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Korea is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the Peoples Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan and separated from the Taiwan to the south by the East China Sea.

Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggest the origins of the Korean People might have been Altaic Languagespeaking people from south-central Siberia, who populated ancient Korean successive waves from the Neolithic age to the Bronze Age. The adoption of the Chinese writing system (HANJA" in Korean) in the 2nd century BC, and Buddhism in the 4th century AD, had profound effects on the Three kingdoms of Korea.

Korea was united by Emperor Taejo of the Goryeo Dynasty in 936. Goryeo was a highly cultural state and created the Jikji in the 14th century, using the world's first movable metal type printing press. The Mongol invasions in the 13th century, however, greatly weakened the nation which was forced to become a tributary state. After the Mongols Empire collapse, severe political strife followed and Goryeo was replaced by the Joseon Dynasty in 1388.

The first 200 years of Joseon were marked by relative peace and saw the creation of the Korean alphabet HANGUL by King Sejong the Great in the 14th century and the rise in influence of Confucianism in the country. During the latter part of the dynasty, however, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname the Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of the colonial designs of Japan. In 1910, Korea was annexed by Japan and remained so until the end of World War II in August 1945.

In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea and Soviet troops occupied north of the 38th parallel while U.S. troops took surrender south of it. This decision by allied armies soon became the basis for the division of Korea by the two superpowers exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The two Cold War rivals then established governments sympathetic to their own ideologies, leading to Korea's current division into two political entities: North Korea and South Korea. The ensuing conflict between the two was largely a proxy war. North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is a single-party state with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea, is a free market, democratic and developed country with membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Group of Twenty.

Korean architecture, the built structures of Korea and their context. Like the other arts of Korea, architecture is characterized by naturalistic tendencies, simplicity, economy of shape, and the avoidance of extremes. What was a sharply curving Chinese roof was modified in Korea into a gently sloping roof. Sharp angles, strong lines, steep planes, and garish colours are all avoided. It typically exhibits a quiet inner harmony.

Ancient Architecture Three Kingdom Period United (Unified) Silla Architecture Goryeo Architecture Choson Architecture

Neolithic remains are relatively abundant in Korea and some remains can be traced back to the fifth millennium B, C. according to archaeological verification. Korean neolithic culture is classified into two different kinds in terms of the potteries which are found with artifacts at remain sites. The early culture is characterized by the comb-pattem pottery and then the later culture is by the burrlished plain pottery with bronze making techniques which started around the seventh century B. C.

The evidence of ONDOL:, the unique Korean floor panel heating system, was found at the remains of the burnished plain pottery culture and the development of the vertical wall was evident in the primitive houses of this culture.

Dolmens, which were primitive tombs of important persons, have been found all over the Korean peninsula. There are two types of dolmens: the southern type, which is rather low, often a simple slab without supporting stones; and the southern type, which is larger and more definite in shape. The distribution of the dolmens would imply some relation to the megalithic cultures of the Western world. In the development of Korean architecture

it can be said that the building technique of houses evolved from a pit dwelling to that of a earthen wall with thatched roof, and finally, to a raised floor construction

The Three Kingdoms of Korea refer to the ancient Korea kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean paeninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the Ist millenium. The Three Kingdoms period ran from 57 AD until Silla's triumph over Goguryeo in 668, which marked the beginning of the North and South states period () of Unified silla in the South and Balhae in the North.

Three kingdom period were renowned for its mountain fortresses built horizontally and vertically along the incline of slopes.

Ruins of Hwando Mountain Fortress, a major Goguryeo fortification

Goguryeo architecture show vigor, boldness and rusticity, with a hint of nomadic quality.

Tomb of the general, presumed to be tomb of great goguryeon king northeastern korea

The plans of Buddhist temples were characterized by one centrally located pagoda, entrance gate, main hall, lecture hall and rectangular cloister enclosure, all were arranged in a symmetrical layout along the northsouth axis.

Chongnim Temple Pagoda, one of the oldest surviving pagodas in Korea. Baekje period, Buyeo, South Korea.

Baekje Architecture had a touch of elegance, refinement and warmth

Silla architecture was well developed in the Kingdom and was evident in the remains of Hwangnyong Temple, built in the sixth century as the national temple. It was constructed in a curious manner using stone cut into the shape of bricks and hence it was named "Mock-brick pagoda.

Silla architecture was apparently much more conservative than the other two kingdoms, and preserved its customs, ideas and cultural identity longer than the others.

Architecture flourished in the royal capital of Gyeongju, though almost all traces of the former glory have vanished at the present time. The city with nearly a million inhabitants at her peak was strategically located at the junction of two rivers and three mountains encircling a fertile basin of about five by seven miles in area.

Buddhist temples were characterized by two pagodas in front of the central main hall in a symrnetrical layout on the north-south axis with other buildings. The stone work of the two story platform exhibits a superb sense of architectural organization and advanced building methods. Two stone pagodas stand in front of the main hall of the temple. The simpler Sokka-top located to the left of the court represents Buddha's manifestation in a transcendent calm. It has three stories with two pedestal layers and a total height reaching about twentyfive feet. The pagoda consists of simple undecorated pedestal slabs and three story stupa each of which has five stepped eaves and truncated roofs. These characteristics constitute a typical form of the Korean stone pagodas

The design motif of the lotus flower is apparent in mouldings and other details of the pagoda.

Intercolumnar bracket system were adopted to make buildings more stable.

The Joseon Dynasty was founded by an ambitious general, Yi-Songge, in 1392, and continued until 1910, The history of Choson architecture would be described in three periods of the early, the middle, and the late period, in accordance with the cultural and architectural development.

The architecture developed as a succession from the cultural inheritance of the previous dynasty with the new political guiding principles of Confucianism, that took the place of Buddhism. Through the influence of Confucianism, a refined aristocratic taste of the previous era was replaced by the characteristics of unsophisticated, simple and humble beauty with the qualities of commonness and steadiness. The intercolumnar bracket set system was used in building the most important edifice on the premises.

HANOK. is a term to describe Korean traditional houses. Korean architecture lends consideration to the positioning of the house in relation to its surroundings, with thought given to the land and seasons.

GIWAJIP. (houses with tiled roofs) Hanok occupied by the nobility

CHOGAJIP. (houses with straw-thatched roofs) Hanok inhabited by the peasantry.

MARU. The wooden floor was made to store grains and link rooms. It was also used as a place of sacrificial ancestral worship. To avoid the humidity and heat during the summer, the wooden floor is made so it doesnt touch the ground. So it helps ventilation in the house. It is not known exactly why and how the "maru" came to be, but scholars say it was to prevent the heat in southern areas of Korea. Its key use was to help ventilate the house.

ONDOL. Made by putting mud over under-floor heating stones, "ondol" is a main feature of traditional Korean houses. If lighted on the morning and evening, it witheld a pleasant l5 degree Celcius. This shows that the "ondol" system is quite based on scientific terms. These days steam heating is used more than 'ondol'.

GIWA. If you look closely at Korea's roofs, you'll see the no roofs are flat. Almost all are in shapes of curved lines and surfaces. The curves of the roof shows the originality of Korean architecture. It is not known when tiles were first used. Before using tiles (giwa) people had used plates of wood and bark but most were covered with bundles of grass. The tiles were made so the roofs could be slanted and was useless in making flat roofs. If the angle of the roof was exact, it was easier to drain away rain water. The size and shape of the tiles affected the angle of the roof and the angle is determined by the weather conditions of a certain region.The giwas or tiles, were made of clay from the rice paddy fields. Different shapes and sizes were used for each different places of the roof.

HANJI. (traditional Korean paper made from bark of mulberry tree) is pasted on the wooden window frames and doorframes.

A Jjimjilbang () is a large, gendersegregated public bathhouse in Korea. Jjimjil is derived from the words meaning heated bath.

MUNGAN CHAE. Traditional Korean entrance gate

PAGODA. Generic term for their place of worship

KKOTDAM. Korean traditional fence or gate, designed with flowers

MUNSAL. Traditional Korean woodframe

YONGMARU. Ridge of the roof that separates its left and right parts

CHEOMA (eaves). Part of the roof protruding outside.

CHEOMAKKEUT. Edge of the eaves slightly angled up, like a birds wing ready to take off.

MADANG. A place or area inside hanok for socializing. Commonly an inner courtyard with landscaping.

DAEMOKJANG. traditional wooden architecture specifically to the woodworkers who employ the traditional carpentry techniques. The activities of these practitioners also extend to the maintenance, repair and reconstruction of historic buildings, ranging from traditional Korean houses to monumental wooden palaces and temples. Structures are smooth, simple and unadorned -distinctive features of traditional Korean architecture.

SARANGBANG. Male quarters inside a hanok

ANBANG. female quarters inside a hanok

TYPICAL HANOK FLOOR PLAN

TYPICAL HANOK SECTION

Korean lattice patterns, in most cases, are named after things they resemble: ttisalmun is literally the belted grid and the up-right diagonal floral design; and their unlimited variations and combinations.

The t'aeguk pattern is the central component in the Korean national flag. It is also often seen on residential and temple gates, memorial red arches at royal tombs and shrines, the gates of Confucian academies and schools, and the lattice doors of Buddhist lecture halls, as well as on handicrafts. The basic characteristics of the t'aeguk pattern are the red comma shape, the male element, and beneath it the blue comma shape, the female element, both of which interlock in a circle to express infinite movement. As mentioned above, t'aeguk is a symbol incorporating cosmic dual entities-that is, heaven and earth, the positive and the negative, and the male and the female. It is the Great Ultimate, the law of cause and effect, where things begin and end. These dual forces of the cosmos, it was believed, were the fountains of human life. As it circles endlessly, thet'aeguk was an image of immortality as well.

Generally speaking Tanch'long connotes the patterns painted on the exposed frames of the eaves or doors of traditional wooden buildings and is also used on wooden sculptures and handicrafts. Tanchlong was used not only for decorative purposes but also for preservation, by concealing flaws of exposed naked wooden frames. It was widely used as a decorative motif in palatial and temple buildings. Lotus, pomegranate, and other floral designs form the major tanch' long patterns in the extant royal palaces and temples.

Red-crested White Crane: Spiritual, Longevity Although a fairly common bird, people considered white cranes as holy and spiritual. An old document (sanghak kyonggi) described cranes as follows: "Feathers are snow white but it could not be tainted with even mud. Males and females meet in 160 years, and as soon as they look into each other's eyes, they create a baby. They just drink for 1600 years but not eat. It is a king of birds and a wizard-like unworldly man rides on it."

Dragon The dragon signifies the virtue of the emperor and the authority of heaven. Dragon patterns extensively decorated the clothing and buildings of the king.

Roof end tile shaped like an owl's tail, chimi in Korean.

Details of wooden construction reconstructed from archaeological remains recoved from a dredging of Anapji pond. Gyeongju National Museum.

Roof end tile detail

FLORAL MOTIF

Danch'eong: Enlightenment One of the most recognizable arts of Korean Buddhism, the brightly colored patterns of danch'eong adorn the ceilings, eaves, support pillars, and walls of temple buildings. The combination of certain colors (blue, red, yellow, white, and black, based on the Dual Principle and the Five Elements of Eastern philosophy) symbolized the bright enlightenment of the next world. Round patterns meant people's lives are supposed to transmigrate: when someone reaches Nirvana, he or she can obtain the wisdom of Buddha.

Bat: Good Luck The Chinese ideogram for bat is pronounced the same as the ideogram for good fortune (pok in Korean). This led to bat images being embroidered on pillow ends and incorporated into furniture designs and fittings as a symbol of good fortune. As bats were supposed to live 1000 years, their image was also used as a symbol of longevity. A design of 5 bats, called Obok (5 blessings), represents the five fortunes: longevity, wealth, health, love of virtue, and natural death.

Temples

Houses (Hanok)

Palaces

Tombs

Gateways / Arches

Fortresses

Pulguksa Temple, South Korea The Pulguksa Temple, dating from AD 751, is one of the most ornate Buddhist temples in South Korea. The stairways leading to the temple entrances are symbolic of the Buddhist journey toward spiritual enlightenment. They were constructed without mortar by placing cut stones in perfect arrangement

The east pagoda of temple Miruksa. Restored at 1993. (Iksan City North jeolla province,KOREA,2001)

Bunhwangsa (literally "Fragrant Emperor Temple") is a temple complex from the Old Silla era of Korea. It is located in Gyeongju. The temple is recorded to have been built in 634 under the auspices of Queen Seondok. Today the temple is still used by a small group of worshipers but in its heyday, the temple covered several acres and was one of the four main temples of the Silla Kingdom used by the state to ask the Buddha to bless the kingdom.

Hwangnyongsa was built during the Silla period, under the patronage of the Silla royal family, on a plain encircled by mountains near the royal palace compound of Banwolseong (Half-Moon Palace). Construction began in 553 under the reign of king jinheung, and was not fully completed until 644. King Jinheung originally intended for the temple to be the site of a new palace but when a dragon was seen on the proposed site, a temple was commissioned instead.

Geumsansa (literally "Golden Mountain Temple") is a head temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism. It stands on the slopes of Moaksan in Gimje City, Jeollabukdo, South Korea.

Wongudan Altar, located in Jung gu, Seoul South Korea was built in 1897 to serve as a site for the performance of the rite of Heaven. The site was also known by other names, such as Hwangudan (, ), Jecheondan ( , ) and Wondan (, ) Wongudan was designated South Korea's Historic Site No. 157 on July 15, 1967.

Songgwangsa (Korean: / ; translation: Spreading Pine Temple; alternates: Songgwangsa, or Songgwang Sa, or Songkwangsa; also known as: Piney Expanse Monastery; originally: Gilsangsa), one of the three jewels of Korean Buddhism, is located in Jeollanamdo[ on theKorean Peninsula.

Bukchon Hanok Village is a Korean traditional village with a long history located between Gyeongbok Palace, Changdeok Palace and Jongmyo Royal Shrine. The traditional village is composed of lots of alleys and is preserved to show a 600-year-old urban environment. Now it is used as a traditional culture center and hanok restaurant, allowing visitors to experience the atmosphere of the Joseon Dynasty.

HAKINDONG HANOK, Seoul South Korea

Gyeongbokgung, also known as Gyeongbokgung Palace or Gyeongbok Palace, is a royal palace located in northern Seoul, South Korea. First constructed in 1394 and reconstructed in 1867, it was the main and largest palace of the Five Grand Palaces built by the Joseon Dynasty. The name of the palace, translates in English as "Palace of Shining Happiness." . As of 2009, roughly 40 percent of the original number of palace buildings still stand or are reconstructed.

Cheomseongdae is an astronomical observatory in Gyeongju, South Korea. Cheomseongdae means star-gazing tower in Korean. Cheomseongdae is the oldest surviving observatory in East Asia, and one of the oldest scientific installations on Earth. It dates to the 7th century to the time of kingdom of Silla, which had its capital in Gyeongju. Cheomseongdae was designated as the country's 31st national treasure on December 20, 1962.

Changdeokgung, also known as Changdeokgung Palace or Changdeok Palace, is set within a large park in Jongnogu, Seoul, South Korea. It is one of the "Five Grand Palaces" built by the kings of the Joseon Dynasty. Because of its location east of Gyeongbok Palace, Changdeokgung, withChanggyeonggung, is also referred to as the "East Palace" (, , Donggwol). The literal meaning of Changdeokgung (, ) is "Palace of Prospering Virtue"

Changgyeong Palace is a palace located in Seoul, South Korea. Originally the Summer Palace of the Goryeo Emperor, it later became one of the Five Grand Palaces of the Joseon Dynasty.

Deoksu-gung Palace, South Korea Deoksu-gung is a walled compound of several royal palaces. The buildings vary from traditional appearance and wood-and-stucco construction to western style. The main property was not originally a palace, but rather the residence of a prince; it enjoyed a promotion when the actual palaces were burned in the Japanese invasion of 1592. By 1618 the main palace had been rebuilt, and Deoksu-gung was used as an "auxiliary palace" for another 270 years. Of the original buildings, two thirds were destroyed by the Japanese during their occupation in the early 1900s. The Deoksu-gung complex also has forested gardens and an art museum that are open to the public.

Gyeongju Area, South Korea The area around Gyeongju is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Architectural evidence reaches back to the Silla kingdom of the mid-seventh century, and pyramidal tombs from that area -consisting of a rock chamber in the heart of an earthen superstructure -- are to be found in the center of the modern city. The land around Namsan Mountain is particularly rich with relics, where mural and sculpture art decorate ancient palaces from as early as the seventh century.

The Tomb of the General (Korean: Janggunchong, Hangul: , Hanja: , Chinese: Jiangjunzhong), also known as the Pyramid of the East, is thought to be the burial tomb of King Gwanggaeto or his son King Jangsu, both kings of the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo. The pyramid is located in jian Jilin province China, a former capital of Goguryeo. The pyramid was "rediscovered" in 1905.

View from below toward part of the Bihwa Gaya royal tomb complex in Changnyeong, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea. Note the doorway leading into one of the tombs.

Seolleung & Jeongneung Tombs (built from 1494-1544) The Seolleung and Jeongneung tombs are the burial grounds of two Joseon kings and one Joseon queen. The westernmost tomb (at far left on the map) belongs to King Seongjong (r. 1469-94), the ninth king of the Joseon dynasty. His first wife, Queen Han, died at age 18 and is buried near Munsan, north of Seoul. Another wife, Queen Yun, is buried here because she gave birth the the king's second son (the future King Jungjong) in 1506. Queen Yun outlived her husband by 35 years and was buried in a splendid tomb to the east of her husband (image 5). Her grave has a stone fence encircling the mound, whereas her husband's tomb, on the left, has a retaining wall as well. Statues of civilian and military officials and their horses stand at attention in front of the graves. South of the tombs is a single T-shaped shrine of the type commonly found at Joseon-era royal tombs. There are also several ancillary buildings for storing material used in sacrifices.

Tombs in Neungsan-ri, Buyeo, Korea

Tumuli Park or called Daeneungwon in Korean (literally "Garden of Great Tombs") at Hwangnam-dong, Gyeongju is the largest tomb complex in Korea including 23 Silla tombs in total. It contains Cheonmachong ("Tomb of the Heavenly Horse"), Hwangnam daechong, King Michu's tomb and others.

5th century tombs of rulers of an ancient Korean (Kogury) kingdom that lasted from about 37 AD until the 600s when it was overthrown by the Tang Dynasty.

The Independence Gate () is one of those gates that fall into this category. The Independence Gate is located in Seoul (). It commemorates Koreas independence from China as a sovereign nation. The Indpendence Gate is made of granite and was inspired by the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. It was built in 1897 and to this day it is a proud reminder of Koreas autonomy from other nations.

Gwanghwamun () is the largest gate of Gyeongbokgung Palace (). The Gate was partially destroyed and removed from its original location by two Japanese invasions, but it was repaired in August of last year. The Gate is now made of wood, which has to be maintained on a regular basis. The Gwanghwamun symbolizes one of the major eras of Korean history, which is the Joseon Era (). The Gwanghwamun Gate is located in Seoul and is there to serve as a reminder of Koreas long history.

South Gate of Hwaseong Fortress. It is called Paldalmun (). The Paldalmun lies in the city of Suwon (). Its located in the center of a busy road, so its very visible to passing cars. The South Gate also contains a bell that is decorated with a dragons tail and lotus flower. The inscription on the bell is in Sanskrit, which indicates that the bell may have been used in Buddhist ceremonies of the past.

Sungnyemun () is also popularly known as Namdaemun () In 2008, the Gate was destroyed by an arsonist, but a newly repaired version of the Gate is scheduled to be revealed sometime next year. The picture on the left is a picture of Namdaemun before it was destroyed by fire. The reason why there are two names for this Gate is because Sungnyemun is the official Korean name for the Gate, but when Japanese soldiers invaded the area, they renamed it to Namdaemun.

Potong Gate sits at the intersection of Mansudae and Chollima Street. It was originally constructed in the Goguryeo period as the west gate of Pyongyang's chief fortress. It was reconstructed in 1473 and renovated several times thereafter. Unfortunately, the historic gate was destroyed in the Korean war. The rebuilt gate sits about 55 meters from its original location in order to stand at the intersection of the streets.

Heunginjimun (), which is also referred to as Dongdaemun (). Heungjinjimun means Gate of Rising Benevolence which the name Dongdaemun means East Gate. The name East Gate refers to the fact that the Gate used to surround the eastern side of Seoul when it was first built. The Heungjinjimun is a major tourist attraction in Seoul because it is a famous landmark in Korea.

Taedong Gate

Ruins of Hwando Mountain Fortress, a major Goguryeo fortification, Ji'an, China. A UNESCO World Heritage Site dated to circa fifthy century.

Haemieupseong HEIMI FORTRESS

Hwa Fortress, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Notrh Gate of the Dongnae Eupseong fortresssite

Choksuk pavilion, Jinju fortress wall.

After the Surrender of Japan in 1945, American architecture assumed supremacy. Under Douglas MacArthur, who set Korean domestic and political policy from the Supreme Command of the Allied Powers headquarters in Tokyo. Korean architecture by Koreans began once again in domestic areas, with extensive repair of the missionary churches being given priority funding. Essential repair to infrastructure followed, more patch-work than new projects, and block-built hospitals, schools, industries began simple construction under military supervision. Seoul had survived much of World War II but during the Korean War (19501953), many buildings were destroyed, with the city changing command between North Korean and South Korean powers five times. Street-to-street fighting and artillery barrages levelled much of the city, as well as the bridges over the Han River. Important architectural sites were over-run and burnt by invading armies, looting was extensive, and the urban landscape suffered with little money for repairs. With the armistice, and distinct architectural styles determined by foreign governments began a long period of development.

In the north, Stalinist and absolutist, often brutalist architecture, was championed. North Korean architects studied in Moscow or Soviet satellites, and brought back socialist worker styles and huge celebratory people's architecture on a grand and massively impressive scale. Nomenclatura lived in Sovietstyle apartment blocks, farmers and rural workers lived in traditional houses as they always had; urbanization did not occur. Grand buildings and huge public squares were developed in Pyongyang as architectural showpieces. Formal processional landscapes accompanied these sites. Nearly all architecture was government sponsored, and maintained great homogeneity of function and style.

Ryugyong Hotel - Pyongyang, North Korea

Seongnam City Hall

In the south, American models defined all new Korean buildings of any importance, with domestic architecture both civil and rural keeping to traditional buildings, building techniques, and using local materials, and local vernacular styles. The pragmatic need to rebuild a country devastated by genocide, then a civil war, led to ad hoc buildings with no particular styles, extended repeatedly, and a factory system of simple cheap expendable buildings. As few Korean cities had a grid-system, and were often given limits by mountains, few if any urban landscapes had a sense of distinction; by the mid-1950s, rural areas were underfunded, urban areas overfilled, and urban sprawl began with little money to build distinctive important buildings. Buildings tended to be built quickly with little regard for local identity. traditional hanok villages were razed, hundreds of simple cheap apartments were put up very fast, and bedroom communities on the periphery of the urban centres grew, built and financed as company housing.

The Juche Tower (officially the Tower of the Juche Idea) is a monument in Pyongyang, North Korea. The tower is named after the principle of Juche, developed by Kim Il Sung as a blend of autarky, selfreliance, nationalism, isolationism, Korean traditionalism, and MarxismLeninism.

Trade Tower, Seoul, South Korea

Kim Swoo Geun (February 20, 1931 June 14, 1986) was a prominent South Korean architect,educator, publisher and patron of artists. Along with architect Kim Joong Up ( ), he is recognised as a significant contributor in the history of Korean architecture. With his support for diverse art genres of Korean culture, he was referred to as Lorenzo de Medici of Seoul by TIME in 1977. Kim designed over 200 projects inside and outside of South Korea during his lifetime. His representative works include "SPACE Group building" ( , 1978), "Masan Yangdeok Catholic Church" ( 1979), "Jinju National Museum" ( 1986) and "Olympic Main Stadium" ( 1987), which feature his characteristic view of architecture as well as Korean traditional elements

Architect HyoMan Kim is the principal of IROJE KHM Architects. He was born in Seoul in 1955. He is many kinds of award-winning architect in Seoul, Korea.

Kim Won ( ) Born in 1943, the architect, Seoul, Korea Institute of Construction Engineering, Architectural Institute of gimsugeun classes at me, and the Netherlands bawoosenteurum Diploma from the International Graduate Program (Diploma, International Post Graduate Course for Housing & Planning, Bowcentrum, Rotterdam , the Netherlands) said. Current Construction Environment Research 'square', and book publishing 'square' representatives, Korea Institute of Architects Honorary Director, Honorary President of Korea Association of Interior Architects, gimsugeun Cultural Foundation Chairman and Chairman of R & D, Seoul Architecture School, Konkuk University, Graduate School of Architecture is an adjunct professor. Cathedral of major works by Han, Myeong ssaengppol Monastery, the National Bureau villain, a unified Institute, Seoul, comprehensive studios, include Gwangju Catholic University.

Steven Phillip Song is a Korean-American architect and writer on architecture. Song, a founding partner of the think tank team VIUM, first came to recognition through collaborations with his mentors, the architects and theoreticians Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown.

Kim Joong-eop (1922 1988) was a prominent Korean architect and educator. He was born inPyongyang as the second son of his father, Kim Yeong-pil () and his mother, Yi Yeong-ja (). He spent his childhood in various places such as Gangdong, Junghwa, Seongcheon and others due to his father's job as the country headman of the places. Kim was awarded the 1962 Cultural Award from Seoul Metropolitan Government in 1962, Chevalier from the France government in 1965, Order of Industrial Service Merit from the South Korea government in 1985