermost shell (n=1) ,K shell, is only small can hold one or two electrons .

The second energy level (n=2) is called the L Shell.

The third energy level, M shell corresponds to

n=3.

The fourth energy level, the N shell ,corresponds to n=4 and so on.

Energy Levels and their Capacity of Electrons

The maximum number of electrons in

each shell

=

2n 2

(where n = number of shell)

No. of shell

Name of shell

Max. no. of electrons

n = 1

K

  • 2 x 1 2 = 2

n = 2

L

  • 2 x 2 2 = 8

n =3

M

  • 2 x 3 2 = 18

n = 4

N

  • 2 x 4 2 = 32

Arrangement of Electrons in

Energy Levels

Electrons are concentrated in certain region of space, called orbital.

Each shell contains different types and numbers of orbital.

Each orbital has different shape and energy.

Each orbital contains a maximum of two electrons.

Each shell contains different types and numbers of orbital

Each orbital can have maximum of two electrons

Shell

Shell

Name of Orbital in

 

Total no.

Number

name

shells

of electrons

(n)

S

p

d

f

in different shell

1

K

  • 1 0

0

0

2

2

L

  • 1 0

3

0

8

3

M

  • 1 5

3

0

18

4

N

  • 1 5

3

7

32

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital

The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the arrangement of electrons in an atom.

This diagram is useful to determine which orbital in an atom are

populated by

electrons

E

N

E

R

G

Y

5 f

7 s

 

6

p

6 s

6 s
 

5

p

5

s

s

4

p

4

s

s

3 p

3

s

s

2

p

2

s

s

1

s

s
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the

5 d

4 f

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the

4 d

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the

3 d

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital The sequence of energy-levels is important in determining the

n = 7

n = 6

n = 5

n = 4

n = 3

n = 2

n =1

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal

An electron occupies the lowest energy orbital

E

N

E

R

G

Y

  • 5 f

5 f
5 f
5 f
5 f
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
  • 4 f

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
6 d
6 d
  • 6 d

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
  • 7

s

  • 6 p

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy

5 d

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
6 s 5 s
6
s
5
s
  • 4 s

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
  • 5 p

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
  • 4 p

4 d

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
  • 3 d

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
  • 3 p

  • 3 s

  • 2 p

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
  • 2 s

Sequence of Energy Levels for Atomic Orbital and Aufbau Principal An electron occupies the lowest energy
  • 1 s

Each individual box represents an orbit

Orbital and its Shapes

Shape of s-Orbital

Orbital and its Shapes Shape of s -Orbital spherical shape Electron density is same regardless of

spherical shape

Electron density is same regardless of direction

Electron Density Distribution in the 1s, 2s and 3s Orbital of an Atom

The nodes in the 2s and 3s orbits are actually empty spheres on which the electron density is

  • 1s

  • 1s

zero. 2s
zero.
2s
3s
3s
2s
2s

Node

3s
3s

Orientation of s orbital

The shape of p orbital

p orbital has 2 dumbbell-shaped lobes

The shape of p orbital p orbital has 2 dumbbell-shaped lobes 2 p The electron density

2p

The electron density is concentrated in two regions that lie on opposite sides of the nucleus,

with their centers along a straight line that

passes through the center of the atom.

Three different orientation (x,y,z) of p orbital around the nucleus

z

y x
y
x

p x orbita

z

y x
y
x

p y orbital

z

y x p z orbital
y
x
p z orbital

Orientation of p orbital

Three different orientation (x,y,z) of p orbital around the nucleus z y x p x orbita

Five different orientation of d-Orbitals

Four orbital, dx 2 -y 2 , dxy, dyz, dxz, have same shape each with four lobes of electron density.

Five different orientation of d- Orbitals Four orbital, dx -y , dxy, dyz, dxz, have same

dx2-y2

Five different orientation of d- Orbitals Four orbital, dx -y , dxy, dyz, dxz, have same
Five different orientation of d- Orbitals Four orbital, dx -y , dxy, dyz, dxz, have same

dyz

Five different orientation of d- Orbitals Four orbital, dx -y , dxy, dyz, dxz, have same

dxy

Five different orientation of d- Orbitals Four orbital, dx -y , dxy, dyz, dxz, have same

dxz

dz 2

The shape of dz 2 is different

IA

VIIIA

Periodic Table of Elements

2 1 1 H He 1 IIA Elements are arranged IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 4
2
1
1
H
He
1
IIA
Elements are arranged
IIIA IVA
VA
VIA VIIA
4
10
3
4
5
6 7
8 9
2
Li
Be
in increasing order of their
B
C
N
O
F
Ne
7
9
11 12
14
16
19
20
atomic number
18
11
12
13
14 15
16 17
3
Na Mg
Al
Si
P
S
Cl
Ar
23
24
IIIB IVB
VB
VIB VIIB
VIIIB
IB
IIB
27
28 31
32 35.5
40
19
20
21 22
23
24
25
26 27
28 29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
4
K
Ca
Sc
Ti
V Cr Mn
Fe Co
Ni Cu
Zn Ga Ge
As
Se
Br Kr
39
40
45
48 51
52
55
56
59
59 63.5
65
70
73
75
79
80
84
37
38
39
40
41 42
43
44
45
46
47 48
49 50
51
52
53
54
5
Rb
Sr
Y
Zr Nb Mo
Tc
Ru Rh
Pd Ag Cd
Pt Au Hg
In
Sn Sb
Te
I Xe
85.5
88
89
91
93
96 (98)
101 103
106 108
112 115
119
122
128
127
131
55
56
71
72 73
74 75
76 77
78
79
80 81
82
83
84
85 86
6
Cs
Ba Lu Hf
Ta
W
Re Os
Ir
Ti Pb
Bi
Po
At Rn
133
137
175
178.5 181
184
186
190 192
195
197 201
204
207 209
(209)
(210) (222)
87
88
103
104 105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113 114
116
7
Fr Ra
Lr Rf
Db
Sg
Bh Hs Mt Uun Uuu Uub Uut Uuq
Uuh
(223) 226
(260) (261) (262)
(263) (262) (265)
(266) (269) (272)
(277)
(289)
(289)
6
57
58
59 60
61 62
63 64
65 66
67 68
69 70
La Ce
Pr Nd
Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho
Er Tm Yb
C
138
140
141
144 (145)
150
152
157 159
162.5 165
167
169
173
89
90
91 92
93
94 95
96
97 98
99
100
101
102
Ac Th
Pa
U
Np
Pu Am Cm Bk Cy
Es Fm Md No
12
227
232
231
238 237
(244) (243) (247)
(247) (251)
(252) (257) (258) (259)

Periodic Table of Elements and Distribution of Electrons In Shells

 

Hydrogen

Electronic Distribution of

 

Helium

1

H

2

He

First

First
 
First

shell

Elements of first three Periods

 

Lithium

Beryllium

Boron

Carbon

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Fluorine

Neon

Second

Li

3
3

Be

4
4

5

B

5

C

6
6

7

N

7

8

O

8

9

F

9

10

Ne

10

Shell

 

Sodium

Magnesim

Aluminum

Silicon

Phosphors

Sulfur

Chlorine

Argon

Third

Shell

Na

11
11

Mg

12
12

Al

13
13

Si

14
14

P

15
15

S

16
16

Cl

17
17

Ar

18
18

Valence and Core Electrons

Valence electrons

Electrons located (in incompletely filled) outer shell,

(main energy level) which take part in chemical

reaction.

Core electrons

Electrons in shells below the outer shell are core

electrons.

Valence and Core Electrons Valence electrons Electrons located (in incompletely filled) outer shell, (main energy level)

Valence electrons

Core electrons

How to write Electronic configuration of elements

Orbital Notation

An unoccupied orbital represented by a line

with orbital name written under it

1 S 2 S 2 p 2 p 2 p x y z
1 S
2 S
2 p
2 p
2 p x
y
z

Examples

Hydrogen

H

How to write Electronic configuration of elements Orbital Notation An unoccupied orbital represented by a line

1 S 1

He

Helium

How to write Electronic configuration of elements Orbital Notation An unoccupied orbital represented by a line

1S 2

Li

Lithium

How to write Electronic configuration of elements Orbital Notation An unoccupied orbital represented by a line

1s 2, 2s 1

Beryllium

Be

1s 2 2s 2
1s 2
2s 2

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION OF FIRST 18 ELEMENTS

Electron Configurations of 2 nd Period Element Showing Two Notations

Name

Lithium

Beryllium

Boron

Carbon

Nitrogen

Oxygen

Fluorine

Neon

Symbol

3

Li

4

Be

5

B

  • 6 C

  • 7 N

  • 8 O

  • 9 F

    • 10 Ne

 

1s

2s

2p

2p

2p

- - -
- - -

-

-

-

- - -
- - -

-

-

-

- -
- -
- -

-

-

-
-
-
-

-

1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -
1s 2s 2p 2p 2p - - - - - - - - -

Electron configuration

1s 2 2s 1

1s 2 2s 2

1s 2 2s 2 2p 1

1s 2 2s 2 2p 2

1s 2 2s 2 2p 3

1s 2 2s 2 2p 4

1s 2 2s 2 2p 5

1s 2 2s 2 2p 6

Electron Configurations of 3 rd Period Elements

Name

 

Symbol

1s

2s

2p

3s

3p

Nobel-gas

 

notation

Sodium

11

Na

2

2

  • 6 1

   
  • - [Ne]3s 1

Magnesium

12

Mg

2

2

 
  • 6 2

 
  • - [Ne]3s 2

Aluminum

13

Al

2

2

 
  • 6 2

 
  • 1 [Ne]3s 2 3p 1

Silicon

14

Si

2

2

 
  • 6 2

 
  • 2 [Ne]3s 2 3p 2

Phosphorus

15

P

2

2

 
  • 6 2

 
  • 3 [Ne]3s 2 3p 3

Sulfur

16

S

2

2

 
  • 6 2

 
  • 4 [Ne]3s 2 3p 4

Chlorine

17

Cl

2

2

 
  • 6 2

 
  • 5 [Ne]3s 2 3p 5

Argon

18

Ar

2

2

 
  • 6 2

 
  • 6 [Ne]3s 2 3p 6

Exercise

1. How many electrons are in shell 2 of the following elements?

a) sodium d) helium

b) nitrogen e) chlorine

c) sulphur

  • 2. Write the electron shell arrangement for each of the following elements. Example: sodium 2,8,1

a) carbon

b) argon

c) sulfur

d) silicon.

  • 3. Identify the elements that have the following electron shell

arrangement. Energy Levels

1

2

3

  • a. 2 e -

1 e -

  • b. 2 e -

8 e -

2 e -

  • c. 1 e -

 
  • d. 2 e -

8 e -

7 e -

Exercise

4.Name two elements which would exhibit physical and chemical behavior similar to chlorine.

5.What are the number of electrons in the outer energy level

and the group number for each of the following elements.?

a) Lithium

b) silicon

c) neon d) argon

M. C. Q:

1.The maximum number of electrons in d-orbital is:

a) 2

b) 6

c) 10

2. The electronic configuration of

12

  • 6 C is:

a) 1s2

b) 1s 2 , 2s 1

c)1s 2 , 2s 2 , 2p 2

d) 14

  • 3. Indicate the sub shell having maximum 14 electrons:

    • a) S orbital

b) p orbital

c) d orbital

d) f orbital

  • 4. Indicate the shell with n = 3

  • a) K

b) L

c) M

d) N

5.The maximum number of electrons in M-shell is:

  • a) 2

b) 8

c) 18

d) 32

6.The electrons of an atom are distributed ranging from higher to lower energy levels:

  • a) True

b) False