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What is the basic component of a n-bit


• For example, consider a 4-bit counter (one can apply

similar logic to n-bit counter)
• The basic computational elements are JK flip-flops.
• JK flip-flop is based on RS master slave flip-flop with
clear and set.
Note: This is

What is the basic component of JK

basically made
up of 9 NAND
gates. Now our
search for basic
components of a
master-slave flip-flop?
counter reduces
to find out the
simplest way to
construct NAND

RS master-slave flip-flop. Connecting to one of the S inputs and Q

to one of the R inputs results in a toggle action. The remaining S
inputs are renamed to J and the remaining R inputs are renamed to K.
The resulting configuration is then called a JK master-slave flip-flop .
How to make a NAND gate?

Transistor-transistor logic implementation of a NAND

Note: It uses two transistors only.
We have shown
that we have to
use transistor to
construct a NAND MOSFET
gate. But what
kind of transistor
we will use to
• A single crystal of
construct the
NAND gate if we
silicon can have
have to use the regions with
NAND gate in a
chip? different
• Diffusing or
Phosphorous in Si
➜n-type region
• P-type bulk is
Boron rich.
Problem: How
can you use this
• To modulate the flow of
electrons from the Source
to Drain by applying a
signal to Gate.
• A negative potential on
Gate ➔ repel electrons
just under the oxide ➔ no
• High Positive potential on
Gate ➔ attract electrons to
the region just under the
Typical dimensions in a MOSFET
• Question: What do you understand if I say, we have 0.18
micron technology?
Answer: Tiniest details that can be produced on a wafer
(Si) are 0.18µm wide.
• Usually we use 0.28 micron or 0.30 micron technology but
IBM 1 GHz Coppermine chip has featured 0.18 µm
• In 0.18 micron technology length of the channel that links
the source to drain is of the order of 35 µm and the
thickness of SiO2 is .02 µm = 200 Angstrom.
Why can’t we farther decrease the
thickness of the Silicon dioxide layer?
• If the oxide is too thin, electrons may tunnel
through it, thus shortcircuiting the gate.
• The thinner the oxide, the slower the device.
Problem: Explain the above statements and prove the
second statement. Hints: A gate in a MOSFET is
an example of a capacitor and the time taken for
the capacitor to discharge is proportional to the
square root of the capacitance.
From the beginning to the present

An early computing machine built from mechanical

gears(Left),a state-of-the art IBM chip with 0.25 micron
features. The production version will contain 200
million transistors.
Transition from micro technology to

A single-electron transistor (SET) is carved by the tip of a scanning

tunneling microscope (STM). According to classical physics, there is
no way that electrons can get from the 'source' to the 'drain',
because of the two barrier walls either side of the 'island'. But the
structure is too small and electrons can, under certain
circumstances, tunnel through the barriers (but only one electron at
a time can do this!). Thus the SET wouldn't work without quantum
Recent observations

• In 1999 Bell lab researcher demonestrated a MOSFET

with a 500 Angstrom gate. Ballistic effects were visible
and transistors performance was better than would be the
case of wih diffusive electron transport only.
• If the gate shrinks by yet another order of magnitude (50
Angstrom). The device ends up leaking in every direction
and ceases to operate as a switch.
• The physical limits of MOSFET technology can be
overcome by switching to a different technology (say
carbon nanotube based flip-flop (IBM August 2001).