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MEDIEVAL EUROPE

Presented by: Lugo, Lucila O. BSN 3-1

LAUNCHING QUESTIONS
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How did the Church play an important role in the Medieval Age? How is the early Christian Church organized? What are the activities that characterized monastery life? How did Islam affect the influence of the Church and what are its contributions to civilization?

LAUNCHING QUESTIONS
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8. 9.

What are the causes of the decline of the Church? What are the causes of the Reformation? Who is Martin Luther? Why did he broke with the Church? How was the Counter Reformation carried out? Why did Constantinople become a center of culture?

LAUNCHING QUESTIONS
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Why were the crusades launched? What were the achievements and results of each crusade? What were the features of feudalism? What is chivalry and what are the good things that it fostered? What were the causes and results of the Hundred Years war?

HUNDRED YEARS WAR CHIVALRY CATHOLIC CHURCH

ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH

FEUDALISM

MONASTICISM

CRUSADES

MEDIEVAL EUROPE

ISLAM

CONSTANTINOPLE MARTIN LUTHER

DECLINE OF CHURCH

COUNTER REFORMATION

REFORMATION

THE CHURCH PLAYED AN IMPORTANT ROLE DURING THE MEDIEVAL AGE Catholic Church

Well-organized institution and possessed effective methods of spreading Christianity Center of social ideals, political beliefs and religious philosophy Hierarchy was wisely constituted (composed of earnest men and serious in their mission) Restored peace and order in all countries where civilization had fallen into decay or where the barbarians had tried to establish a new order Lifted the people into a newer and higher ideal Affected religious unity throughout the civilized world

ORGANIZATION OF THE CHURCH


Cardinals Archbishopric (Archbishop) Kings consultant Bishopric (Bishop) Congregation/Parish (Priest) constant association with the common people Pope - supreme head of the Church, had complete spiritual authority in moral and religious matters

Apostle Peter first Bishop of Rome Curia court of Pope Legates/Nuncios official representatives by the Pope Bulls official edicts issued by the Pope

MONASTERY LIFE

Monasticism - way of life lived by the monks and nuns

Lived a life of poverty, obedience and chastity, spent a great part of time in prayer, meditation and penance Drained marshes and planted crops and did the cooking and washing for the monastery Protected the poor, took care of the orphans and the sick Conducted schools and gave free education Copied books and manuscripts

THE RISE OF ISLAM AFFECTED THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHURCH


Lessened the influence of the Church Many people became converts Rival faith of Christianity

CAUSES OF THE DECLINE OF THE CHURCH

Opposition of other religions Growth of national states Changes in the economic field Rise of doubt about the Churchs authority Opposition to Church interference Weakened prestige Conflict between Pope and King Great Schism

CAUSES OF REFORMATION

Protestant Revolt

Evils in the Church Conflicts between the popes and princes Discontent and trust

LIFE OF MARTIN LUTHER

Son of poor miner, greatest leader of the Protestant Revolt Member of mendicant order of Augustinian monks Later became a professor in the University of Wittenberg

LUTHER BROKE WITH THE CHURCH

Luther objected the selling of Pope Leo Xs indulgence (grant by the Pope of remission of the temporal punishment in purgatory still due for sins after absolution) due to a misunderstanding with Tetzel, the Popes agent Luther made open his objections and posted 95 theses on the door of the church at Wittenberg, attacking the impropriety of indulgences Taught that there is nothing sacred about the priesthood, Eucharist, mass and other sacraments Man saves his soul by Faith alone Bible must be the sole guide of belief Priest should be allowed to marry

COUNTER REFORMATION

Election of better Popes


Pope Paul III Council of Trent Pope Paul IV first Index of Prohibited Books Pope Pius V published first Roman Cathechism Pope Gregory XIII reformer of the Julian Calendar

Work of the Council of Trent Publication of the Index Revival of the Inquisition Founding of the Society of Jesus

Ignatius Loyola

CONSTANTINOPLE BECAME THE CENTER OF CULTURE


Constantinople Capital of the Byzantine Empire Classical learning flourished Roman laws and customs were practiced Orthodox Church influenced life of the people Important military outpost Preserved treasures of ancient civilization Handed to the Western world its great achievements in law, government and administration; literature and fine arts

CRUSADES (1096-1292 AD)

Military expeditions primarily launched by the Christian countries to recover the Holy Land from the Mohammedans People joined the Crusades in the name of religion, and the nobles for heroic adventure (Age of Chivalry) Hoped to obtain lands in Syria, and amass profit through commerce and trade Some joined to escape the payments of debts, or punishment for crimes they had committed, to deserve forgiveness for their sins and seek temporary relief from poverty

SEVEN CRUSADES

First Crusade (1096-1099) Pope Urban II

Ended by the capture of Jerusalem by the Turks Fully supported by Emperor Conrad III of Germany and King Loius VII of France Failed because of poor leadership

Second Crusade (1147-1149) St. Bernard

Third Crusade (1189-1192) William the Archbishop

Saladin, Sultan of Egypt, captured Jerusalem Supported by Frederick Barbarossa of Germany (drowned while crossing the river), King Phillip Augustus of France (returned home after a quarrel with King Richard) and King Richard the Lion-hearted of England

SEVEN CRUSADES

Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) Pope Innocent III


Led by Boniface of Montferat Original purpose was to attack Egypt, being the center of Mohammedan power Constantinople was taken and looted, and a Latin Empire was reestablished Fifth Crusade (1228-1229) King Frederick II Sixth Crusade (1248-1254) King Louis IX of France Seventh Crusade (1270) King Louis IX

Minor Crusades

CHILDRENS CRUSADE (1212)

Took place during the interval between fourth and fifth crusades Started by Stephen, a French boy (12 y/o) and Nicholas, a German lad Many died of hunger and starvation, some were drowned and lost and many were captured and sold as slaves

RESULTS OF CRUSADES

Failure of original purpose to deliver the Holy Land from the Moslems Increased the prestige of the Church Weakened the powers of feudal nobles Gave rise to new cities and feudal states Stimulated shipbuilding and the growth of commerce and transportation Widened mans knowledge of science, art, medicine and geography due to contact between East and West Improvement of knowledge of military science

Feudalism - A political, economic, and social system based on


loyalty and military service. Provide knights in times of war Fiefs land grants

Military protection

Fiefs land grants

service

protection

Based on mutual obligation

THE AGE OF CHIVALRY

Chivalry a complex set of ideals, demanded that a knight fight bravely in defense of three masters

His feudal lord His Heavenly Lord His Lady

Meant to protect the weak and the poor Be loyal, brave, and courteous Tournaments mock battles that combined recreation and combat training Fierce and bloody competitions

THE AGE OF CHIVALRY

Sons of nobles began training at an early age for knighthood

Page at 7 they were sent to another lord to be trained


Squire at 14 they act as a servant to a knight Knight- at 21 they become a knight and gain experience in local wars and tournaments

Set up for men the ideals of courtesy, fidelity, kindness and gentleness

HUNDRED YEARS WAR


Longest war of the Middle Ages Conflict between France and England marked by several battles followed by peace Controversy centered on the territorial possessions of England in France, claim of King Edward III to the French throne Result: spirit of nationalism was strengthened in both countries, feudalism in France received a death blow, new middle class composed of tenants and farmers arose in France, French government realized the need of permanent standing army

Black Death

The Bubonic Plague killed 1/3 of European population

THANK YOU!

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