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Introduction

Chemical kinetics, the branch of physical chemistry that is

concerned with understanding the rates of chemical reactions. Chemical kinetics includes investigations of how different experimental conditions can influence the speed of a chemical reaction and yield information about the reaction's mechanism. Importance of chemical kinetics is that it provides evidence for the mechanisms of chemical processes. Many commercial processes can take place by alternative reaction paths, and knowledge of the mechanisms makes it possible to choose reaction conditions that favour one path over others.

Reaction Rates
The Reaction Rates at any instant during the course of

the reaction is the rate at which the concentrations of the reactants decreases with time or the concentration of products increases with time. For a reaction of the type aA + bB cC + dD The Reaction Rate can be given as

Factors On Which Reaction Rates Depends


Nature of the Reactants Physical State

Concentration
Temperature Catalyst

Pressure

Order Of Reaction
The order of reaction with respect to a certain

reactant, is defined as the power to which its concentration term in the rate law is raised. For a general reaction: aA +bB cC +dD rate = k[A]p[B]q Order of the reaction with respect to A is p, that of B is q and overall order is p+q Reaction order can be determined only by experiment. The constant of proportionality, k in rate law is called rate constant

Molecularity Of A Reaction
Molecularity in chemistry is the number of colliding

molecular entities that are involved in a single reaction steps. It is a theoretical concept and can only be applied to elementary reactions. Molecularity of a reaction is always a whole number. Pseudo Molecular Reactions: when one of the reactant is present in excess then the order of the reaction is 1 but molecularity is 2.

Integrated Rate Equations


Zero Order Reaction:

unit = mol lit-1 time-1 examples: The Photochemical reaction of H2 and Cl2 over water (saturated with HCl) surface is zero Order.
First Order Reaction:

unit = time-1 examples: Inversion of cane sugar. C12H22O11 + H2O H+ ions C6H12O6 + C6H12O6

Second Order Reactions 1.

When concentration of both reactants are equal:

2.

When concentration of the reactants are not equal:

unit = lit mole-1 time-1 examples: Oxidation Of Hydrogen Bromide 4HBr + O2 2Br + 2H2O

Half Life Period


Half life period of a reaction can be defined as the time

required when half of the reactant is converted into the products, or it can also be defined as the time required for the reaction to be half completed For Zero Order For First Order t1/2 = 0.5 a/k t1/2 = 0.693/k

For Second Order t1/2 = 1/ka

Arrhenius Equation
K=Ae-Ea/RT is Called the Arrhenius Equation .

K is the specific rate constant A is the frequency factor R is the molar gas constant T is the Temperature in Kelvin scale Ea is the Activation energy

Activation Energy And Chemical Reaction


The activated complex will decompose at a definite

energy level at a definite way. If it decomposes at a higher energy level than the then the average energy of the molecule, the reaction will be endothermic in nature otherwise it will be exothermic in nature If the reaction is reversible and endothermic, the activation energy required for backward reaction will always be less than forward reaction but if t he reaction is exothermic the activation energy required for the backward reaction will always be greater than forward reaction.

Effect of catalyst on activation energy and chemical reaction


A catalyst alters the rate of the reaction but itself

remain unchanged.
A positive catalyst is used so the activated complex will

always be formed at a lower energy level then the uncatalysed reaction


In case of negative catalyst, the activated complex will

be formed at a higher energy level than the uncatalysed reaction.

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