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F.P. ASSIGNMENT NO.

SUBMITTED BYROHIT ARORA 10113057 IPE 3rd YEAR

Material handling is the function of moving the right material to the right place in the right time, in the right amount, in sequence, and in the right condition to minimize production cost.

Material Handling involves the movement of material, manually or mechanically in batches or one item at a time within the Plant. The movement may be horizontal, vertical or combination of horizontal or vertical. Material Handling is the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. The focus is on the methods, mechanical equipment, systems and related controls used to achieve these functions. Briefly, Material Handling is the moving of materials from the raw stage through production to ultimate Customer with the least expenditure of time and effort so as to produce maximum Productive Efficiency at the lowest Material Handling cost.

PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING


1. Principle of Planning: All Handling activities should be planned. 2. Systems Principle: Plan a system integrating as many Handling activities as is possible and coordinating the full scope of operations (receiving, storage, production, inspection packaging, warehousing, shipping, and transportation

PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING


3. Principle of Material-Flow Plan an operation sequence and equipment arrangement to optimize material flow. 4. Principle of Simplification Reduce, combine, or eliminate unnecessary movements and /or equipment.

5. Principle of Gravity Utilize gravity to move material whenever practicable.

PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING


6. Principle of Space-Utilization Make optimum utilization of building cube. 7. Principle of Unit-Size Increase quantity, size, weight of load handled. 8. Principle of Safety Provide for safe handling methods and equipment.

PRINCIPLES OF MATERIAL HANDLING


9. Principle of Mechanization/Automation Use mechanized or automated handling equipment when practicable.

10. Principle of Equipment Selection In selecting Handling equipment, consider all aspects of the MATERIAL to be handled, the MOVE to be made, and the METHOD(s) to be utilized.

OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING


1. Lower the unit materials handling costs. It is obvious that if the overall materials handling costs are reduced the unit costs will be reduced. This approach requires the costs of handling be allocated to or identified with the units of product, or its component parts that moved.
2. Reduce the manufacturing cycle time: The total time required to make a product from the receipt of raw materials to the finished goods can be reduced through effective materials handling.

OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING


3. Contribute toward a better control of the flow of goods: A principle way in which good materials handling practice can affect savings is by making the control of goods easier particularly in continuous manufacturing, where all operations are tied together by the materials handling plan.
4. Provide for improved working conditions and greater safety in the movement of materials many of the provisions of the occupational Safety and Health Act require adherence to safe handling practices. These must be followed. In addition, it is evident that the safe handling of materials will be reflected in a better industrial accident record.

OBJECTIVES OF MATERIAL HANDLING


5. Provide for fewer rejects: Care in the handling of the product will contribute to a better quality level of the goods produced. Products damaged by inefficient handling are all too often a major cost to manufacturer. 6. Achieve decreased storage requirement: Better movement and storage of materials should increase the utilization of storage space.
7. Gain Higher productivity at lower manufacturing cost: Any materials handling system, if it is worth its investments, is design to improve productivity. This improvement should be achieved by moving materials in the fastest, most efficient and economical way possible.

MATERAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS


Material handling equipment is equipment that relate to the movement, storage, control and protection of materials, goods and products throughout the process of manufacturing, distribution, consumption and disposal. Material handling equipment is the mechanical equipment involved in the complete system. Material handling equipment is generally separated into four main categories: storage and handling equipment, engineered systems, industrial trucks, and bulk material handling.

Selection of Material Handling Equipment

Selection of material handling equipment is an important decision as it affects both the cost and efficiency of handling system.

FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT


1. PROPERTIES OF THE MATERIAL Whether it is solid, liquid or gas, and in what size, shape and weight it is to be moved, are important considerations and can already lead to a preliminary elimination from the range of available equipment under review. Similarly, if a material is fragile, corrosive or toxic this will imply that certain handling methods and containers will be preferable to others. 2. LAYOUT AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUILDING Another restricting factor is the availability of space for handling. Low-level ceiling may preclude the use of hoists or cranes, and the presence of supporting columns in awkward places can limit the size of the material-handling equipment. If the building is multi-storeyed, chutes or ramps for industrial trucks may be used. Layout itself will indicate the type of production operation (continuous, intermittent, fixed position or group) and can indicate some items of equipment that will be more suitable than others. Floor capacity also helps in selecting the best material handling equipment.

FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT


3. PRODUCTION FLOW If the flow is fairly constant between two fixed positions that are not likely to change, fixed equipment such as conveyors or chutes can be successfully used. If, on the other hand, the flow is not constant and the direction changes occasionally from one point to another because several products are being produced simultaneously, moving equipment such as trucks would be preferable. 4. COST CONSIDERATIONS This is one of the most important considerations. The above factors can help to narrow the range of suitable equipment, while costing can help in taking a final decision. Several cost elements need to be taken into consideration when comparisons are made between various items of equipment that are all capable of handling the same load. Initial investment and operating and maintenance costs are the major cost to be considered. By calculating and comparing the total cost for each of the items of equipment under consideration, a more rational decision can be reached on the most appropriate choice.

FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT


5. NATURE OF OPERATIONS Selection of equipment also depends on nature of operations like whether handling is temporary or permanent, whether the flow is continuous or intermittent and material flow pattern-vertical or horizontal. 6. ENGINEERING FACTORS Selection of equipment also depends on engineering factors like door and ceiling dimensions, floor space, floor conditions and structural strength. 7. EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY Reliability of the equipment and supplier reputation and the after sale service also plays an important role in selecting material handling equipments.

AUTOMATED GUIDE VEHICLES


An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse. Application of the automatic guided vehicle has broadened during the late 20th century.

AUTOMATED GUIDE VEHICLES


APPLICATIONS Repetitive movement of materials over a distance Regular delivery of stable loads Medium throughput/volume When on-time delivery is critical and late deliveries are causing inefficiency Operations with at least two shifts Processes where tracking material is important

CONVEYOR SYSTEM
A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow quick and efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials, which make them very popular in the material handling industries.

TYPES OF CONVEYOR SYSTEMS


Pneumatic conveyor systems
Every pneumatic system, makes use of pipes or ducts called transportation lines that carry mixture of materials and a stream of air. These materials are such as dry pulverized or free flowing or light powdery materials like cement, fly ash etc. These materials can be transported conveniently to various destinations by means of a stream of high velocity air through pipe lines. Products are moved through various tubes via air pressure, allowing for extra vertical versatility. Pneumatic conveyors are either carrier systems or dilutephase systems; carrier systems simply push items from one entry point to one exit point, such as the money-exchanging tubes used at a bank drive-through window. Dilute-phase systems use push-pull pressure to guide materials through various entry and/or exit points.

TYPES OF CONVEYOR SYSTEMS


Vibrating conveyor systems
A Vibrating Conveyor is a machine with a solid conveying surface which is turned up on the side to form a trough. They are used extensively in food grade applications where sanitation, wash down , and low maintenance are essential. Vibrating conveyors are also suitable for harsh, very hot, dirty, or corrosive environments. They can be used to convey newly cast metal parts which may reach upwards of 1,500 F (820 C). Due to the fixed nature of the conveying pans vibrating conveyors can also perform tasks such as sorting, screening, classifying and orienting parts. Vibrating conveyors have been built to convey material at angles exceeding 45 from horizontal using special pan shapes. Flat pans will convey most materials at a 5 Incline from horizontal line.

TYPES OF CONVEYOR SYSTEMS


Flexible conveyor systems The flexible conveyor is based on a conveyor beam in aluminium or stainless steel, with low friction slide rails guiding a plastic multi-flexing chain. Products to be conveyed travel directly on the conveyor, or on pallets/carriers. These conveyors can be worked around obstacles and keep production lines flowing. They are made at varying levels and can work in multiple environments. They are used in food packaging, case packing, and pharmaceutical industries but also in retail stores such as Wal-Mart and Kmart

TYPES OF CONVEYOR SYSTEMS


Vertical conveyor Vertical conveyor also commonly referred to as freight lifts and material lifts - are conveyor systems used to raise or lower materials to different levels of a facility during the handling process. Vertical lift conveyors contain two adjacent, parallel conveyors for simultaneous upward movement of adjacent surfaces of the parallel conveyors. One of the conveyors normally has spaced apart flites for transporting bulk food items. The dual conveyors rotate in opposite directions, but are operated from one gear box to insure equal belt speed. One of the conveyors is pivotally hinged to the other conveyor for swinging the pivotally attached conveyor away from the remaining conveyor for access to the facing surfaces of the parallel conveyors

TYPES OF CONVEYOR SYSTEMS


Heavy duty roller conveyors Heavy Duty roller conveyors are used for moving items that are at least 500 lbs. This type of conveyor makes the handling of such heavy equipment/products easier and more time effective. Many of the heavy duty roller conveyors can move as fast as 75 feet/minute. Other types of heavy duty roller conveyors are gravity roller conveyor, chain driven live roller conveyor, pallet accumulation conveyor, multi-strand chain conveyor, and chain & roller transfers.

Industrial Trucks
Industrial trucks usually refer to operator driven motorized warehouse vehicles, powered manually, by gasoline, propane or electrically. Industrial trucks assist the material handling system with versatility; they can go where engineered systems cannot. Forklift trucks are the most common example of industrial trucks but certainly aren't the extent of the category. Tow tractors and stock chasers are additional examples of industrial trucks. Their greatest advantage lies in the wide range of attachments available; these increase the truck ability to handle various types and shapes of material.

CRANE
A crane is a lifting machine that has hoists, wire ropes and sheaves on it. It can be used both to raise and lower things or to move them left and right. Cranes are often used in the construction industry (building houses or buildings) and in creating or moving heavy things.

HOIST
A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a lifting hook. Types of Hoist Wire Rope Hoist or Chain Hoist Construction hoists Mine hoists