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# FLIGHT MECHANICS

Exercise Problems
CHAPTER 4
Problem 4.1
Consider the incompressible flow of water
through a divergent duct. The inlet velocity
and area are 5 ft/s and 10 ft
2
, respectively.
If the exit area is 4 times the inlet area,
calculate the water flow velocity at the exit.
Solution 4.1
s f t
A
A
V V
V A V A m
/ 25 . 1
4
1
5
2
1
1 2
2 2 2 1 1 1
= = =
= =

Problem 4.2
4.2 In the above problem calculate the
pressure difference between the exit and
the inlet. The density of water is 62.4
Ibm/ft
3
.
Solution 4.2
2
2 2
1 2
3
2
2
2
1
1 2
/ 7 . 22
2
25 . 1 5
94 . 1
/ 94 . 1
2 . 32
4 . 62
2
0
2
1
2
1
f t lb p p
f t slug
V V
p p
VdV dp
v
v
p
p
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
= +
} }

Problem 4.3
Consider an airplane flying with a velocity
of 60 m/s at a standard altitude of 3 km.
At a point on the wing, the airflow velocity
is 70 m/s. Calculate the pressure at this
point. Assume incompressible flow.
Solution 4.3
H.W.
Problem 4.4
An instrument used to measure the airspeed on
many early low-speed airplanes, principally
during 1919 to 1930, was the venturi tube. This
simple device is a convergent - divergent duct
(The front section's cross-sectional area A
decreases in the flow direction, and the back
section's cross-sectional area increases in the
flow direction. Somewhere in between the inlet
and exit of the duct, there is a minimum area,
called the throat.) Let A
1
and A
2
denote the inlet
and throat areas, respectively. Let p
1
and p
2
be
the pressures at the inlet and throat,
respectively.
The venturi tube is mounted at a specific location
on the airplane (generally on the wing or near
the front of the fuselage), where the inlet
velocity V, is essentially the same as the
freestream velocity that is, the velocity of the
airplane through the air. With a knowledge of
the area ratio A
2
/A
1
(a fixed design feature) and
a measurement of the pressure difference p
1
- p
2

the airplane's velocity can be determined. For
example, assume A
2
/A
1
=1/4 and p
1
- p
2
= 80
Ib/ft
2
. If the airplane is flying at standard sea
level, what is its velocity?

Solution 4.4
H.W.
Problem 4.5
Consider the flow of air through a
convergent-divergent duct, such as the
venturi described in Prob. 4.4. The inlet,
throat, and exit areas are 3, 1.5, and 2 m
2

respectively. The inlet and exit pressures
are 1.02 x 10
5
and 1.00 x 10
5
N/m
2
,
respectively. Calculate the flow velocity at
the throat. Assume incompressible flow
with standard sea-level density.
Solution 4.5
( )
s m V
A
A
V
A
A
p p
V
A
A
V V
V
p
V
p
/ 22 . 102
1
2
3
225 . 1
10 ) 00 . 1 02 . 1 ( 2
5 . 1
3
1
) ( 2
2 2
2
5
1
2
1
2
2
3
1
3 1
1
3
1
1 3
2
3
3
2
1
1
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

= =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+ = +

Note that only a
pressure change of
0.02 atm produce this
high speed
Problem 4.6
An airplane is flying at a velocity of 130
mi/h at a standard altitude of 5000 ft. At a
point on the wing, the pressure is 1750.0
Ib/ft
2
. Calculate the velocity at that point
assuming incompressible flow.
Solution 4.6
( ) ( )
s f t V
V
p p
V
V p V p
s f t mph V
/ 8 . 216
7 . 190
0020482 . 0
1750 9 . 1760 2 2
/ 7 . 197
60
88
130 130
2
4 2
1
2 1
2
2
2
2 2
2
1 1
1
=
+

= +

=
+ = +
= = =

Problem 4.7
Imagine that you have designed a low-speed
airplane with a maximum velocity at sea level of
90 m/s. For your airspeed instrument, you plan
to use a venturi tube with a 1.3 : 1 area ratio.
Inside the cockpit is an airspeed indicatora
dial that is connected to a pressure gauge
sensing the venturi tube pressure difference p
1
-
p
2
and properly calibrated in terms of velocity.
What is the maximum pressure difference you
would expect the gauge to experience?
Solution 4.7
( ) | |
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
1
2
1
2 1
2
1
1 2
2
2
2
2
1
1
/ 3423 1 3 . 1
2
90
225 . 1
1
2
2 2
m N p p
A
A V
p p
A
A
V V
V
p
V
p
= =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+ = +

Maximum when maximum
velocity 90 m/s and sea level
density; however better
design for over speed during
diving
Problem 4.8
A supersonic nozzle is also a convergent-
divergent duct, which is fed by a large
reservoir at the inlet to the nozzle. In the
reservoir of the nozzle, the pressure and
temperature are 10 atm and 300 K,
respectively. At the nozzle exit, the
pressure is 1 atm. Calculate the
temperature and density of the flow at the
exit. Assume the flow is isentropic and, of
course, compressible.
Solution 4.8
H.W.
Problem 4.9
Derive an expression for the exit velocity of
a supersonic nozzle in terms of the
pressure ratio between the reservoir and
exit p
o
/p
e
and the reservoir temperature To.
Solution 4.9
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+ =
+ = +

1
0
e
0
1
0
e
0
e
0
2
2 2
0
1 2
) ( 2
2
1
2
1
2
1
p
p
T c V
p
p
T
T
T T c V
V h h
V T c V T c
p e
e p e
e e o
e e p o p
Note that the velocity
increases as T
o
goes up
or pressure ratio goes
down; used for rocket
engine performance
analysis
Problem 4.10
Consider an airplane flying at a standard
altitude of 5 km with a velocity of 270 m/s.
At a point on the wing of the airplane, the
velocity is 330 m/s. Calculate the pressure
at this point.
Solution 4.10
H.W.
Problem 4.11
The mass flow of air through a supersonic
nozzle is 1.5 Ibm/s. The exit velocity is
1500 ft/s, and the reservoir temperature
and pressure are 1000R and 7 atm,
respectively. Calculate the area of the
nozzle exit. For air, Cp = 6000 ft
lb/(slug)(R).
Solution 4.11
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )( )
2
1 4 . 1
1
1
1
o
e
0
0
0
0
2 2
0
2
0
0061 . 0
1500 0051 . 0 2 . 32
5 . 1
2 . 32
5 . 1
0051 . 0
1000
5 . 812
0086 . 0
0086 . 0
1000 1716
2116 7
5 . 812
6000 2
1500
1000
2
2
1
f t
V
m
A
V A m
T
T
RT
p
R
c
V
T T
V T c T c
e e
e
e e e
e
p
e
e
e e p p
= = =
= =
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
= = =
+ =

Energy eq.
Continuity eq.
No shock wave,
isentropic
relationship
Problem 4.12
A supersonic transport is flying at a
velocity of 1500 mi/h at a standard altitude
of 50,000 ft. The temperature at a point in
the flow over the wing is 793.32R.
Calculate the flow velocity at that point.
Solution 4.12
( )
( )( )
s f t V
V
s f t s f t h mi V
V T T c V
V T c V T c
p
p p
/ 3 . 6
2200 32 . 7993 99 . 389 6000 2
/ 2200 /
60
88
1500 / 1500
2
2
1
2
1
2
2 2
2
1
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
2 2
2
1 1
=
+ =
=
|
.
|

\
|
= =
+ =
+ = +
Very low value, almost a stagnant point
Problem 4.13
For the airplane in Prob. 4.12, the total cross-
sectional area of the inlet to the jet engines is 20
ft
2
. Assume that the flow properties of the air
entering the inlet are those of the freestream
ahead of the airplane. Fuel is injected inside the
engine at a rate of 0.05 Ib of fuel for every pound
of air flowing through the engine (i.e., the fuel-air
ratio by mass is 0.05). Calculate the mass flow
(in slugs/per second) that comes out the exit of
the engine.
Solution 4.13
H.W.
Problem 4.14
Calculate the Mach number at the exit of
the nozzle in Prob. 4.11.
Solution 4.14
( )( )( )
07 . 1
1397
1500
/ 1397 5 . 812 1716 4 . 1
5 . 812
/ 1500
e
e
= = =
= = =
=
=
a
V
M
s f t RT a
R T
s f t V
e
e e
e
e

Problem 4.15
A Boeing 747 is cruising at a velocity of 250
m/s at a standard altitude of 13 km. What is
its Mach number?

Solution 4.15
H.W.
Problem 4.16
A high-speed missile is traveling at Mach 3
at standard sea level. What is its velocity
in miles per hour?
Solution 4.16
H.W.
Problem 4.17
Calculate the flight Mach number for the
supersonic transport in Prob. 4.12.
Solution 4.17
( )( )( )
27 . 2
94 . 967
2200
/ 94 . 967 99 . 389 1716 4 . 1
/ 2200
= = =
= = =
=
a
V
M
s f t RT a
s f t V

Problem 4.18
Consider a low-speed subsonic wind
tunnel with a nozzle contraction ratio of 1 :
20. One side of a mercury manometer is
connected to the settling chamber, and the
other side to the test section. The
pressure and temperature in the test
section are 1 atm and 300 K, respectively.
What is the height difference between the
two columns of mercury when the test
section velocity is 80 m/s?

Solution 4.18
( )( )
cm m
A
A V
h
h h p p
A
A V
p p
m kg
RT
p
8 . 2 028 . 0
20
1
1
2
80
10 * 33 . 1
173 . 1
1
2
10 * 33 . 1
1
2
/ 173 . 1
300 287
10 * 01 . 1
2
2
5
2
1
2
2
2
5
2 1
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
3
5
= =
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
= A
A = A =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
e

Problem 4.19
We wish to operate a low-speed subsonic wind tunnel so
that the flow in the test section has a velocity of 200 mi/h
at standard sea-level conditions. Consider two different
types of wind tunnels: (a) a nozzle and a constant-area
test section, where the flow at the exit of the test section
simply dumps out to the surrounding atmosphere, that
is, there is no diffuser, and (b) a conventional
arrangement of nozzle, test section, and diffuser, where
the flow at the exit of the diffuser dumps out to the
surrounding atmosphere. For both wind tunnels (a) and
(b) calculate the pressure differences across the entire
wind tunnel required to operate them so as to have the
given flow conditions in the test section.
For tunnel (a) the cross-sectional area of
the entrance is 20 ft
2
, and the cross-
sectional area of the test section is 4 ft
2
.
For tunnel (b) a diffuser is added to (a)
with a diffuser area of 18 ft
2
. After
and (b). Which requires the smaller
overall pressure difference? What does
this say about the value of a diffuser
on a subsonic wind tunnel?
Solution 4.19 (a)
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
2
2
2 1
1
2
2 1
2
2
2
2
1
1
/ 15 . 98
20
4
1
2
3 . 293
002377 . 0
1
2
2 2
f t lb p p
A
A V
p p
A
A
V V
V
p
V
p
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
+ = +

Solution 4.19 (b)
2
2 2
2
2 1
2
1
2
2
3
2
2
2
3 1
3
2
2 3
1
2
2 1
2
3
3
2
1
1
/ 959 . 0
20
4
18
4
2
3 . 293
002377 . 0
2
,
2 2
f t lb p p
A
A
A
A V
p p
A
A
V V
A
A
V V
V
p
V
p
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
+ = +

Economical to use diffuser (running compressor
or vacuum pump)
Problem 4.20

A Pitot tube is mounted in the test section
of a low-speed subsonic wind tunnel. The
flow in the test section has a velocity,
static pressure, and temperature of 150
mi/h, 1 atm, and 70F, respectively.
Calculate the pressure measured by the
Pitot tube.
Solution 4.20
( )( )
( )
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
3
/ 2172 220
2
00233 . 0
2116
60
88
* 150
2
00233 . 0
2116
2
/ 00233 . 0
460 70 1716
2116
f t lb p
p
V
p p
f t slug
RT
p
= + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
+ =
=
+
= =

Problem 4.21
The altimeter on a low-speed Piper Aztec
reads 8000 ft. A Pitot tube mounted on the
wing tip measures a pressure of 1650
Ib/ft
2
. If the outside air temperature is
500R, what is the true velocity of the
airplane? What is the equivalent airspeed?
Solution 4.21
H.W.
Problem 4.22
The altimeter on a low-speed airplane
50 m/s. If the outside air temperature is
280 K, what is the true velocity of the
airplane?
( )( )
s m V
V
V
m kg
RT
p
true
eq
true
/ 56
989 . 0
225 . 1
50
/ 989 . 0
280 287
10 * 95 . 7
0
3
4
= =
=
= = =

Solution 4.22
Problem 4.23
A Pitot tube is mounted in the test section
of a high-speed subsonic wind tunnel.
The pressure and temperature of the
airflow are 1 atm and 270 K, respectively.
If the flow velocity is 250 m/s, what is the
pressure measured by the Pitot tube?

Solution 4.23
( )
5 5
0
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
1
2
0
10 * 48 . 1 10 * 01 . 1 * 47 . 1 47 . 1
47 . 1
2
76 . 0 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1
2
) 1 (
1
76 . 0
329
250
/ 329 270 * 287 * 4 . 1
= = =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
= = =
= = =

p p
M
p
p
a
V
M
s m RT a

Problem 4.24
A high-speed subsonic Boeing 777
airliner is flying at a pressure altitude of
12 km. A Pitot tube on the vertical tail
measures a pressure of 2.96 x 10
4
N/m
2
.
At what Mach number is the airplane
flying?
Solution 4.24
801 . 0
N/m 10 * 94 . 1 p km, 12 altitude at note;
1
10 * 94 . 1
10 * 96 . 2
1 4 . 1
2
1
1
2
10 * 94 . 1
1
2 4
4 . 1
1 4 . 1
4
4
1
1
0
2
1
4
=
=
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
(
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
=

M
p
p
M
p

Problem 4.25
A high-speed subsonic airplane is flying at
Mach 0.65. A Pitot tube on the wing tip
measures a pressure of 2339 Ib/ft
2
. What
is the altitude reading on the altimeter?
Solution 4.25
1761
328 . 1
2339
328 . 1
328 . 1
2
65 . 0 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1
2
) 1 (
1
0
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
1
2
0
= = =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

p
p
M
p
p

## Appendix B, pressure altitude reads 5000 ft

Problem 4.26
A high-performance F-16 fighter is flying
at Mach 0.96 at sea level. What is the air
temperature at the stagnation point at the
Solution 4.26
H.W.
Problem 4.27
An airplane is flying at a pressure altitude
of 10 km with a velocity of 596 m/s.
The outside air temperature is 220 K.
What is the pressure measured by a Pitot
tube mounted on the nose of the airplane?
Solution 4.27
2 5 4
02
4
1
2
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
2 2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
02
1
1
1
1
/ 10 * 49 . 1 10 * 65 . 2 * 64 . 5
10 * 65 . 2
64 . 5
1 4 . 1
2 * 4 . 1 * 2 4 . 1 1
) 1 4 . 1 ( 2 2 * 4 . 1 * 4
2 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1
2 1
) 1 ( 2 4
) 1 (
0 . 2
297
596
/ 297 220 * 287 * 4 . 1
m N p
p as
M
M
M
p
p
a
V
M
s m RT a
= =
=
=
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
= = =
= = =

## Use Rayleigh Pitot tube formula

Problem 4.28
The dynamic pressure is defined as q =
0.5V
2
. For high-speed flows, where
Mach number is used frequently, it is
convenient to express q in terms of
pressure p and Mach number M rather
than and V. Derive an equation for q =
q(p,M).
Solution 4.28
( )
2
2
2
2
1 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2
1
2
1
M
p
a
V p
V
p
p
q
p
c
d
c d
d
dp
a
V
p
p
V
p
p
V q

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
= = =

so
as
Problem 4.29
After completing its mission in orbit around
the earth, the Space Shuttle enters the
earth's atmosphere at very high Mach
number and, under the influence of
aerodynamic drag, slows as it penetrates
more deeply into the atmosphere. (These
matters are discussed in Chap. 8.) During
its atmospheric entry, assume that the
shuttle is flying at Mach number M
corresponding to the altitudes h:
Calculate the corresponding values of the
freestream dynamic pressure at each one
of these flight path points. Suggestion:
Use the result from Prob. 4.28. Examine
and comment on the variation of q

as the
shuttle enters the atmosphere.
h,
km
60 50 40 30 20
M 17 9.5 5.5 3 1
Solution 4.29
2
2

= M
p
q

h, km 60 50 40 30 20
p

25.6 87.9 299.8 1.19*10
3
5.53*10
3

M 17 9.5 5.5 3 1
q

5.2*10
3

5.6*10
3

6.3*10
3

7.5*10
3

3.9*10
3

Problem 4.30
Consider a Mach 2 airstream at standard
sea-level conditions. Calculate the total
pressure of this flow. Compare this result
with (a) the stagnation pressure that would
exist at the nose of a blunt body in the flow
and (b) the erroneous result given by
Bernoulli's equation, which of course does
not apply here.
Solution 4.30
( )( ) 16560 2116 824 . 7 824 . 7
824 . 7
2
2 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1
2
) 1 (
1
0
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
1
2
0
= = =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

p p
M
p
p

## Total pressure when the flow is isentropically stopped (true for

supersonic and subsonic)
2 4
02
2
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
2 2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
02
/ 10 * 193 . 1 116 . 2 * 64 . 5
64 . 5
1 4 . 1
2 * 4 . 1 * 2 4 . 1 1
) 1 4 . 1 ( 2 2 * 4 . 1 * 4
2 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1
2 1
) 1 ( 2 4
) 1 (
f t lb p
M
M
M
p
p
= =
=
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+
=

But there must be a shockwave at the nose (at the stagnation point)
2 4 2
0
2
2
0
/ 10 * 804 . 0 2 * 116 . 2 *
2
4 . 1
116 . 2
2 2
ft lb p
M p
p
V
p p
= + =
+ = + =

If Bernoullis equation is used accidentally
51% error
Problem 4.31
Consider the flow of air through a
supersonic nozzle. The reservoir pressure
and temperature are 5 atm and 500 K,
respectively. If the Mach number at the
nozzle exit is 3, calculate the exit
pressure, temperature, and density.
Solution 4.31
( )
( )( )
3
4
0
0
0
1
2
0
4
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
5
1
2
0
/ 267 . 0
6 . 178 287
10 * 37 . 1
6 . 178 357 . 0 * 500
2
) 1 (
1
10 * 37 . 1
2
3 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1 10 * 01 . 1 * 5
2
) 1 (
1
m kg
RT
p
K
M
T T
M
p p
e
e
e
e
= = =
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =

Problem 4.32
Consider a supersonic nozzle across
which the pressure ratio is p
e
/p
o
= 0.2.
Calculate the ratio of exit area to throat
area.
Solution 4.32
( ) ( )
35 . 1 71 . 1
2
1 4 . 1
1
1 4 . 1
2
71 . 1
1
2
1
1
1
2 1
71 . 1
92 . 2 1 2 . 0 5 1
) 1 (
2
2
) 1 (
1
1 4 . 1
1 4 . 1
2
2
1
1
2
2
286 . 0
1
0
2
1
2
0
=
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
=
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
=
=
= =
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

e
e
t
e
e
e
e
e e
M
M
A
A
M
p
p
M
M
p
p
Problem 4.33
Consider the expansion of air through a
convergent-divergent supersonic nozzle. The
Mach number varies from essentially zero in the
reservoir to Mach 2.0 at the exit. Plot on graph
paper the variation of the ratio of dynamic
pressure to total pressure as a function of Mach
number; that is, plot q/ p
o
versus M from M = 0
to M = 2.0.
Solution 4.33
( )
5 . 3
2 2
1
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 . 0 1 7 . 0
2
1
1
2 2
2 2 2
1

+ =
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
M M
p
q
M
M
p
p M
p
q
M
p
a
V p
V q

## The graph shows that the local dynamic

pressure has a peak value at M=1.4
Problem 4.34
The wing of the Fairchild Republic A-10A twin-jet
close-support airplane is approximately
rectangular with a wingspan (the length
perpendicular to the flow direction) of 17.5 m
and a chord (the length parallel to the flow
direction) of 3 m. The airplane is flying at
standard sea level with a velocity of 200 m/s. If
the flow is considered to be completely laminar,
calculate the boundary layer thickness at the
trailing edge and the total skin friction drag.
Assume the wing is approximated by a flat plate.
Assume incompressible flow.
Solution 4.34
H.W.
Problem 4.35
In Prob. 4.34, assume the flow is
completely turbulent. Calculate the
boundary layer thickness at the trailing
edge and the total skin friction drag.
Compare these turbulent results with the
above laminar results.
Solution 4.35
( )
( )
N N D
bottom and top
N SC q D
C
cm m
L
f
f f
L
f
lar
turb
L
5660 2830 * 2

2830 0022 . 0 * 5 . 17 * 3 * 10 * 45 . 2
0022 . 0
10 * 10 . 4
0074 . 0
Re
0074 . 0
75 . 13
24 . 0
3 . 3
3 . 3 033 . 0
10 * 10 . 4
3 * 37 . 0
Re
37 . 0
4
2 . 0
7
2 . 0
2 . 0
7
2 . 0
= =
= = =
= = =
= =
= = =

o
o
o
10.5 times larger than laminar flow
assumption
Problem 4.36
If the critical Reynolds number for
transition is 10
6
, calculate the skin friction
drag for the wing in Prob. 4.34.
Laminar Flow A
Turbulent Flow B
X
cr
Solution 4.36
( )
N D
m m S
m N V q
S q S q SC q D
m
V
x
x V
turb
f
cr
f
turb
f
cr
cr
cr
cr
146
5 . 17 * 10 * 3 . 7
/ 10 * 45 . 2 200 * 225 . 1
2
1
2
1
10
074 . 0
Re
074 . 0
10 * 3 . 7
200 * 225 . 1
10 * 7894 . 1 * 10 Re
Re
2
2 4 2 2
2 . 0
6
2 . 0
2
5 6
=
=
= = =
= = =
= = =
=

## Drag of one side

Calculate drag
force if the
laminar flow
portion A were
turbulent flow
( )
( )( )
N N N D
N
S q SC q D
N D D D
N D
f
cr
f
A
f
A
f
total
f
B
f
turbulent total
f
turb
5452 2684 42
42 5 . 17 * 10 * 3 . 7 10 * 45 . 2
10
135
Re
1328
2684 146 2830
2830
2 4
2 . 0
6
5 . 0

laminar
= + =
= =
= =
= = =
=

On the wing, it is mostly turbulent flow
Problem 4.37
Let us reflect back to the fundamental equations
of fluid motion discussed in the early sections of
this chapter. Sometimes these equations were
expressed in terms of differential equations, but
for the most pan we obtained algebraic relations
by integrating the differential equations.
However, it is useful to think of the differential
forms as relations that govern the change in
flowfield variables in an infinitesimally small
region around a point in the flow.
(a) Consider a point in an inviscid flow, where
the local density is 1.1 kg/m
3
. As a fluid
element sweeps through this point, it is
experiencing a spatial change in velocity of
two percent per millimeter. Calculate the
corresponding spatial change in pressure per
millimeter at this point if the velocity at the
point is 100 m/sec. (b) Repeat the calculation
for the case when the velocity at the point is
1000 m/sec. What can you conclude by
comparing your results for the low-speed flow
in part (a) with the results for the high-speed
flow part (b).
Solution 4.37
( )( )( )
( )( )( ) mm m N
ds
dp
mm m N
ds
dp
mm
ds
V
dV
ds
V
dV
V
ds
dV
V
ds
dp
VdV dp
. / 22000 02 . 0 1000 1 . 1
. / 220 02 . 0 100 1 . 1
/ 02 . 0
2 2
2 2
2
= =
= =
=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=

## It requires a much larger pressure gradient in a

high-speed flow
Problem 4.38
The type of calculation in Problem 4.3 is a
classic one for low-speed, incompressible flow,
i.e., given the freestream pressure and velocity,
and the velocity at some other point in the flow,
calculate the pressure at that point. In a high-
speed compressible flow, Mach number is more
fundamental than velocity. Consider an airplane
flying at Mach 0.7 at a standard altitude of 3 km.
At a point on the wing, the airflow Mach
number is 1.1. Calculate the pressure at this
point. Assume an isentropic flow.
Solution 4.38
4 4
0
0
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
1
2
0
1 4 . 1
4 . 1
2
1
2
0
10 * 555 . 4 10 * 0121 . 7 * 65 . 0
135 . 2
387 . 1
135 . 2
2
1 . 1 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1
2
) 1 (
1
387 . 1
2
7 . 0 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1
2
) 1 (
1
= = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =

p p
p
p
p
p
p
M
p
p
M
p
p

Pressure at 3 km altitude
Problem 4.39
Consider an airplane flying at a standard
altitude of 25,000 ft at a velocity of 800
ft/sec. To experience the same dynamic
pressure at sea level, how fast must the
airplane be flying?
Solution 4.39
s f t V
V
V
e
e
/ 8 . 535
10 * 3769 . 2
10 * 0663 . 1
800
3
3
0
= =
=

Problem 4.40
In Section 4.9, we defined hypersonic flow
as that flow where the Mach number is five
or greater. Wind tunnels with a test section
Mach number of five or greater are called
hypersonic wind tunnels. From Eq. (4.88),
the exit-to-throat area ratio for supersonic
exit Mach numbers increases as the exit
Mach number increases. For hypersonic
Mach numbers, the exit-to-throat ratio
becomes extremely large, so hypersonic
wind tunnels are designed with long, high-
expansion ratio nozzles.
In this and the following problems, let us
examine some special characteristics of
hypersonic wind tunnels. Assume we wish
to design a Mach 10 hypersonic wind
tunnel using air as the test medium. We
want the static pressure and temperature
in the test stream to be that for a
standard altitude of 55 km. Calculate: (a)
the exit-to-throat area ratio, (b) the required
reservoir pressure (in atm), and (c) the
required reservoir temperature. Examine
these results. What do they tell you about
the special (and sometimes severe)
operating requirements for a hypersonic
wind tunnel.
Solution 4.40
( )( )
K
M
T T
atm p
M
p
p
M
M
A
A
e
e o
o
e
e
o
e
e
t
e
5791
2
10 ) 1 (
1 78 . 275
2
) 1 (
1
\ 3 . 20 10 * 053 . 2 373 . 48 10 * 224 . 4
10 * 224 . 4
2
10 ) 1 4 . 1 (
1
2
) 1 (
1
9 . 535 10
2
1 4 . 1
1
1 4 . 1
2
10
1
2
1
1
1
2 1
2 2
6 4
4
5 . 3
2
1
2
1 4 . 1
1 4 . 1
2
2
1
1
2
2
=
(

+ =
(

+ =
= = =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|

+ =
=
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
=
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
=

## The surface of the sun is about 6000k; sacrifice

accuracy because of temperature
Problem 4.41
Calculate the exit velocity of the
hypersonic tunnel in Problem 4.40.
Solution 4.41
( )( )( )
( )( ) s m a M V
s m RT a
e e e
e e
/ 3329 9 . 332 10
/ 9 . 332 78 . 275 287 4 . 1
= = =
= = =
Problem 4.42
Let us double the exit Mach number of the
tunnel in Problem 4.40 simply by adding a
longer nozzle section with the requisite
expansion ratio. Keep the reservoir
properties the same as those in Problem
4.40. Then we have a Mach 20 wind
tunnel, with test section pressure and
temperature considerably lower than in
Problem 4.40, i.e., the test section flow no
longer corresponds to conditions at a
standard altitude of 55 km. Be that as it
may, we have at least doubled the Mach
number of the tunnel.
Calculate: (a) the exit-to-throat area ratio
of the Mach 20 nozzle, (b) the exit
velocity. Compare these values with
those for the Mach 10 tunnel in Problems
4.40 and 4.41. What can you say about
the differences? In particular, note the
exit velocities for the Mach 10 and Mach
20 tunnels. You will see that they are not
much different. What is then giving the
big increase in exit Mach number?

Solution 4.42
( )( )( ) s m RT M a M V
K
M
T T
M
M
A
A
e e e e e
e
e
e
e
t
e
/ 3390 5 . 71 287 4 . 1 20
5 . 71
2
20 ) 1 (
1 5791
2
) 1 (
1
15377 20
2
1 4 . 1
1
1 4 . 1
2
20
1
2
1
1
1
2 1
1
2
1
2
0
1 4 . 1
1 4 . 1
2
2
1
1
2
2
= = = =
=
(

+ =
(

+ =
=
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
=
(

|
.
|

\
|

+
+
=

28.7 times
increase of exit
area