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WELDING EDUCATION By R.SRINIVASAN CONTECH ENGINEERS.

Welding education

At the outset we would like to thank for giving us an opportunity to recommend and educate about the various documentation for carrying out the welding operations as required by your company.
We are happy to recommend the following for your kind considerations and its implementations.

Topics covered

WELDING PROCESSES. WELDING CONSUMABLES WELDING EQUIPMENTS WELDING PROCEDURE WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATIONS(WPS) PROCEDURE QUALIFICATIONS (PQR) WELDER PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATIONS(WPQ) WELDING DEFECTS ITS CAUSES AND REMIDIES SAFETY

SESSION-1

WELDING PROCESS

WELDING PROCESS

The present process of welding used to manufacture various components generally are as follows MMAW- Manual Metal Arc Welding Process GMAW- Gas Metal Arc Welding process GTAW Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

Types Of Welding
Welding Gas Welding Arc Welding

Normal practiced process


Manual Metal Arc Welding Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding MMAW GTAW GMAW

Flux cored Metal Arc Welding FCAW Sub Merged Arc Welding SAW

Advanced process

Narrow Gap Welding Laser Beam Welding Electron Beam Welding Diffusion Bonding Friction Stir Welding Plasma Welding Plasma Transfer Arc Technique (PTA)

Selection of Welding process

The Type of Weld Joint The Joint Design The place of welding Welding Position Type of consumables availability The skill availability of personnel The types of equipment availability.

WELDING CONSUMABLES & WELDING EQUIPMENTS.

WELDING CONSUMABLES

The Welding consumables such as the welding electrodes and filler wires that are required and are recommended are as follows. E-6013 Welding Electrodes for Welding in MMAW process for Carbon steel, Mild steel, For the general purpose welding applications up to thickness 18 mm or 3/4th inch and does not require any Mechanical testing or radiography of the weld .

For thickness over the above mentioned must be welded with Low Hydrogen electrodes as per AWS E 7018 or E7018-1 Type of welding consumables irrespective of the requirement regarding the mechanical properties..

Welding consumables for various steels.

General Mild steel Up to 18mm AWS 6013 class ER 70 SG & ER 70 S-6


General Mild steel Above 18mm AWS 7018 class ER 70 S2 & ER 70 S-6 or ER 71 T-1 Flux cored wires.

Selection contd.

For Radiography joints The following grades consumables are mandatory. AWS 6013 & 7018 classified Electrodes ER 70 S2, ER 70 S-3TIG welding filler wires ER 70 S-6 Mig Welding continuous filler wires.

Consumables- gases

ER 70 S-6 Solid wire for welding the GMAW (MAG) welding process ER 70-S-2 Tig filler applications incase of carbon steel welding . The use of 100 % Co2 gas for Mig welding and 100 % pure Argon gas for TIG welding applications are the main criteria.

Consumables-contd

In the case of use of Low alloy steels where C, Mo, Cr and other alloys are involved the creep properties are important and hence the matching composition of the weld metals are mandatory

RECOMENDATIONS

The selection of the correct welding consumables depends on the following parameters Selection of the base materials The weldability of the steel Selection of the welding consumables as per ASME section-II- C Welding materials that meet the standards of ASME to be used. Acceptance of AWS or any other standards depends on the clients requirements.

Consumables contd.

Welding of Stainless steels like commonly used steels such as 304, 304L, 308L, 309, 316. and other categories such as 310, 321, 347, Super Duplex Steels, the respective grade of Electrodes and the Filler wires to be used with proper shielding gases.

Stainless steel

301,304,308 Class AWS E 308 & 308 L grades Electrodes and ER 308 L TIG/ MIG welding wires. 316 and 316 L AWS E- 316 & 316 L ER 316 L TIG and MIG fillers

SS Contd.

For 309 Grade steels AWS E 309 Electrodes and ER 309 L Wires Dissimilar metals of SS and SS-MS AWS 309 L and 309 MoL ER 309 L & ER 309 MoL

SS Contd.

Stabilized steels of 321, 347 Namely Niobium, Columbium stabilized steels the use of AWS E- 347 electrodes and wires of ER 347 grade is recommended. For other grades like 310,312, 317 the respective grades of consumables be used.

Alloy steels AWS class of low alloy electrodes & wires

Other metals

Cast Iron and Steel, Monel etc


Machinable cast iron Non Machinable

WELDING EQUIPMENT

TYPES OF EQUIPMENTS

Standard Type of welding Equipments Arc Welding Transformers D.C. Rectifiers Thyristor controlled Welding Rectifiers Welding Invertors TIG Welding Equipments Mig/Mag Welding machines Sub Merged Arc Welding machines

Advanced Welding Machines. Electron Beam Welding machines, Narrow Gap welding machines Laser cutting and welding Plasma Welding Girth Welding Equipments.

Under Tig Welding category we can have


DC Pulsed welding machines AC/ Dc Tig welding machines, AC Square wave pulsing machines

In the category of MIG Welding we have


Pulsed Mig Welding Machines, Inverter based Mig Welding Machines Synergic Pulsed MIG Welding Machines Surface Tension Transfer Machines (STT)

Selection of the correct equipment

Selection of the right type of equipment is important to get the desired welding properties. The selection decides the feasibility of the use of the process. The selection should be based on the availability of the equipment, The acceptance of the process The convenience of the operation.