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Machine Shop Safety

Presented By Hafiz Abdul Hadi Lecturer(Technology Deptt) B.Sc. Mechanical Engineering

Machine Shop Supervisor Are responsible for ensuring that activities undertaken in their workshops are consistent with the policy of providing a safe and healthful environment for staff and students and for those who provide services to their workshops In most cases this is a departmental technician, but could be a supervising member.

LF - Responsibilities

Machine Shop Supervisors shall ensure scheduling the use of machine tools as appropriate that only qualified persons who are authorized to access the workshop operate machine tools that tools are in good mechanical and operating condition that users comply with all safety regulations
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Work Shop Supervisor


that users wear personal protective

equipment as required that all injuries and "near misses" are reported to their Chair. that lockout procedures are enforced that regular documented safety inspections of the area are conducted

Work Shop Supervisor


that persons do not work alone with

designated machine tools Arranging for immediate medical attention for injured personnel and reporting of incidents as required Complying with all policies and procedures set out by the University and/or by the department Familiar with all emergency response procedures

LF - Responsibilities

Faculty, and Staff observe all safety regulations, standards, guidelines relating to machine tool use and operation provide the shop supervisor with information regarding their certification and training provide suggestions on improving safeguarding that may not be already in place

Faculty, Staff & Students


report any machine that does not have a

safeguard for all points of operation or rotational motion, nip points, and cutting, shearing, punching, and forming mechanisms wear appropriate clothing and personal protective equipment report immediately any machine tools that exhibit signs of excessive wear or have damaged or misused parts

Faculty, Staff & Students


report any injuries or "near misses" to the

supervisor immediately keep the work area clean complying with all University/Department safety policies and procedures taking all necessary and appropriate safety precautions relevant to performance of duties;

Legal Framework

Training & Instruction Operator Training Equipment Manuals

Training & Instruction

Operator Training The Supervisor of the machine shop shall be responsible for ensuring that users are trained in the proper inspection, use and maintenance of all tools and machines which the worker is required to use Such training shall include.,

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LF Training & Instruction

Operator Training continued a description and identification of the hazards associated with particular machines the safeguards themselves, how they provide protection, and the hazards for which they are intended how and why to use the safeguards how and under what circumstances safeguards can be removed and who may remove them

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LF Training & Instruction


what to do if a safeguard is damaged,

missing, or unable to provide adequate protection use of personal protective equipment emergency planning for medical incidents, chemical spills, loss of power, and evacuation alarms Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) lockout/tagout
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LF Training & Instruction

Equipment Manuals The supervisor shall maintain a manual of operating instructions for each type of portable electric tool, portable airpowered tool, explosive actuated tool and machine The manuals shall be readily available for examination by a person who is required to use the tool or machine to which the manual applies

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Projects Review/ Approval Mechanism


Scope Procedure

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Projects Review/Approval Mechanism

Scope All projects and activities involving: Research Student-related Project/Thesis Change in Equipment, Process or Materials New Construction and Renovations Special Events Travel (Domestic & International)

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Projects Review/Approval Mechanism - Scope

The purposes of such a review are: To identify hazards and assess the risks associated with the project or activity; To evaluate the adequacy of safety procedures, the facilities, and the equipment; and To determine the need for special training, licensing, medical surveillance, etc.

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Projects Review/Approval Mechanism

Procedure The investigator should review the Preliminary Risk Assessment to determine if a full risk assessment is necessary.

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PR/AM - Procedure

If a full risk assessment is necessary, then the investigator should review it with the departments technical officer and/or the Officer for the Faculty of Engineering, Architecture and Science.

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PR/AM - Procedure

Upon receipt of the Risk Assessment Form, the Chair/Academic Director or Dean will confirm the required control measures The investigator will be advised concerning the acceptability of the protocol and any modifications, additions, etc. required A copy of the completed form will be submitted to the CEHSM

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Review of Risk Assessment Form

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Visitors in Laboratories Hazard Warning Signs and Labels

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Visitors in Work Shops Each workshop supervisor is responsible for the safety of adult visitors to his or her work shop, including ensuring that training, issuance of personal protective equipment, paper work completion, and other requirements have been met Doors to restricted areas must not be propped open to allow visitor access

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels Hazard Categories General Information Posting of Hazard Signs & Labels Rules and Procedures

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels Hazard Categories Hazard identification signage has four distinct categories: NOTICE states a policy related to safety of personnel or protection or property but is not for use with a physical hazard.

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

CAUTION indicates a potentially hazardous situation that, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury. WARNING indicates a potentially hazardous situation that, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. DANGER indicates an imminently hazardous situation that, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury.

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels General Information Prominent signs and labels of the following types are generally posted in and adjacent to work shops: emergency phone numbers of emergency personnel/ facilities, supervisors, and lab workers; identity labels, showing contents of containers and associated hazards;
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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels location signs for safety showers, eyewash stations, other safety and first aid equipment, and exits; and warnings at areas or equipment where special or unusual hazards exist.

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels Some of the more common hazards found in Work Shops that are required to be or should be identified are: Machine & Equipment Radiation hazards Laser light Chemical hazards Explosive or flammable liquids

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels


Compressed gas storage Noise hazards UV light

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels Posting of Hazard Signs & Labels The work shop supervisor is responsible for posting hazard warning signs as necessary and in compliance with the requirements for each type of hazard encountered

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels Rules and Procedures Signs must be posted only while a hazard exists and must be removed as soon as the source of danger is removed. Hazard warning signs must show the name(s) of the hazard(s) and the investigator, his/her alternate, with their emergency telephone numbers.

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels The investigator named on the hazard sign will determine when visitors can be allowed in the laboratory. Signs that are to be used permanently should be posted in permanent frames Signs that are to be posted on a temporary bases (less than one month) may be installed in permanent frames or posted with tape on appropriate surfaces.

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Identification and Control of Hazardous Areas

Hazard Warning Signs and Labels The work shop supervisor is responsible for obtaining all hazard and/or labels for the work shop.

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General Safety Guidelines


Where Mechanical Hazards Occur Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions Requirements for Safeguards Non-Mechanical Hazards Controlling Work Shop Risks Safe Work Shop Practices

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General Safety Guidelines

Where Mechanical Hazards Occur The Point of Operation Power Transmission Apparatus Other Moving Parts

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GSG Where Mechanical Hazards Occur


The Point of Operation
that point where work is performed on

the material, such as cutting, shaping, boring, or forming of stock.

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GSG Where Mechanical Hazards Occur


Power Transmission Apparatus
all components of the mechanical

system which transmit energy to the part of the machine performing the work. These components include flywheels, pulleys, belts, connecting rods, couplings, cams, spindles, chains, cranks, and gears.

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GSG Where Mechanical Hazards Occur


Other Moving Parts
all parts of the machine which move

while the machine is working. These can include reciprocating, rotating, and transverse moving parts, as well as feed mechanisms and auxiliary parts of the machine.

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General Safety Guidelines

Hazardous Mechanical Motions and Actions A wide variety of mechanical motions and actions may present hazards to the worker These can include the movement of rotating members, reciprocating arms, moving belts, meshing gears, cutting teeth, and any parts that impact or shear

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GSG Hazardous Mechanical Motions/Actions


These different types of hazardous

mechanical motions and actions are basic to nearly all machines, and recognizing them is the first step toward protecting workers from the danger they present The basic types of hazardous mechanical motions and actions are:

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GSG Hazardous Mechanical Motions/Actions


Motions:
rotating, reciprocating & transverse

Actions:
cutting, punching, shearing, & bending

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GSG Hazardous Mechanical Motions/Actions

Motions Rotating motion can be dangerous; even smooth, slowly rotating shafts can grip clothing, and through mere skin contact force an arm or hand into a dangerous position. Injuries due to contact with rotating parts can be severe.

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GSG HMM/A - Motions


Collars, couplings, cams, clutches,

flywheels, shaft ends, spindles, and horizontal or vertical shafting are some examples of common rotating mechanisms which may be hazardous. The danger increases when bolts, nicks, abrasions, and projecting keys or set screws are exposed on rotating parts, as shown in the next slide
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GSG HMM/A - Motions


In-running nip point hazards are caused

by the rotating parts on machinery There are three main types of in-running nips. Between parts that rotate in opposite directions Between rotating and tangentially moving parts Between rotating and fixed parts
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GSG HMM/A - Motions

Between parts that rotate in opposite directions Parts can rotate in opposite directions while their axes are parallel to each other. These parts may be in contact (producing a nip point) or in close proximity to each other. In the latter case the stock fed between the rolls produces the nip points. This danger is common on machinery with intermeshing gears, rolling mills.

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GSG HMM/A - Motions

Between rotating and tangentially moving parts Some examples would be: the point of contact between a power transmission belt and its pulley, a chain and a sprocket, or a rack and pinion.

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GSG HMM/A - Motions

Between rotating and fixed parts Nip points can occur between rotating and fixed parts which create a shearing, crushing, or abrading action. Examples are: spoked handwheels or flywheels, screw conveyors, or the periphery of an abrasive wheel and an incorrectly adjusted work rest.

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GSG HMM/A - Motions


Reciprocating motions may be

hazardous because, during the back-andforth or up-and-down motion, a worker may be struck by or caught between a moving and a stationary part.

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GSG HMM/A - Motions


Transverse motion (movement in a

straight, continuous line) creates a hazard because a worker may be struck or caught in a pinch(Press tightly between the fingers) or shear point by the moving part.

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GSG HMM/A - Actions

Actions Cutting action involves rotating, reciprocating, or transverse motion The danger of cutting action exists at the point of operation where finger, head, and arm injuries can occur and where flying chips or scrap material can strike the eyes or face Such hazards are present at the point of operation in cutting wood, metal, or other materials
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GSG HMM/A - Actions


Typical examples of mechanisms involving

cutting hazards include band-saws, circular saws, boring or drilling machines, turning machines (lathes), or milling machines.

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GSG HMM/A - Actions Punching action results when power is applied to a slide (ram) for the purpose of blanking, drawing, or stamping metal or other materials. The danger of this type of action occurs at the point of operation where stock is inserted, held, and withdrawn by hand. Typical machinery used for punching operations are power presses and iron workers.

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GSG HMM/A - Actions Shearing action involves applying power to a slide or knife in order to trim or shear metal or other materials. A hazard occurs at the point of operation where stock is actually inserted, held, and withdrawn. Typical examples of machinery used for shearing operations are mechanically, hydraulically, or pneumatically powered shears.

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GSG HMM/A - Actions Bending action results when power is applied to a slide in order to draw or stamp metal or other materials, and a hazard occurs at the point of operation where stock is inserted, held, and withdrawn. Equipment that uses bending action includes power presses, press brakes, and tubing benders.

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General Safety Guidelines

Requirements for Safeguards Safeguards must meet these minimum general requirements: Prevent contact Secure Protect from falling objects Create no new hazards Create no interference Allow safe lubrication

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GSG Requirements for Safeguards

Prevent Contact The safeguard must prevent hands, arms, or any other part of a worker's body from making contact with dangerous moving parts. A good safeguarding system eliminates the possibility of the operator or another worker placing their hands near hazardous moving parts.

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GSG Requirements for Safeguards

Secure Workers should not be able to easily remove or tamper with the safeguard, because a safeguard that can easily be made ineffective is no safeguard at all. Guards and safety devices should be made of durable material that will withstand the conditions of normal use. They must be firmly secured to the machine.
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GSG Requirements for Safeguards

Protect From Falling Objects The safeguard should ensure that no objects can fall into moving parts. A small tool which is dropped into a cycling machine could easily become a projectile that could strike and injure someone.

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GSG Requirements for Safeguards

Create No New Hazards A safeguard defeats its own purpose if it creates a hazard of its own such as a shear point, a jagged edge, or an unfinished surface which can cause a laceration. The edges of guards, for instance, should be rolled or bolted in such a why that they eliminate sharp edges.
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GSG Requirements for Safeguards

Create No Interference Any safeguard which impedes a worker from performing the job quickly and comfortably might soon be overridden or disregarded. Proper safeguarding can actually enhance efficiency since it can relieve the worker's apprehensions about injury.

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GSG Requirements for Safeguards

Allow Safe Lubrication If possible, one should be able to lubricate the machine without removing the safeguards. Locating oil reservoirs outside the guard, with a line leading to the lubrication point, will reduce the need for the operator or maintenance worker to enter the hazardous area.

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