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BASIC BLUEPRINT READING

SUBJECTS

Basic Blueprint Reading

DRAWING BASICS ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS PNEUMATIC/HYDRAULIC DRAWINGS PIPING AND PI&D DRAWINGS CIVIL AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWINGS MACHINE DRAWINGS

DRAWING BASICS

Objectives

Basic Blueprint Reading

Define basic industrial drawing structure Define line types Define types of drawings

Purpose of Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

Drawings are used to convey information about a wide range items such as: Architectural building layouts Electrical wiring Pneumatic or Hydraulic layouts Location of equipment How to assemble equipment Details of equipment

Types of Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

Civil Architectural Structural Mechanical Plumbing Piping Pneumatic/Hydraulic Electrical

Engineering Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

A general engineering drawing can be divided into the following five major areas or parts.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Title block Grid system Revision block Notes and legends Engineering drawing (graphic portion)

Drawing Sizes

Drawings come in a alphabetical list of sizes for A to F with D size being the most typical

Basic Blueprint Reading

A (letter)

8 by 11inches B - 11 by 17inches

Metric A4 (210 x 297) A3 (297 x 420)

sizes

A2 (420 x 594) A1 (594 x 841)

C - 17 by 22 inches

D - 22 by 34 inches E - 34 by 44 inches
F - 28 by 40 inches

A0 (841 x 1189)

Title Blocks

Basic Blueprint Reading

Title blocks are the beginning point of a drawing information.

XYZ

COMPANY

Revision Blocks

The revision block notes any changes made to a drawing

Basic Blueprint Reading

Throughout a drawing the revision listed in the revision block may be indicated by a symbol near the modified portion of the drawing such as: A

10

Parts Lists

Basic Blueprint Reading

Parts Lists are called Bill of Materials. It is a list of the material that is used to build the item that is

11

Scales

Basic Blueprint Reading

Drawing scale is a relationship of the size or distance of the item on a drawing to the real item. For example a scale of = 1 means a measurement of inch (the quote symbol is a shorthand for inches) on the drawing equals 1 foot ( the apostrophe symbol is shorthand for feet) of the real world item.

12

Grid System

A drawing grid system allows a specific point on a drawing to be referenced or found.

Basic Blueprint Reading

1 A B C

13

This point on the drawing is B-3

Basic Lines

Basic Blueprint Reading

Object lines Hidden lines Cutting plane lines Centerlines Extension lines Dimension lines Leaders line Phantom lines

Object Line
The object line is a heavy, dark line which identifies the visible edges of the drawn object or the surface of an object.

Basic Blueprint Reading

Hidden Line

The hidden line is used to show features or edges of an object that is not visible. It is a broken line of medium thickness.

Basic Blueprint Reading

Center Line

Basic Blueprint Reading

The center line is used to locate the center of features. It is usually a fine, broken line made of alternating short and long dashes.

Dimension Line / Extension Line

Basic Blueprint Reading

Dimension Lines are used to show the extent of a dimension. Extension Lines are use to extend a point from an object.

Extension Line

Dimension Line

Phantom

Basic Blueprint Reading

Phantom lines are used to represents the outline of an adjacent part. The also are used to show an alternate position of a given part

Phantom
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Leader

A leader is a fine line used to define a point or area. It may have a note, dimension value or a number at the end of it

Basic Blueprint Reading

Grind Surface

Cutting Plane Line

Cutting plane lines are used to indicate where an imaginary cut is made through the object. If it is labeled the section may be redrawn in detail in another part of the drawing.

Basic Blueprint Reading

Break Lines

Break lines are uses to terminate a view to Short Break Line conserve drawing space and avoid congestion.

Basic Blueprint Reading

Break lines are also used to separate internal and external features with broken-out sections

Break Lines Example


The break line is being used to show a part reduced in length on the drawing to conserve space.

Basic Blueprint Reading

250 feet

Section Lines

Basic Blueprint Reading

Section lines are used where a surface is illustrated as cut. It normally is used in a sectional view. The lines are normally drawn diagonally.

Dimensioning Systems

Basic Blueprint Reading

Different systems of dimensioning are generally used


Fractional inch Decimal inch SI Metric

25

Fractional Inch Dimensioning


2 Dia
Basic Blueprint Reading

21/32 Dia 3/16

1/2 1 9/16 Dia

26

Decimal Inch Dimensioning


2.00
Basic Blueprint Reading

.656 .19

.50 1.56

27

Metric Dimensioning
50
Basic Blueprint Reading

16.5 5

13 40

28

Dimensioning Example
Diameter symbol
Basic Blueprint Reading

Typical

Radius

29

Abbreviations

Abbreviations are used to help reduce clutter and simplify drawings. A table is included in the drawing.
BOTTOM CENTER TO CENTER CORRUGATED METAL PIPE CONCRETE DIAMETER EAST, ELECTRICAL ELEVATION FINISH GRADE HORIZONTAL MH MIN N NC NTS OC O.D. OHW PL MANHOLE MINIMUM NORTH NOT IN CONTACT NOT TO SCALE ON CENTER OUSIDE DIAMETER OVERHEAD WIRES PROPERTY LINE R REF R/W SCH SF SQ STA T TYP RADIUS REFERENCE RIGHT OF WAY SCHEDULE SQUARE FEET SQUARE STATION TELEPHONE TYPICAL

Basic Blueprint Reading

BOT C/C CMP CONC DIA E EL FG H

HP
IE

HIGH POINT
INVERT ELEVATION INVERT

POB
POE PP

POINT OF BEGINNING
POINT OF ENDING POWER POLE

UNO

UNLESS NOTED OTHERWISE

30

INV

Drawing Legends

Basic Blueprint Reading

Legends are boxes drawn on the drawing to illustrate some of the common or uncommon symbols used.

31

Isometric Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

Isometric drawings are designed to show a three dimensional view of an object.

32

Perspective

Basic Blueprint Reading

Perspective is a method of drawing things as the eye sees them.

Vanishing point
33

Orthographic Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

Orthographic projection shows the drawn object from different views


Top view

Left side Front

Right side Rear

Bottom

34

Projection view

Single Line Drawings

The single line format represents all electrical lines, plumbing, air lines, hydraulic lines and piping, regardless of size, as single line. System equipment is connected to the lines are represented by simple standard symbols. By simplifying connections and equipment as single lines allow the system's equipment and instrumentation relationships to be clearly understood by the reader. These types of drawings are also called Schematics.

35

Basic Blueprint Reading

Civil

Basic Blueprint Reading

Civil drawings are used to represent construction on the earth or ground areas. Civil drawings are sometimes called:

site plans plot plans survey plans.

They will show contours of the earth, building locations, construction features, utilities, etc.

36

Contour Lines

Basic Blueprint Reading

Contour lines are used in drawings called topographic maps and are used to identify physical features which uses contour lines to join points of equal elevation (height) and thus show valleys and hills, and the steepness of slopes. The elevation or height is a number drawn along the line.

180 160

140

120

110

37

Architectural

Basic Blueprint Reading

Architectural drawings or plans are used to illustrate the design of a project. They include items such as:

Working drawings Structural drawings Floor plans Elevation drawings Section drawings Flow diagrams

38

Gridlines

Basic Blueprint Reading

Gridlines refers to the letters and numbers, such as A-1, which identifies the columns of a building in a drawing.
C B A 1

Column A-1
2

Column symbol
3

39

Mechanical

Basic Blueprint Reading

Mechanical drawings are the plans for objects such as motors, assemblies for equipment, etc. There are many types of drawings associated with mechanical drawings such as:

Exploded view Detail Assembly

40

Example Mechanical Detail

41

Basic Blueprint Reading

Example Assembly Drawing

42

Basic Blueprint Reading

43
Basic Blueprint Reading

An Exploded View

Pneumatic/Hydraulic

Basic Blueprint Reading

Pneumatic or Hydraulic drawings are single line drawings use symbols and lines to illustrate the connection and equipment to be used in the pneumatic or hydraulic equipment.

44

Single Line Schematic example

Plumbing/Piping

Basic Blueprint Reading

These types of drawings are similar to pneumatic/hydraulic schematics.


40.00

36.00

TEE
PIPELINE Valve

TANK

Single Line Plumbing Example


45

Single Line Drawing

Basic Blueprint Reading

A Single line plumbing drawing example

40.00

36.00

TEE
PIPELINE Valve

TANK

46

Orthographic Piping Drawing

47

Basic Blueprint Reading

P&ID

Basic Blueprint Reading

Piping and Instrumentation Drawings These drawings are similar to plumbing but are intended to illustrate the complete piping system and the controlled process flow of material. All the equipment, pipelines, valves, pumps, instruments and the controls to operate the process are illustrated. They are not drawn to scale.

48

Example P&ID
FROM FUTURE MAIN VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT

Basic Blueprint Reading

SLUG CATCHER

CS CONTACTOR H.P. BULK SEPARATOR COALESCING FILTER NO. 1

PRODUCTION FROM SATELLITES (TYP.)

FILTER SEPARATOR

TEST SEPARATOR

FILL FROM CIS TRANSPORTER

HYDROCYCLONES (TYP. 2) FRESH CIS PUMPS (TYP. 2) FRESH CIS CHARGE PUMPS (TYP. 2) FRESH CIS TANK

49

Electrical

Basic Blueprint Reading

Electrical drawings are also single line drawings or schematics that uses symbols for various electrical equipment. They are usually drawn in a style called a ladder diagram. Another form of drawing is a wiring diagram which illustrates the wiring in a orthographic or pictorial style.

50

Example Ladder

Basic Blueprint Reading

Ladder schematics or diagrams are drawn with the circuit between two vertical lines, usually the power that supplies the circuit, thus each line creates a rung to the ladder.

L1 Pushbutton

115 VAC Pilot Light L

L2

51

Example Wiring Diagram

Basic Blueprint Reading

Electrical wiring diagrams draws the single lines from each device exactly as it would be wired.

52

Electrical Schematics

Basic Blueprint Reading

Electronic schematics use symbols for each component found in an electrical circuit.
R4

Q1
D1 C2 T1 R2

Q2

R1
L1

C3 +

C1
R3 + VGG -

53

Summary

Basic Blueprint Reading

Review Objectives Question and Answer Session

54

RETURN TO MAIN MENU

ELECTRICAL DRAWINGS

55

Objectives

Basic Blueprint Reading

Define how industrial electrical drawings are structured. Define Graphical Symbols Define Electrical wiring diagrams

56

Types of Electrical Drawings



Basic Blueprint Reading

Wiring Diagrams Block Diagrams Sequence Charts Electronic Schematics -

57

Diagrams

Basic Blueprint Reading

Electrical diagrams are commonly multi-sheet drawings of the wiring of the electrical devices associated with a main control panel, its field devices and sub-panels. It is usually drawn as a ladder diagram.

58

Electrical Diagrams

Basic Blueprint Reading

The Diagram is drawn between vertical lines or ladder. All devices are shown between the lines and may be referenced as Single Line diagrams Controlled, such as relays, devices are drawn on the right side. Contacts, switches and other controlling devices are shown between controlled device and left vertical line Overloads and other circuit breaking devices may be connected to the right of the controlled device.

59

Example Diagram
DISC 1FU L1 2FU 460V 3 60 L2 3FU L3 15 AMP 2OL 2T1 1L3 1T3 1L2 1T2 1MTR HYDRAULIC PUMP MOTOR 3 HP 1800 RPM FRAME 213 1M 1L1 1OL 1T1

Basic Blueprint Reading

2T2 2MTR 2T3 H1 H3 H2 H4

SPINDLE MOTOR 2 HP 1800 RPM FRAME 184

X1 10 AMP 6FU 10 AMP 4FU 1PB MASTER STOP 3 1 1 2 3 AUTOMATIC 11 4 5 5 3PB RESET 11 6 7 CYCLE START 5 8 6PB 9 15 7PB 1CR 26 26 22 16 2CR 17 CRH CRA 5PB MANUAL 4PB 12 7 1M 2PB START MOTORS 1OL 8 9 2OL

115 V

H2 10 AMP 5FU 1LT R 1 10 1M 2 4 10 AMP 7FU

CRM CRM CRH 13 2LT R 6 CRA AUTOMATIC 5, 14, 16, 21 AUTOMATIC MANUAL 6, 7, 15, 18, 23 MANUAL MASTER RELAY 3,3 CRM

5 14

CRH 3LT A 1LS 18 2LS 19 5LS 20 6LS 21 7CR 22 6CR 5 23 1 CR 21 21 6

CLAMP PART CONTROL 9, 33, 33, 35, 35

60

10

Lines

Basic Blueprint Reading

Wiring Field Wiring (external to panel)

61

Connections
Wiring Not Connected
Basic Blueprint Reading

Wiring Connected

Termination or connection

Terminal strip and terminal designation

TS4-15

62

Graphical Symbols

Graphical symbols are used on electrical diagrams to illustrate the wiring between electrical devices and terminals. The electrical devices are either shown in block diagram form or using commonly defined symbols. The following symbols are but a few of those that can be used. A chart should be included on drawings to illustrate any added by the manufacturer.

63

Basic Blueprint Reading

Graphical Symbols Contd


DISCONNECT Symbol - DISC

Basic Blueprint Reading

CIRCUIT BREAKER - CB Or for a single CB

64

Graphical Symbols Contd


Resistor
or
Basic Blueprint Reading

Tapped Resistor

Rheostat

Potentiometer

Fuses
65

Relay and Solenoid Symbols


RELAYS, TIMERS, ETC.
Basic Blueprint Reading

Normally Open Contact Normally Closed Contact

SOLENOIDS, BRAKES, ETC.

Coil

66

Motors Symbols
3 PHASE MOTOR
Basic Blueprint Reading

DC MOTOR

or

DC MOTOR FIELD
67

Transformer Symbols

Basic Blueprint Reading

H1 Primary or Input Secondary or Output X1

H3

H2

H4

X2

68

Pilot Lights
PUSH-TO-TEST
Basic Blueprint Reading

69

Limit Switch Symbols


NORMALLY CLOSED
Basic Blueprint Reading

HELD OPEN NORMALLY CLOSED HELD OPEN

NORMALLY OPEN

HELD CLOSED

70

NORMALLY OPEN

HELD CLOSED

Proximity Switch Symbols


PROXIMITY SWITCH
Basic Blueprint Reading

Normally Closed

Normally Open

71

Liquid Level Switches


NORMALLY OPEN
Basic Blueprint Reading

NORMALLY CLOSED

72

Thermal Switch
NORMALLY OPEN

Basic Blueprint Reading

NORMALLY CLOSED

73

Pressure Switch
NORMALLY OPEN
Basic Blueprint Reading

NORMALLY CLOSED

74

Foot Switches
NORMALLY CLOSED

Basic Blueprint Reading

NORMALLY OPEN

75

76
Basic Blueprint Reading

Toggle Switch

Flow Switches
NORMALLY OPEN
Basic Blueprint Reading

NORMALLY CLOSED

77

Selector Switch
3-POSITION
Second Off First Position Position Position
Basic Blueprint Reading

2-POSITION

78

Circuit is connected when switch is in this position.

Pushbuttons
SINGLE CIRCUIT
Basic Blueprint Reading

DOUBLE CIRCUIT

NORMALLY OPEN

NORMALLY CLOSED

79

80
Basic Blueprint Reading

E-Stop Pushbuttons

Time Delay Relay


NORMALLY OPEN
Basic Blueprint Reading

NORMALLY CLOSED

ENERGIZED

DE-ENERGIZED

81

One-line diagram example

Basic Blueprint Reading

A one-line diagram uses single lines and graphic symbols to indicate the path and components of an electrical circuit.

Switch symbol Fuse symbol

Single line conductors


PLC

Pushbutton symbol

Controller symbol Motor symbol

82

Control Device Labeling

Basic Blueprint Reading

Control devices, that are represented in the wiring diagrams, are photocells, limit switches, local lights, solenoids, air pressure switches, etc. are identified by wiring diagram line number or I/O address if a PLC is controlling it. When a line number is used, such as 211LS, the 2 indicates that the device is on page two line 11 of the Wiring Diagram (WD) drawing.

111PB 210 211LS 211

111CR

211Sol

83

Wiring and Wire Identification

Wiring color code


Basic Blueprint Reading

BLACK - Line, Load and Control Circuits at Line Voltage RED AC Control Circuits BLUE DC Control Circuits YELLOW Interlock Control Circuits GREEN Equipment grounding WHITE Grounded Circuit Conductor

Wire Identification

Conductors are identified at each termination by marking with a number to corresponding with the diagram on the wire

84

Device Designations

The device designations or abbreviation, such as examples below, are used on diagrams in connection with the corresponding graphical symbols to indicate the function of the particular device. CB - Circuit Breaker LS Limit Switch CR - Control Relay T - Transformer FU - Fuse MTR - Motor LT - Pilot Light DISC Disconnect OL - Overload Relay PB - Pushbutton S - Switch

85

Basic Blueprint Reading

Line Numbers

Basic Blueprint Reading

Each line in a electrical drawing should be numbered starting with the top line and reading down.
L1 Pushbutton 1 Limit Switch 2 Foot Switch 3 Temperature Switch 4 Relay CR2 Pressure Switch 115 VAC Relay CR1 Solenoid L2

86

Line Numbers

Wire-Reference Numbers
Wire Numbers
Basic Blueprint Reading

L1

115 VAC

L2
Relay 3 4 ( 2, 3 )

Pushbutton
1 2 1 1 CR1 2 2

CR3

CR1

Limit Switch

CR1

Relay CR2 4 (4)

Foot Switch 4 1 7

CR2

Relay CR3

(1)

87

Numerical Cross Reference


L1 Pushbutton
Basic Blueprint Reading

115 VAC CR3

L2

Relay
CR1 ( 2, 3 )

1 CR1 2

Limit Switch
3 Foot Switch 4

CR1

Relay CR2 (4)

CR2

Relay CR3 (1)

Cross Reference to Line Numbers


88

Terminal Numbers
L1
Basic Blueprint Reading

115 VAC

L2 Relay 3
2

Pushbutton
1 2 1 2 CR1
1 3

CR3

CR1

4
10

( 2, 3 )

2 CR1
5 6

Limit Switch

6
2

Relay CR2 4
10

(4)

Foot Switch
4 1 7
1

CR2
3

8
2

Relay CR3
10

(1)

89

Panel/Door Layouts

Basic Blueprint Reading

Panel Layout. Door Layout


MOTORS RUNNING R 1LT
AUTOMATIC

9 TE RM . 1T B

1T1 1T2 1T3 271 272 2T3

1 X 3 46 0V

1M

2OL 9 9 1/2

DISC

1 1/2 X 3
1

1FU 2FU 3FU

1OL

2 3 4 5

1 1/2 X 3

36 TE RM .

4F 5F U U

460V T CRM CRA CRH

MANUAL 2LT 3LT

EMERG. RETURN ACTIVE 4LT

6F 7F U U 115V 11 5V 1 1/2 X 3

START MOTORS 2PB MASTER STOP 1PB

AUTOMATIC

MANUAL

EMERG. RESET 12PB EMERG. RETURN 11PB 2T B

1 1/2 X 3

1CR

2CR

3CR

4CR

5CR

4PB

5PB

1 1/2 X 3

RESET 3PB

47 51 52 53

6CR

7CR

8CR

9CR

6 1/2 7 1/8

CLAMPS ARE IN A 7LT

FULL DEPTH

HEAD RETRACTED

LUBE FAULT

5LT

6LT

9LT

29 TE RM .

55

1 1/2 X 3

CYCLE UNCLAMP 10PB

HEAD FORWARD 8PB

HEAD RETURN 9PB 3T B

11 5V

1 1/2 X 3

26 1/2 7 1/2

1 1/2 X 3 1FT8 8 TERM


60 62 64 66 68 70

90

15 1/8 5 1/2

8FU9FU 10F 11F 12F 13F U U U U 60 62 64 66 60 70

115 V

Drawing Identification
Prefix AD E Type of Drawing Air Diagram (Mechanical) Scale Layout (Mechanical) Description These are detailed air Schematic drawings. They show the assembly, material list, and air piping diagram for the air operated devices. These are drawings of a conveyor or part of a conveyor. Used for construction. Individual sheets are numbered starting from No.1.

Basic Blueprint Reading

EL

Electrical Layout (Electrical)


Electro Mechanical (Electrical) General Layout (Mechanical)

These drawings dimensionally locate all electrical equipment on a layout drawing. They are directly referenced to the WD or control panel by the suffix to the EL number.
These drawings are for electro mechanical devices used on a job. Example; a code card of limit switch operator, etc. They are numbered consecutively for the job. These drawings are dimensionally to scale, but used for general purposes, e.g., complete plant layout to small scale, including many conveyors. Individual sheets are numbered starting from No. 1.

EM

EO

HO

Hydraulic Diagram (Mechanical)


Pneumatic Layout (Mechanical) Wiring Diagram (Electrical) General Information (Electrical)

This is a drawing of a hydraulic control circuit.


These drawings show the placement of pneumatic devices in relation to the conveyor path. This type of drawing will also reference which of the air diagram drawings (AD) are associated to a pneumatic device. This complete engineering of an area control includes: schematics, panel layout, and pushbutton stations. This drawing is used to convey general information relative to the system control.

PL

WD WDO

91

Block Diagrams

Basic Blueprint Reading

Block diagrams are simple block diagrams which provides a means to illustrate a control system in a simple graphic format. Block diagrams are also used to provide functional information. Block diagrams are also used to illustrate the interconnection of different machines

92

Example Block Diagram


Start pushbutton on

Basic Blueprint Reading

Process 1 starts if limit switch on

Process 1 stops if limit switch off

93

Sequence Charts
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
A. PRESS START MOTORS PUSHBUTTON 2PB MOTORS START MOTORS RUNNING LAMP 1LT ARE ENGERGIZED. PRESS EITHER AUTOMATIC 4PB OR MANUAL 5PB PUSHBUTTON, CORRESPONDING RELAY AND LAMP ARE ENERGIZED. NOTE: TO SWITCH FROM MANUAL TO AUTOMATIC. OPERATOR MUST PRESS RESET PUSHBUTTON 3PB BEFORE PRESSING AUTOMATIC PUSHBUTTON 4PB. AUTOMATIC CYCLE WITH MOTORS RUNNING AND CRA ENERGIZED. MACHINE IS SET FOR AUTOMATIC CYCLE HEAD MUST BE RETRACTED AND PART UNCLAMPED TO START CYCLE. 1. OPERATOR LOADS PART IN FIXTURE AND PRESSES BOTH CYCLE START PUSHBUTTONS 6PB AND 7PB ENERGIZING 1CR (SOL A AND SOL C) TO CLAMP PART 2. CLAMPED PART TRIPS 1LS AND 2LS. ENERGIZING 8CR RELAY 3CR (SOL E) IS ENERGIZED MEMENTARILY STARTING HEAD FORWARD IN RAPID ADVANCE. HEAD CAMS VALVE INTO FEED. 3. WHEN HEAD IS IN FORWARD POSITION, 3LS IS TRIPPED, ENERGIZING RELAY 5CR. 4. 5CR CONTACT ENERGIZES RELAY 4CR (SOL F) AND HEAD RETURNS. 5. WHEN HEAD IS FULY RETRACTED, 4LS IS TRIPPED, DE-ENERGIZING 4CR AND ENERGIZING 7CR WHICH ENERGIZES 6CR (SOL B AND SOL D) UNCLAMPING PART. 6. WHEN PART IS UNCLAMPED, 5LS AND 6LS ARE TRIPPED, DE-ENERGIZING RELAY 6CR. 7. 2CR RELAY PREVENTS MACHING RE-CYCLING IF BOTH CYCLE START PUSHBUTTONS ARE NOT RELEASED.

Basic Blueprint Reading

B.

C.

94

Electrical Layouts - EL

Basic Blueprint Reading

Electrical layouts are architectural drawings of the building that shows and identifies the electrical devices associated with a electrical diagram.

95

Wiring Connection Diagrams

Basic Blueprint Reading

Wiring (connection) diagram a diagram that shows the connection of an installation or its component devices or parts. This type of wiring diagram shows, as closely as possible, the actual location of each component in a circuit, including the control circuit and the power circuit.

96

Wiring Diagram Example


Motor Starter Coil

Start
Basic Blueprint Reading

M (aux) Stop

NO

Thermal Overloads Overload Contact T1 T2 Motor T3

97

Electronic Schematics

Basic Blueprint Reading

Electronic schematics use symbols for each component found in an electrical circuit.
R4

Q1
D1 C2 T1 R2

Q2

R1
L1

C3 +

C1
R3 + VGG -

98

Summary

Basic Blueprint Reading

Review Objectives Question and Answer Session

99

RETURN TO MAIN MENU

PNEUMATIC / HYDRAULIC DRAWINGS

100

Objectives

Basic Blueprint Reading

Define Fluid Logic Symbols Define Fluid Logic Diagrams Define

101

Shapes

Basic Blueprint Reading

Shapes and lines that are used to construct symbols and circuits:

102

Is it Hydraulic or Pneumatic

Basic Blueprint Reading

Pneumatic and Hydraulic drawings look very similar and the subject is usually referred to as Fluid Power The basic difference is Flow symbol. If filled it is hydraulic and unfilled identifies pneumatic.

103

HYDRAULIC

PNEUMATIC

Fluid Power Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

This type of drawing, like electrical drawings are also considered single line drawings. The line is either an air or hydraulic line connected to a device The devices are shown as symbols whose intent is show the fluid flow and mechanical operation of the device as well as type of device.

104

Flow lines
Flow line
Basic Blueprint Reading

Connected lines are illustrated with a connection dot

Single

Four way junction

Unconnected lines shown crossing


Flexible line

or Hose usually connecting parts with relative movement

105

Basic Line Symbols


Line
Basic Blueprint Reading

Working line, pilot supply, return, electrical Pilot control, bleed, filter

12 3

2 10 1

Dashed

Chain

Enclosure of two or more functions in one unit Electrical line

Line
106

Spring

Circle Shapes
Circles
Basic Blueprint Reading

energy conversion units measuring instrument

mechanical link roller


107

Squares and Rectangles


Square
Basic Blueprint Reading

control component connections perpendicular to sides conditioning apparatus connections to corners

Square at 45o

Rectangle

cylinders and valves

108

Squares and Rectangles


Rectangles
Basic Blueprint Reading

piston

certain control methods

109

Basic Symbols
Semi-circle
Basic Blueprint Reading

rotary actuator, motor or pump with limited angle of rotation pressurised reservoir air receiver, auxiliary gas bottle mechanical connection piston rod, lever, shaft

Capsule

Double line

110

Functional Elements
Triangle
Basic Blueprint Reading

Direction and nature of fluid, open pneumatic or filled hydraulic

Spring

Arrow

Long sloping indicates adjustability

111

Functional Elements
Arrows
Basic Blueprint Reading

Straight or sloping path and flow direction, or motion through a device

Tee

Closed path or port

Restriction

112

Functional Elements
Curved arrows are used to illustrate rotary motion Shaft rotation
clockwise from right hand end

Basic Blueprint Reading

both

Seating or connection used in check valves and connectors


113

Functional Elements
Temperature
Basic Blueprint Reading

Indication or control size to suit


Opposed solenoid windings

Operator

Prime mover

Electric motor

114

Function components
Silencer
Basic Blueprint Reading

Pressure to electric switch preset

Pressure to electric switch adjustable

115

Function components
Uni-directional flow regulator
Basic Blueprint Reading

Rotating joint

Pressure indicator Pressure drop indicator


116

Plant
Compressor and electric motor
Basic Blueprint Reading

Air receiver

Isolating valve

Air inlet filter

117

Combination units
FRL with shut off valve and pressure gauge
Basic Blueprint Reading

Lubro-control unit Filter and lubricator Filter regulator with gauge

FRL Combined unit


118

Filters

Basic Blueprint Reading

Filter with manual drain

Filter with automatic drain

Filter with automatic drain and pressure drop indicator

119

Pressure regulators

Basic Blueprint Reading

A pressure regulator symbol represents a normal state with the spring holding the regulator valve open to connect the supply to the outlet.

Adjustable Regulator simplified

Adjustable Regulator with pressure gauge simplified


120

Pressure relief valves

A pressure relief valve symbol represents a normal state with the spring holding the valve closed.

Basic Blueprint Reading

Adjustable relief valve simplified

Preset relief valve simplified


121

Pressure regulators
Pre-set relieving
Basic Blueprint Reading

Pre-set relieving with pressure gauge


Adjustable relieving

Adjustable relieving with pressure gauge


122

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The function of a valve is given by a pair of numerals separated by a stroke, e.g. 3/2.. The first numeral indicates the number of main ports. These are inlets, outlets and exhausts but excludes signal ports and external pilot feeds. The second numeral indicates the number of states the valve can achieve.

123

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

A 3/2 valve therefore has 3 ports (normally these are inlet, outlet and exhaust) and 2 states (the normal state and the operated state) The boxes are two pictures of the same valve

operated

normal

124

Basic Valve Symbols



Basic Blueprint Reading

Valve switching positions are illustrated with squares on a schematic. The number of squares is used to illustrate the quantity of switching positions. Lines within the boxes will indicate flow paths with arrows showing the flow direction. Shut off positions are illustrated by lines drawn at right angles to the flow path. Junctions within the valve are connected by a dot. Inlet and outlet ports to the valve are shown by lines drawn to the outside of the box that represents the normal or initial position of the valve

125

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

A valve symbol logic block will show the symbols for each position of the valve states joined end to end as illustrated in the next slide.

operated

normal

126

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

Each valve logic state is illustrated with its state block joined end to end

operated

normal

127

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The port connections are shown to only one of the diagrams to indicate the prevailing state

normal

128

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state

Operated state produced by pushing a button

129

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state

Operated state produced by pushing a button

Normal state produced by a spring

130

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The operator for a particular state is illustrated against that state

Operated state produced by pushing a button

Normal state produced by a spring

131

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections

132

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections

133

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The valve symbol can be visualised as moving to align one state or another with the port connections

134

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

A 5/2 valve symbol is constructed in a similar way. A picture of the valve flow paths for each of the two states is shown by the two boxes. The 5 ports are normally an inlet, 2 outlets and 2 exhausts

135

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state

136

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state

137

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The full symbol is then made by joining the two boxes and adding operators. The connections are shown against only the prevailing state

138

Valve symbol structure

Basic Blueprint Reading

The boxes can be joined at either end but the operator must be drawn against the state that it produces. The boxes can also be flipped A variety of symbol patterns are possible

normally closed

normally open

139

Operators
Operators of a valve are drawn to the side of a valve box to the side of the box it will be operating. Some operator types are:
General manual Lever

Basic Blueprint Reading

Push button

Pedal

Pull button

Treadle

Push/pull button 140

Rotary knob

Operators Contd

Basic Blueprint Reading

Plunger

Pressure

Spring normally as a return Roller

Pilot pressure

Differential pressure

Uni-direction or one way trip

Detent in 3 positions

141

Operators Contd
Electrical
Basic Blueprint Reading

Solenoid direct Solenoid pilot

Solenoid pilot with manual override and external pilot supply When no integral or external pilot supply is shown it is assumed to be integral

Solenoid pilot with manual override and integral pilot supply

142

Port markings
The valve connections can be labelled with capital letters or numbers as follows:
Basic Blueprint Reading

Alphabetical Designations Working Lines Leakage Fluid A, B, C .. O (excludes L) L

Numerical Designations 2, 4, 6 . . . . 9

Supply Air
Exhaust Pilot Lines

P
R, S, T ..W Z, Y, X ..

1
3, 5, 7 12, 14, 16, 18

143

Port Markings Examples


2 12 Basic Blueprint Reading 10 2 12 10

2 14

4 12 14

2 12

3 5

1 3

144

Port Markings

Basic Blueprint Reading

12

10

12
3

10

2 14 1

4 12 3 14

2 12 1

145

Simplified cylinder symbols


Single acting the load returns cylinder to original position
Basic Blueprint Reading

Single acting with spring returning cylinder to original position

Double acting moved by fluid from either end


146

Rotary actuators
Semi rotary double acting
Basic Blueprint Reading

Rotary motor single direction of rotation

Rotary motor bi-directional

147

Example Pneumatic Schematic


UP PB1 #12
3 1 2

BALANCER VALVE #2 #1 #0

DOWN PB2

Basic Blueprint Reading

#2 COMMON PB3 #1
3 1 2

#7

#1

R1 CLAMP PRESSURE #14

COMBINATION BLOCKING VALVE & FLOW CONTROL

#1

CLAMP PB4
3 1 4 2

1 2 3 PS1

#8 #9

5 1 3 14

BV1 CLAMP EXTEND #22 #18 CLAMP SAFETY PB8

#3 #4
2 1 2-2

PV1
5 1 3 4 2

#23

#24 BV2 CLAMP RETRACT


1 2 1 OR1 3

UNCLAMP PB5

CLAMP CYL. A1
1

#8 3 NTD1
3

#9

12

3 1 OR2 3 1 2

#15

#19

ROTATE ADV. PB6


3 1 4 2

1 2-2

NTD2 3

#5 #6

1 2-2 1

#10 #11

#10

14

NTD3 3

PV2
5 1 3 4 2

ROTATE ADVANCE

BV3 #16 ROTATE RETURN #20

ROTATE RET. PB7

NTD4

#11
1

12

CLAMP CLOSED LV1


3

1 OR3

3 #13

#13 #22
14

ROTATE SAFETY PB9 BV4 ROTATE CYL. B1 #21

#25
2

PV3
5 1 3

RAISE DISABLE

#17

1 2 1 OR4 3

3 1 2

#1

4 2

#25
5 1 3

12

RAISE ENABLE #12

148

Summary

Basic Blueprint Reading

Review Objectives Question and Answer Session

149

RETURN TO MAIN MENU

PIPING AND PI&D DRAWINGS

150

Objectives

Basic Blueprint Reading

Define Piping Drawings Identify Piping Symbols Define Process and Instrumentation Drawings (P&ID) Identify P&ID Symbols

151

Symbols and Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

Piping drawings show the size and location of pipes, fittings, and valves. To read and interpret Piping drawings and Piping and Instrument drawings (P&IDs), the student must learn the meaning of the symbols. This presentation discusses some the common symbols that are used to depict system components.

152

Piping Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

The single line format is most commonly used in Piping and P&ID drawings. The single line format represents all piping, regardless of size, as single line. All system equipment is represented by simple standard symbols.

153

Pipe Crossing

The crossing of pipes without connections is normally shown without interrupting the line.

Basic Blueprint Reading

When there is a need to show that one pipe must pass behind another, the line representing the pipe farthest may be shown with a break, where the other pipe passes in front of it

Near pipe

Far pipe

154

Connections

Permanent connections, whether made by welding, gluing or soldering, may be shown as a heavy dot

Basic Blueprint Reading

Detachable connections are shown by a single thick line.

Detachable connection

Permanent connection

155

Detachable connection such as a flange

Adjoining apparatus

Fittings

Basic Blueprint Reading

If standard symbols for fittings like tees, elbows, crossings are not shown on a drawing, they are represented by a continuous line. A circular symbol for a tee or elbow may be used when necessary to show piping coming toward or moving away from the viewer.

Pipe Line Without Flanges

Pipe Line with flanges connected to ends

156

Pipe Going Away

Pipe Coming Towards

Rear view flange

Front view flange

Single Line example


CROSS

Basic Blueprint Reading

GLOBE VALVE ELBOW

UNION

GATE VALVE

Y-FITTING CAP

PLUG

TEE

COUPLING (JOINT)

CHECK VALVE REDUCER 45 ELBOW

ELBOW

157

Pictorial Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

Pictorial or double line drawings present the same type information as a single line, but the equipment is represented as if it had been photographed. This format is rarely used since it requires much more effort to produce than a single line drawing and does not present any more information as to how the system functions.

158

Pictorial example

Basic Blueprint Reading

Orthographic Pipe Drawing


CROSS Y-FITTING CAP GLOBE VALVE GATE VALVE

PLUG

UNION

TEE

COUPLING (JOINT)

CHECK VALVE

REDUCER

45 ELBOW

ELBOW

159

Common Piping Symbols Comparison


Pictorial
Basic Blueprint Reading

Symbol

90 Elbows Straight Tee Reducing Tee Sanitary Tee P-Trap

160

Gate Valve

Valves

Basic Blueprint Reading

Valves are used to control the direction, flow rate, and pressure of fluids
GATE VALVE GLOBE VALVE

CHECK VALVE

CONTROL VALVE

PLUG VALVE

BALL VALVE

BUTTERFLY VALVE

161

P&IDs

Basic Blueprint Reading

The piping of a single system may contain more than a single medium. For example, although the main process flow line may carry water, the associated auxiliary piping may carry compressed air, inert gas, or hydraulic fluid. Also, a fluid system diagram may also depict instrument signals and electrical wires as well as piping. The following slide shows some commonly used symbols for indicating the medium carried by the piping and for differentiating between piping, instrumentation signals, and electrical wires.

162

Process and Instrumentation Drawings P&IDs


1.
Basic Blueprint Reading

2. 3.

4.
5.

These process flow diagrams include: Pipe line numbers and directions Pipe specifications and line sizes All equipment All valves All Instrumentation with controlling devices

163

Lines
MAJOR PROCESS LINES - PIPE MINOR PROCESS LINES
Basic Blueprint Reading

PROCESS TUBING HYDRAULIC LINES ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENT SIGNAL ELECTRICAL LEADS PNEUMATIC LINES (GAS OR AIR) INSTRUMENT CAPILLARY TUBING

164

Valve Symbols
Valve Normally Open
Basic Blueprint Reading

Valve Normally Closed Needle Valve Normally Closed Ball Valve Normally Closed Globe Valve Normally Closed Gate Valve Normally Closed

Needle Valve Normally Open Ball Valve Normally Open Globe Valve Normally Open Gate Valve Normally Open Butterfly Valve

Two Valve Manifold


Note: the generic valve is commonly used on drawings with the valve state noted next to it

165

Blind Flanged Generic Valve

N.C.

Control Valve Actuators

Basic Blueprint Reading

Some valves are provided with actuators to allow remote operation, to increase mechanical advantage, or both. Below are a few symbols for the common valve actuators.

Diaphragm Electric Motor Solenoid Piston Manual

166

Balloon Labeling

Basic Blueprint Reading

A control valve may serve any number of functions within a fluid system. To differentiate between valve uses, a balloon labeling system is used to identify the function of a control valve. The first letter used in the valve designator indicates the parameter to be controlled by the valve. For example:

F = flow T = temperature L = level P = pressure H = hand (manually operated valve

FC

Flow Control Valve


167

Basic Blueprint Reading

One of the main purposes of a P&ID is to provide functional information about how instrumentation in a system or piece of equipment interfaces with the system or piece of equipment. The symbols used to represent instruments and their loops can be divided into four categories.
Sensed Parameter F = flow T = temperature P = pressure I = current L = level V = voltage Z = position Type of Indicator or Controller R = recorder I = indicator C = controller Type of Component T = transmitter M = modifier E = element Type of Signal

I = current V = voltage P = pneumatic

168

Basic Symbol Modifiers/Transmitters


Locally Mounted Instrument
Board Mounted Instrument
Basic Blueprint Reading

Instrument Behind Board Example: Locally mounted voltage to current pressure modifier
P/I PM or P/I or E/I

Examples of Transmitters

FT

PT FT

169

Flow Transmitter

PressureTransmitter

Controllers

Basic Blueprint Reading

Controllers process the signal from an instrument loop and use it to position or manipulate some other system component. Generally they are denoted by placing a "C" in the balloon after the controlling parameter.
Flow Controller

FC

Proportional

P PI PID I/P

Temperature Controller TC
Pressure Controller Level Controller PC TC

Proportional - Integral
Proportional Integral - Differential Current to Pneumatic

170

Components

Within every system there are major components such as pumps, compressors, tanks, heat exchangers, and fans.

Basic Blueprint Reading

Compressor Heat Exchanger

Steam Turbine

Pumps

or

Tanks

or

171

Misc. Symbols

Basic Blueprint Reading

In addition to the normal symbols used on P&IDs to represent specific pieces of equipment additional drawing symbols are used to guide or provide additional information about the drawing.
Pipe or Wire is continued on drawing XX-001 at coordinates X-Y. Flow is to that drawing Pipe or Wire is continued from drawing XX-002 at coordinates X-Y. Flow is from that drawing Pipe or Wire is continued on drawing XX-003 at coordinates X-Y. Flow is in both directions. Building/Area Boundary

XX-001-X-Y

XX-002-X-Y

XX-003-X-Y

172

Example P&ID Drawing


E-101 REBOILER V-101 DEPROPANIZER E-102 OVERHEAD CONDENSER V-102 REFLUX ACCUMULATOR

Basic Blueprint Reading

125F 35 COOLING WATER

E-102
V-101

FEED 255 PSIG 210F

20 PC V-102 240# @ 118f 1 245F FRC FLARE

LC

LG
HEATING MEDIUM E-101 REBOILER 230F

275F

LC
P-101A & 101B PRODUCT STORAGE STORAGE

173

P-101A & 101B PRODUCT AND REFLUX PUMPS

Summary

Basic Blueprint Reading

Review Objectives Question and Answer Session

174

RETURN TO MAIN MENU

CIVIL AND ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING

175

Objectives

Basic Blueprint Reading

Define Topographical Maps Define Contour Maps Define Geology and Mining Terms Define Site Plans Drawings Define Floor Plans Define Elevation Drawings Define Structural Drawings and symbols

176

Topographical Maps

Basic Blueprint Reading

Maps which describe in detail local features of the earths surface, either natural or man-made, are called topographic maps (or drawings). Data taken from surveys are used to build these drawings. Surveying is the actual measurement of distances, elevations, and directions on the earths surface.

177

Contours

Basic Blueprint Reading

Most topographical maps are drawn as contours. Contours are lines drawn on a map to show points of equal elevation; that is, all points on a single contour line have the same elevation. A contour interval is the vertical distance between horizontal planes passing through successive contours as illustrated in the following slide..

178

Example Contours Map

Basic Blueprint Reading

Control Points

Contours

Relative Elevations

179

Profile

Contours Continued

180

Basic Blueprint Reading

Contours may be plotted through the use of patterns of distribution of points of recorded elevation. A popular pattern is the checkerboard or grid survey as illustrated in the next slide. Line are established at right angles to each other, dividing the survey into squares of appropriate size and elevations are determined at the corners of the squares

Example Grid Contour Map

Basic Blueprint Reading

Contour

Elevation Grid

181

Geology and Mining Terms



Basic Blueprint Reading

Strike - The bearing of a horizontal line in a plane, customarily measured from north. Dip - Includes both an angle and a direction between planes Stratum or Seam - layer or deposit bounded by parallel bedding planes. Vein - A deposit in a fissure or fault. Fault - A displacement of one segment with respect to another formation. Thickness - perpendicular distance between the two bedding planes of a stratum, seam, or vein. Outcrop - If a sloping stratum continues without faults, it eventually outcrops (becomes exposed) at the earths surface.

See following slide for examples

182

Geology Terms Example

Basic Blueprint Reading

Strike

Outcrop Area Bedding Plane Dip Angle

183

Fault Plane

Seam or Stratum

Thickness

Topographical Map Symbols

Along with contour lines maps have many basic symbols to illustrate land features and objects. The following are but a few examples.

Basic Blueprint Reading

Highway Railroad

Highway Bridge

Railroad Bridge
Telephone Line

Suspension Bridge Dam

Power Line

184

Site or Layout Drawings


Layout drawings are also called general plans and profile drawings. T They provide the necessary information on the location, alignment, and elevation of the structure and its principal parts in relation to the ground at the site. They also provide other important details, such as the nature of the underlying soil or the location of adjacent structures and roads.

185

Basic Blueprint Reading

Example Site Drawing

186

Basic Blueprint Reading

Example Symbols
Earth-rough grade
Basic Blueprint Reading

Concrete Paving Gravel

187

Earth-finish grade

Floor Plans

Basic Blueprint Reading

Floor plans includes:


thicknesses, and character of the building walls on that particular floor the widths and locations of door and window openings the lengths and character of partitions the number and arrangement of rooms the types and locations of utility installations

188

Floor Layout Example


Door Symbol
Basic Blueprint Reading

Window Symbol

189

Elevation Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

Elevation drawings are closely related to the floor plans of a building. These drawings are of vertical views of the building, usually of the outside walls.

Front Elevation

Side Elevation

190

Structural Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

Architectural and structural drawings are generally considered to be the drawings of steel, wood, concrete, and other materials used to construct buildings.

191

Example of Structural Drawing Detail

192

Basic Blueprint Reading

Beams

Basic Blueprint Reading

A beam is identified by its nominal depth, in inches and weight per foot of length. The cross section of an American Standard beam (I) forms the letter I. These I-beams, like wide-flange beams, are identified by nominal depth and weight per foot

or

S
Top End Front

Symbols
193

Channels

A cross section of a channel is similar to the squared letter C. Channels are identified by their nominal depth and weight per foot

Basic Blueprint Reading

C
Top End Front

or

Symbols

194

Angles

Basic Blueprint Reading

The cross section of an angle resembles the letter L. Angles are identified by the dimensions in inches of their legs, as L 7 x 4 x 1/2.

L
Top

Symbol
End

Front

195

Tees

Basic Blueprint Reading

A structural tee is made by slitting a standard I- or H- beam through the center of its web, thus forming two T-shapes from each beam. In dimensioning, the structural tee symbol is preceded by the letters ST.

ST or T
Top

Symbols
196
Front End

Members

The main parts of a structure are the load-bearing structural members that support and transfer the loads on the structure while remaining in equilibrium with each other. The places where members are connected to other members are called joints. The total load supported by the structural members at a particular instant is equal to the total dead load plus the total live load.

197

Basic Blueprint Reading

Vertical Members

Basic Blueprint Reading

Columns are high-strength vertical structural members; in buildings they may be called pillars. A pier in building construction may be called a short column. It could rest on a footing or it may be simply set or driven in the ground. In bridge construction a pier is a vertical member that provides intermediate support for the bridge superstructure. The vertical structural members in light-frame construction are called studs. They are supported on horizontal members called sills or sole plates, and are topped by horizontal members called top plates or stud caps. Corner posts are enlarged studs located at the building corners.

198

Horizontal Members

199

Basic Blueprint Reading

A horizontal load-bearing structural member that spans a space and is supported at both ends is called a beam. A member that is fixed at one end is called a cantilever. One type of steel member is actually a light truss and is called an open-web steel joist or a bar-steel joist.

Trusses

Basic Blueprint Reading

A truss is a framework consisting of two horizontal (or nearly horizontal) members joined together by a number of vertical and/or inclined members to form a series of triangles.

Trusses

200

Summary

Basic Blueprint Reading

Review Objectives Question and Answer Session

201

RETURN TO MAIN MENU

MACHINE DRAWINGS

202

Objectives

Basic Blueprint Reading

Define Tolerances Define Basic Features of Machine Drawings

203

Machine Drawings

Basic Blueprint Reading

In learning to read machine drawings, we must first become familiar with the common terms, symbols, and conventions defined and discussed in the following slides.

204

Tolerances

Basic Blueprint Reading

Obtaining Absolute accuracy is impossible and therefore variations must be allowed. This allowance is known as tolerance and represents the total amount the dimension may vary. It is stated on a drawing as (plus or minus) a certain amount, either by a fraction or decimal. Limits are the maximum and/or minimum values for a specific dimension. Tolerances may be shown on drawings by several different methods; the following slide shows three examples. The unilateral method is used when variation from the design size is permissible in one direction only. The bilateral method a dimension figure shows the plus or minus variation that is acceptable. In the limit dimensioning method the maximum and minimum measurements are both stated

205

Tolerance Examples
Unilateral Method
.498 DIA + .000 - .002

Bilateral Method
30 1

Basic Blueprint Reading

.875 .005 7 1 8 64

.500 DIA + .002 - .000 .498 DIA .496

2.250 + .010 - .005

Limit Method
.500 DIA .502

206

Tolerance Symbols
Flatness & Straightness
Basic Blueprint Reading

Roundness

Angularity
Perpendicularity Parallelism Concentricity True Position

Symmetry
(MMC) Maximum Material Condition (RFS) Regardless of Feature size Datum Identifying symbol .001
M

-A-

Feature Control Symbol


207

Tolerance Datum

Symbol

Class Exercise

Basic Blueprint Reading

Do Class Exercise Tolerances

208

Fillets and Rounds

Basic Blueprint Reading

Fillets are concave metal corner (inside) surfaces. Rounds or radii are edges or outside corners that have been rounded to prevent chipping and to avoid sharp cutting edges

Fillet
209

Rounds

Slots and Slides

Basic Blueprint Reading

Slots and slides mate two specially shaped pieces of material and securely hold them together, yet allow them to move or slide.

Tee Slot Slide

Dovetail Slide

210

Tee Slot

Dovetail Slot

Keys, Keyseats, Keyways

Basic Blueprint Reading

A key is a small wedge or rectangular piece of metal inserted in a slot or groove between a shaft and a hub to prevent slippage

Flat Bottom

Round Bottom Keyseat and Keyway Square

211

Screw Threads

Basic Blueprint Reading

Draftsmen use different methods to show thread on drawings

Without Thread Relief

With Thread Relief


212

Simplified Method of Thread Representation

Gears

Basic Blueprint Reading

When gears are drawn on machine drawings usually only enough gear teeth are drawn to identify the dimensions.

Working Depth Whole Depth

Dedendum Addendum

Clearance Root Dia.

213

Pitch Dia. Outside Dia.

Springs

Basic Blueprint Reading

There are three classifications of helical springs: compression, extension, and torsion. Drawings seldom show a true presentation of the helical shape; instead, they usually show springs with straight lines

Common Types of Helical Springs

Symbol Representation of Springs

214

Finish Marks

Basic Blueprint Reading

Many metal surfaces must be finished with machine tools for various reasons. A modified symbol (check mark) with a number or numbers above it

is used to show these surfaces and to specify the degree of finish.

x
x

02
60

3 X MIN.

60
Example of Use

215

Welding

Basic Blueprint Reading

Welding is a process of joining metals by fusion or heating into a single joined mass. Symbols will define the type of weld required.

Square Weld

Fillet Weld Symbol

216

Symbol

Weld Drawing Symbols

A welding symbol consists of seven basic elements

Basic Blueprint Reading

1. Reference Line 7. Tail will have information about the process. OAW is a type of welding here. It is left off if no info needed.

4. Dimensions = weld is 2 inches long with leg length of inch 2. Arrow connects reference line to joint

OAW

2
5. Supplementary symbols this illustrates a convex weld 6. Finish symbol g = grinding, c = chipped, m = machined.

3. Weld symbol this indicates a fillet weld

217

218
Basic Blueprint Reading

Example Drawing

Summary

Basic Blueprint Reading

Review Objectives Question and Answer Session

219

RETURN TO MAIN MENU