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Plant & Machinery

Prof.S.V.S.RAJA PRASAD

by

Percentage of Fatalities related to Plant & Machinery (P&M) Operations


60 50

59 53 34

% of 40 Fatalities Related to 30 P&M 20 operations


10 0

28 18
2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05

12.5

Apr Sep 05 12.5

Percentage

28

18

53

59

34

Siting
Bearing Capacity of the Soil. If Capacity is poor a minimum three layers of criss-cross bearing packing shall be provided. The strength of foundation or structure, on which the machinery may stand. The proximity of hazard, such as nearby structures, overhead electric conductors etc.

Fencing of Machinery
All

rotating & Moving parts of machines should be guarded should not be removed when the machine is on. removed maintenance should replaced as soon possible. for be as

Guards

Guard

Types Guards
Fixed:

A permanent part of the machine, these guards are typically made of sheet metal, screen, wire, bars, or plastic. They control the action of the machine by automatically shutting it off if the interlocked guards are opened or removed. These barriers can be manually adjusted to accommodate various sizes and shapes of material. They open just enough to accept different sizes of stock, and then automatically return to the reset position.

Interlocked:

Adjustable:

Self-adjusting:

Access

Safe and adequate means of access including handholds and footholds shall be provided to all parts where a person may have to walk, climb or work.

Maintenance

Work-permit system shall be implemented Maintenance shall be done only by authorized personnel No repair & maintenance works while the machine in operation Electric Power shall be shut off and relevant fuses removed. Lock out / Tag out system shall be followed.

Fire Prevention

One 2kg Stored Pressure type Dry Chemical Powder fire extinguisher shall be provided in all the mobile construction machineries. Extinguishers should be inspected & maintained Operator to be trained on use of fire extinguisher

Earth Moving, Lifting & Hoisting Machinery


General
The Operator shall be adequately, protected from weather by providing a cabin. The windows shall be provided with toughened safety glass and wipers. Arrangement of the controls & Seat should permit safe operation of the machinery without undue fatigue and discomfort.

Seat Belt for the Operator to be provided, with guardrails and toe guards.

Brakes & Controls

Effective braking devices shall be provided on the wheels of the machinery. Manual parking brake acting on the driving wheels shall also be provided.

Each control shall be clearly identified to show the motions and direction of movement.

OPERATORS & DRIVERS


The Operators and Driver shall, Be Authorized and competent Possess License Cover loose hair Have clear view of the load & operational area Act upon the instructions of the signaler

Operators & Drivers


The Operators and Driver shall

Not leave his cabin while the machine is running or the load is suspended Switch off the electric power supply or stop the engine and apply appropriate brakes and locks before leaving the machine Have good vision and undergo the medical test for vision once at least in every two years.

Operators & Drivers


Before starting, the Driver shall ensure that the gear and clutch are in neutral, the brakes, where hand brakes are provided, are on.

Working near Overhead Electrical Line

50m

Contd.
Avoid In

Working Overhead Power Line.

unavoidable case the following minimum clearance shall be maintained between the machinery and the line. 11kv and below 1.40m 33 kv and below 3.60m 132 kv and below 273 kv and below 4.70m 5.70m

Working near Overhead Electrical Line

Contd
When it becomes necessary to operate the machinery with clearances less than those specified, then

The power lines shall be shut off and The residual charges grounded before commencing to use the machinery.

Underground Facilities

Work Permit shall be obtained to carry out earthworks in places, where underground utility is available.

Earth Moving Equipment


General safety:
Every vehicle or earth moving equipment shall have the following fully functional:

Silencers; Tail lights; Power and hand brakes; Reversing alarm; and

Excavator
Work permit in underground utility case of Safe clearance overhead electrical Line. Not to be operated on grades steeper than those specified by the manufacturer. Safe distance from excavations. The height of the benches in over burden not to be more than the height of the boom Swing Lock to prevent from accidental swinging during operation or transport.

Excavator
Operator shall

Be experienced and have valid Licence. Use the seat belts. Not exceed load capacity of the excavator. Use reverse horn and swing alarm at the appropriate time. Lower the boom to a safe position with the bucket on the ground and turn off the machine before stepping off for any reason. Keep the bucket resting on stable ground, when not in use and bucket shall not be left hanging.

Excavator
Site Workmen shall
Be educated to keep off the swing area.. Prohibited to ride in or work from excavator.

Dozer
When

running down the hill the bulldozer shall be in the lowest gear. Blade shall not be used as brake except in case of emergency. The blade suspension arrangement shall be inspected once a week.

Dozer
Provided with Reverse Horn. After the close of work, the bulldozer shall be left on level ground. Before leaving, the Operator shall Apply the brakes Lower blade and Put the gearshift lever in neutral position.

Road Roller

Before a Road Roller is used on the ground, such ground is examined for its bearing capacity. A Roller shall not be moved downhill with the engine out of gear.

Passenger Hoist
Legend 1 Limit Switches / Over-run Devices 2 Landing Gates 3 Hoist Enclosure 4 Hoist anchored to the building 5 Hoist Arrester Device 6 Hoist Operation from one position 7 Dead Man handle 8 Gate Interlocks on Cage / Platform 9 Landing Gate Interlocks 10 SWL on Hoist

Passenger Hoist

Manufacturers recommendations shall be followed. Hoist shall be erected by competent persons under the supervision of P&M Engineer. Hoist shall be anchored to the building Hoist shall be protected by a substantial enclosure to prevent someone from being struck by any moving part of the hoist or falling down the hoist way. Gates shall be provided at all landings, including ground level with interlocks.

Passenger Hoist

The controls shall be arranged so that the hoist can be operated from one position only. Hoist operator shall be trained and competent. Safe working load of the hoist shall be clearly marked in the Cage. Hoist shall be inspected weekly by P&M Engineer and thoroughly examined every six months by a competent person.

Passenger Hoist

Upper and Lower Limit switches shall always be kept operational.


Emergency Switch, Emergency Alarm and Emergency Lamp shall be provided on the platform. Adequate illumination shall be provided on the platform.

Load limiting device shall be provided in the hoist.


Communication system, like telephone shall be provided which can be used in case of emergencies.

Emergency brake system, like centrifugal force brake, shall be incorporated in the hoist. Such a brake system shall hold the platform from moving down, if the main brake fails.

Builder Hoist

Builder Hoist

Builder Hoist
Erected in accordance with generally accepted technical standards. Secured to the structure Extended to such a distance of at least 900 mm for over-travel. Enclosed on all sides at the bottom, and at all floors to a height of at least 2100 mm from the ground or floor level.

Provided with a door or gate at least 1800 mm high at each landing.

Builder Hoist

Factor of Safety of Suspension rope of the Bucket should be at least six Provided with an efficient brake capable of holding the conveyance with its maximum load in any position when the power fails Materials shall not be carried in such way that they slip or spill from the bucket. Persons shall not be allowed to ride on a builder's hoist.

Builder Hoist

Inspected at least once every week by a competent person. Limit switches and Load Limiters shall be maintained operational. Electrical Switches and panels shall be protected from rain. Proper Earthing shall be provided. Electrically powered hoists shall be equipped with an effective magnetic release brake which will be automatically applied when the controlling machine is in 'stop' position.

Builder Hoist

The person who picks up the load should use safety belt. Wire rope way on the ground shall be barricaded. If required, cross over arrangement shall be provided. Adequate number of pulleys shall be provided so that the wire rope does not fall on the ground. Wire rope shall be lubricated at least once in week.

Builder Hoist

Inspected basis by Engineer.

on weely the P&M

The hoist shall be inspected by competent person once in 12 months. Effective arrangements to be made for clear signals

Signals Use of whistle signals on hoisting work shall be avoided. Both alarm & light shall be used. The following set of signals of electric bells / colored lights shall be used: Bell & Red Light to stop Bell & Green Light to raise Bell & Yellow Light to lower A rapid series of bells for emergency stop. The signal code shall be posted next to the signal device at each work level and at operators location. All words shall be in large size letters, clearly visible to all concerned.

Builder Hoist

Tirfor

Manufacturers recommendations shall be followed.

Tirfor shall never be released when it is under load.


Forward and Reverse levers shall not be used at the same time.

A secure anchorage point shall be ensured to hold the load to be handled.


Operating lever shall not be extended using pipe or any means.

Tirfor

When used with multi sheave block, it shall be ensured that they are suited to the load applied. Only the manufacturer supplied wire rope shall be used. If the operation of tirfor is difficult for one man, the operation shall be stopped and the number of blocks shall be increased within the rated capacity of the machine. Wire rope shall be lubricated at least once in a week.

Chain Pulley Block


Manufacturers followed. recommendations shall be

Should be used only for vertical lifting within its capacity. It shall never be used for pulling the load.

A secure anchorage point shall be ensured to hold the load to be lifted.


Provided with hook latch.

Lifting hook shall never be removed from the Chain Pulley Block, as the removal decreases the lifting the capacity due to the reduction in number of falls of the lifting chain.

Chain Pulley Block


The lifting chain shall not be wound around the load. Suitable slings shall be used.
Chain Pulley Block shall be inspected and maintained by P&M Personnel on weekly basis. Chain Pulley Block shall be inspected by a government authorized Competent Person at least once in a year

Inspection & Testing of lifting & Hoisting Machinery


Tested and examined by a competent person for specified ratings and for safe operation at least once in 12 months, and shall be re-tested and re-examined after any substantial alteration or repair.

Inspection & Testing of lifting & Hoisting

Machinery
Every lifting appliance with its accessory gear, shall be subjected to a test load, which shall exceed the safe working load (SWL) as specified in the following table: Sl. Safe No Workin . g Load Upto 20 1 tonnes 20 to 50 2 tonnes Over 50 3 tonnes Test Load

25 per cent in excess of safe working load 5 tonnes in excess of safe working load. 10 per cent in excess of safe working load

Transporting Machinery
General Safety
Max. Speed Limit inside site : 20 kmph

Every vehicle shall have the following, fully functional:


Silencers; Tail lights; Power and hand brakes; Reversing alarm; and

Search light for forward


and backward movement

Transporting Machinery

Brakes and Controls


Motor trucks, tractors and dumpers shall
Be equipped with brakes that will hold them under the heaviest load that may be hauled in any operating conditions and Enable the vehicle to be locked when stationary.

Transporting Machinery

Draw Gears Motor trucks, hauling trailers and tractors shall be equipped with draw gear such that during coupling no workmen can come between the vehicles being coupled or the vehicles being coupled cannot run into each other.

Vehicles shall not move down the hill with the engine off or with the engine out of gear.

Transporting Machinery
Drivers

Only competent and licensed persons shall drive motor trucks and tractors.

Drivers shall be required to leave the cabins and stand in the clear while the motor trucks are being loaded.
Drivers of tripper trucks used for hot mix plants and batch mix concrete plants and similar operations shall wear the industrial safety helmets.

Operating Condition

Transporting Machinery

Motor trucks should be stationed at such a distance from the Excavator that there is a clearance of at least 0.6m between the Truck and Excavator Where the driver does not have a clear field of vision the movement of motor trucks and tractors shall be controlled by a code of standard hand signals. When uncoupling vehicles, both vehicles shall be blocked by brakes or chocks.

Transporting Machinery
Vehicles being loaded or unloaded shall be braked or blocked. Motor trucks shall not be loaded beyond their capacity. Before a loaded motor truck starts,

the load shall be secure, evenly distributed of safe height, length and width.

Asphalt Plant

Asphalt Plant
Rotary Driers

The primary exhaust fan should be kept running at all times when the plant is working. If it is necessary for personnel to enter the drum e.g. for clearing jammed material, the drum must be stationary; the drive motor isolated and locked out; the drum cooled to a tolerable temperature; and the exhaust fan kept running. Work Permit System shall be implemented.

Asphalt Plant
Batch Heaters The exhaust fan shall always be running before lighting the burner(s).

With any flame failure the batch heater shall be thoroughly purged before attempting to re-light. Persons shall be aware of hot gases and / or flame coming from the batch heater ports. If Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is used and the electrode fails to ignite the gas, the batch heater shall be purged before attempting to relight. Operator shall ensure that no unauthorized persons enter the mixing section of the plant whilst it is in operation.

Asphalt Plant
Mixers
Mixer discharge gates that are actuated pneumatically or hydraulically shall be made dead and the pressure in the controller discharged before any maintenance or repair work is carried out on the mixer.

Asphalt tanks
Clean up all spillages immediately following the occurrences. Ensure that the low binder cut-off float switch is operable. On oil fired tank, ensure that the fusible plug to the automatic fuel cut-off is correctly set is in position and functional. Ensure that the temperature cut-off is correctly set for the type of binder in the tank. On Hand Charged Asphalt stirrer tank, ensure that the protective grill is in position when the filling lid is open. On electrically heated tanks, ensure that the main contactor cabinet doors and the heater chambers are locked.

Asphalt Plant
General

Operation of asphalt plant shall be under the supervision of a competent person.


Workmen handling hot asphalt shall wear gloves, rubber boots, goggles and protective clothing. No naked flame shall be used for ascertaining the level of asphalt. Thinners shall not be heated over an open flame.

Asphalt Plant

If burner goes out, the fuel supply shall be cut off and hot tube shall be thoroughly blown out by the fan so as to prevent backfire. Spilled asphalt shall be promptly cleaned up. A chimney or other suitable exhaust arrangements shall be provided to remove the combustion gases and dust. If the percentage of CO, CO2, etc. in the work atmosphere is more than the TLV (SCBA) or suitable Respirator shall be used.

Batching Plant
Mixer Drum

Silos Concret e Loading Area Scrapper

Skip Area

Batching Plant
Operation The plant should be operated, only if all safety devices such as interlocks, guards, emergency stops, etc. are in place. Before starting the plant, it shall be ensured that nobody is working on the plant. Starting and stopping procedures, control devices / signals shall be followed according to the manufacturers guidelines. No one shall be allowed to enter the danger area of skip.

Batching Plant
Maintenance: Only authorized technicians shall be allowed. On and off procedures as per manufacturers instruction manual. Work Permit System for repair and maintenance works (like, mixer drum cleaning, works on skip etc.) carried out on the Batching Plant. After completion of maintenance:
The plant is clear of all the men doing the job All tools and tackles are removed.

Crusher Plant

Crusher Plant

Qualified Operators to be employed Methodology for clearing blockages All accesses and work platforms with guard rails. There shall be efficient energy isolation system. Stop blocks shall be provided to prevent vehicles approaching too near the plant. Work-permit system shall be implemented for repair and maintenance of the plant.

Crusher Plant
Dump Hoppers All plant attendants working in the area of dumping shall be alert to the movement of vehicles and be aware of the signals. Raw materials dumping by tippers, dumpers etc. shall be permitted when a signal (light or sound) is given. No persons shall be allowed to enter dump hopper to clear blockages unless the feeder mechanism is stopped and the dumping signal is on STOP.

Crusher Plant
Crusher Feeder

Feeder attendant shall be responsible for operating dumping signals. No person shall climb on to any scalping screen or feeder unless the machinery is on stop and the dumping signal is on STOP. Person shall be employed to prevent dumping and the main power supply switch is locked in OFF position to prevent starting of the machinery.

Crusher Plant
Belt Conveyors

Persons not to travel on the Conveyor & Walking under conveyor are prohibited. If walking under conveyor is unavoidable, safety nets to be provided. Guards to be provided at all pulleys, idlers and driving and take off drums. Pull Chord Switch to be provided along the conveyor to stop it in case of emergency. Conveyor to be provided with overload trip and sequencing interlocks. Spillage shall be cleaned up daily.

Crusher Plant
Screw Conveyors

The cover plates of screw conveyor shall not be used as walkways. Cover plates shall not be removed while the machine in operation

Crusher Plant
Skip hoists

Skip hoists shall be fitted with the limit switches controlling the top and bottom positions. Before any skip hoist is set in motion the operator should ensure that the guards at ground level are securely fixed in position.

Crusher Plant
Bucket elevators

Open Bucket elevators shall not be used as ladders. Plant operators shall not enter an elevator pit unless the boot is securely guarded and a safe means of access is provided.

Crusher Plant
Crusher - Primary (Jaw/Gyratory)

A safe System of work for relieving blockages. Before relieving blockages in any jaw crusher, the feeder should be on STOP Position and any surcharge of material shall be barred off. No person shall be allowed to enter the gape of a crusher jaw whilst in motion.

Crusher Plant
Crusher Primary (Hammer Mill)

Impact

Inspection door on impact crusher shall not be opened whilst it is under motion. No one shall enter the stationary crusher unless the drive motor isolated. Lock out/Tag Out system to be implemented. If any welding is to be carried out inside the crusher, proper ventilation system shall be provided.

Crusher Plant
Chutes

To release blockages in delivery chutes poking bars to used to avoid trapping fingers. Chutes shall not be used as walkways. Persons shall not be allowed to work inside unless the machinery is on STOP. Change over doors on chutes shall be released only when the material flow has ceased. Any blockage of the material on chutes to be released only when the material flow has been arrested.

Crusher Plant
Hopper Gates Poking upwards into the hopper not to be done, as any sudden release of the blocked material may result. Poking to be carried out only from a secure platform.

Stone (gravel) washing equipment Precautions shall be taken to prevent walkways, ladders, stairways and plant areas becoming slippery.

Crusher Plant
Vibrating Screens
Operators

not to climb on to the live side frames or on to the deck of any vibrating screen whilst in motion. Before climbing on to screen or into a rotary trammel, the motion to be stopped and the motor to be isolated. Lock out / Tag out system to be implemented

Air Compressor

Air Compressor
General

To be inspected regularly by qualified and trained employees. All pipes, hoses, and fittings are to withstand the maximum pressure. Air supply shutoff valves to be located (as near as possible) at the point-of-operation. Air hoses to be kept free of grease and oil to reduce the possibility of deterioration. Hoses shall not be strung across ground, floors or aisles. When possible, air supply hoses shall be suspended overhead.

Air Compressor
General Hose ends to be secured to prevent whipping if an accidental cut or break occurs.

Hose couplings to be inspected frequently. Before a pneumatic tool is disconnected (unless it has quick disconnect plugs), the air supply shall be turned off at the control valve. Compressed air shall not be used under any circumstances to clean dirt and dust from clothing or of a persons skin.

Air Compressor
General

Goggles/face shields or other eye protection shall be worn by personnel using compressed air for cleaning equipment. Static electricity can be generated through the use of pneumatic tools. This type of equipment to be grounded.

Rotating & Moving parts, such as compressor flywheels, pulleys, and belts are to be guarded

Air Compressor
Air receivers

The maximum allowable working pressures of air receivers not to be exceeded except when being tested.
Air receivers to be fitted with a drain cock that is located at the bottom of the receiver. Receivers to be drained frequently to prevent accumulation of liquid inside the unit.

Air Compressor
Air receivers Each air receiver to be equipped with at least one pressure gauge and safety valve of the proper design. A safety (spring loaded) release valve to be installed to prevent the receiver from exceeding the maximum allowable working pressure. Air receiver shall be identified with working pressure, capacity, test details, etc.

Air Compressor
Pressure regulation Devices
Only

qualified personnel to be allowed to repair or adjust pressure regulating equipment. valves to be set to a pressure not less than 10 percent above the operating pressure of the compressor but never higher than the maximum allowable working pressure of the air receiver.

Safety

Blow-off

valves to be located on the equipment and shielded so that sudden blow-offs will not cause personnel injuries or equipment damage.

Never Stand between the Pump and Transit Mixer

Boom Placer

If the pump becomes energized everything that touches the pump is also energized

Use a spotter when the boom is in a confined area or near obstructions or wires.
Spotter should warn the operator if he is nearing trouble. Two sets of eyes are better than one.

Never open a Pressurized Line


1. A plugged line may have maximum pump pressure inside. 2. Wait until the operator reverses the pump and tells you that it safe to open the pipe.

Watch for This


The truck can tip over if the soil gives away.

Cleaning with Compressed Air


Never open a pipe that has been pressurized with air. Never use compressed air to clear a blockage. Use Ball Catcher

SAFETY DEVICES IN CRANE


Over Hoist Limit switch

Boom Limit Switch

Hook Latch

Angle Plate Pointer

TOWER CRANE
Soil bearing Strength Rails Straight, level & buffer stop Limit switches, Aviation lamp, lightning arrestors SWL displayed Communication Signal man After work hook released from load and raised to the max. Crane shifted to end of rail & anchored to rail. boom free to swing

Maintaining wire ropes


Preferred method since rope opens up over sheave allowing oil to penetrate Air Blast Application

Temporary Winding Drum

Brush Application

Dip and Swab Application

MAINTENANCE OF HAND TOO


Handled by stores in coordination with P&M Check and certify for use by tag Weekly Inspection Repaired ones

P&M SAFETY SYSTEMS


A B

PM-20F PTW PLANT & MACHINERY

ENVIRONMENT

diesel and other fuels; lubricants and hydraulic fluids; Solvents/ chemicals; hazardous waste; contaminated water; drums and/or tanks of unknown contents

CONTRACTORS EQUIPMENT

Case Studies

The Point at which the casing end rope got damaged

Upper Portion

Upper Portion

CRANE BOOM COLLAPSE

33 mt boo m The victim got trapped between trolley and floor

CRANE HEIGHT= 57 8MT BOOM LENGTH = 35MT MAX. BOOM LENGTH = 35MT @ 2T LOAD

2 m

Floor Level II (Reinforced)

9 m

K - 5-408 BAKRA CRANE

G.L
OFF

Service Engineer trying to switch OFF the starter

ON

Temporary Work Platform

Z type sheet pile driven for shoring

G.L
Co-worker

9 mts

Working Level 9 m below GL Victim holding the submersible pump inside the pit PIT filled with slush &

HOTMIX PLANT
Dryer

Mixing Drum Gate Victim Standing Skip


Operator Cabin

Hot Storage Bin

CONCLUSION
"One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men. No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man." -Elbert

Hubbard

Any Questions ?