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Liquid Crystal Displays

What they are and how they work

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)


How is liquid crystal used in an LCD?
In an LCD, it is used in a thin layer (~0.005 mm thick) between glass plates, when it appears transparent The LCD changes its optical properties when a small voltage is applied to clear conducting layers (made of Indium Tin Oxide, ITO), on the inside surface of each plate. This can be AC or DC Applying the voltage realigns the tiny particles perpendicular to the plates The resulting optical change can only be seen using polarisers, as shown

Material needed for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)


A working LCD consists of several components: display glass, polarizer drive electronics, control electronics, mechanical package, and power supply. The display glass between which the liquid crystals lieis coated with row and column electrodes and has contact pads to connect drive electronics (electric current) to each row and column electrode The mechanical package is the frame that mounts the printed circuit boards for the drive and control electronics to the display glass

Manufacturing of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)


Making passive matrix LCDs is a multi-step process.

1. First, the two glass substrates must be cut to the proper size, polished, and washed. Cutting can be done with a diamond saw or scribe, while polishing involves a process called lapping, 2. After being washed and dried, the substrates are coated with a layer of silicon dioxide. 3. Next, the transparent electrode pattern must be made on the substrates. This is done by completely coating both front and rear glass surfaces with a very thin layer of indium tin oxide. Manufacturers then make a mask of the desired pattern, using either a silk-screening or photolithography process. They apply the finished mask to the fully coated glass, and areas of indium tin oxide that are not needed are etched away chemically 4. After the electrode pattern is in place, the substrates must be coated with a polymer. The polymer allows the liquid crystals to align properly with the glass surface After coating the glass, manufacturers then stroke the polymer coat in a single direction with soft material. This can result in small parallel grooves being etched into the polymer, or it may simply stretch the polymer coat

Manufacturing of Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)


Making passive matrix LCDs is a multi-step process. 5. A sealing resin is next applied to the substrates, followed by plastic spacers that will give the liquid crystal cell the proper thickness. Next, the liquid crystal material is injected into the appropriate area between the two glass substrates. 6. To make LCDs more visible, polarizer are added. 7. After the polarizer film is attached, the unit is allowed to age. Finally, the finished glass display assembly is mounted to the circuit boards containing the control and drive electronics. Then, the entire package is ready to be mounted to the device using the LCDlaptop computer, fax machine, clock, etc.

RED

GREEN

BLUE

RED+GREEN +BLUE

BLUE+GREEN

RED+BLUE

RED+GREEN

Construction of a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

The End