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GE 106
Spring 2009
Indonesia…first to go?

“Small island states are the countries likely

to be most vulnerable to climate variability
and long-term climate change, particularly
extreme weather and climate events and
sea-level rise.”

-World Health Organization, 2005

Green House Gas Emission Profile
• 1994 had total 952,200 Gg CO2
• 42% removed.
• 548,353 Gg left in atmosphere.
• 4,687 Gg methane.
• 61 Gg nitrous oxide.
• 3,545 Gg CO and 110 Gg Nox.
Carbon Dioxide
 Industry, energy production, and
transportation at about 50,000 Gg each.
 Forest and land use change at about 560,000
 Energy sector is large emitter at 360 Gg,
mostly from residential/commercial.
 Fuel combustion.
 Largest emitter agriculture at 3,200 Gg.
 Forest/land use change and waste both
at about 400 Gg.
Wallacea Region of Indonesia
Nitrogen Dioxide

 Agriculture is
largest at 52.86 Gg.
 Energy follows
behind with 5.8 Gg,
again with
commercial as top
 Increasing
CO and NOx

 CO total emissions 3,500 Gg.

 NOx total at 110 Gg.
 Mainly from forestry and agriculture.

 Agricultural influence.
 44% of work-force employed in
agricultural businesses.
 Destruction of crops and deforestation are
leading to a drop in the economy.
Health Impacts

 Climate change affects human health in Indonesia.

 Drop in the economy means less medical abilities.
 Less medical assistance for the population
 More people dying from disease, illnesses, and
Other Health Issues

 Deadly monsoons claim lives.

 Increase spread and transmission of
“vector-borne” diseases.
 Health impacts in Indonesia can cause
problems for the rest of the world…
Physical Impacts of Climate

 Indonesia is an island country comprised of

nearly 17,508 small islands with the fourth
highest population in the world.
 These small islands are extremely vulnerable to
the negative physical impacts brought on as a
result of climate change.
Sea Level Rise

 Sea level has risen by 2 mm a year in recent

years and ocean temperatures have been
increasing by about 0.1 °C per decade.
 If humans continue to emit green house gases
and practice activities that lead to global
warming, thermal expansion and decrease in
glacial and icecap size will cause the sea level
to rise by as much as 2.9 feet in the next 90
A rise in sea level will
literally submerge
many of the small
Island that make up
Coral Reefs

 51 percent of the region's coral reefs and

18 percent of the world's coral reefs are
found in Indonesian waters.
 70% of Indonesian coral reefs are in poor
to fair condition and 33% of reef-building
coral species were placed in categories
with elevated risk of extinction
• Coral reefs are an
indicator of climate change
since extended periods of
increased seawater
temperature and UV
radiation results in coral
bleaching that is often
irreversible. Coral Bleaching
• Coral bleaching is the loss of
pigmentation within the
symbiotic algae that live on the
coral and is the stress-induced
expulsion of algae.
• Global climate change has
resulted in coral bleaching.
Increase climate variability

 Climate variability has

lead to a large increase
in extreme weather
events such as such
cyclones, floods and
 Warming events such
as El Niño are
becoming more and
more common due to
our changing climate.
The small island towns will be destroyed if climate
variability continues to increase.
Indirect physical impacts of
climate change on ecosystems
 Increase in mosquitoes.
 These mosquitoes are deadly because
they carry and transmit Dengue virus.
 Causes severe flu-like illness.
 Dengue fever epidemics have increased
dramatically since 1970.
 The number of these mosquitoes and the
transmission dynamics is strongly
regulated by temperature and rainfall.
 El Niño events, such as the
one in 1997, cause drought
conditions to develop across
Indonesia and delay early
monsoon rainfall.
 Drought conditions allow the
fires to burn out of control,
which cause severe air
 These conditions lead to
decreased rice planting,
which prolong the hungry
season, and increase the
risk of annual rice deficits.
 In the 1997 drought, the
water in streams and lakes
became so stagnant and
polluted that 550 “drought-
related” deaths occurred in
just 10 weeks.

 Signed Kyoto.
 Plans of action in energy, waste,
agriculture, forestry, waste, coastal
resources, and public health to reduce
 Promote efficient electricity and vehicles,
public transport, water management,
research, forest management.

Indonesia needs to…

 Develop adaptation strategies, policies
and measures to reduce potential impacts.
 Early warning systems and

other preventive strategies

 Long-term adaptive strategies for sea-
level rise.