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# THE CENTRAL LIMIT

THEOREM
The World is Normal Theorem

Sampling Distribution of x-
normally distributed population
n=10
o/\10
o
Population distribution:
N( , o)
Sampling distribution of x:
N( , o /\10)
Normal Populations
Important Fact:
If the population is normally distributed,
then the sampling distribution of x is
normally distributed for any sample size n.
Previous slide
Non-normal Populations
What can we say about the shape of the
sampling distribution of x when the
population from which the sample is
selected is not normal?
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Salary (\$1,000's)
Baseball Salaries
The Central Limit Theorem
(for the sample mean x)
If a random sample of n observations is
selected from a population (any
population), then when n is sufficiently
large, the sampling distribution of x will
be approximately normal.
(The larger the sample size, the better will
be the normal approximation to the
sampling distribution of x.)
The Importance of the Central
Limit Theorem
When we select simple random samples of
size n, the sample means we find will vary
from sample to sample. We can model the
distribution of these sample means with a
probability model that is

, N
n

o
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\ .
How Large Should n Be?
For the purpose of applying the central
limit theorem, we will consider a sample
size to be large when n > 30.
Summary
Population: mean ; stand dev. o;
shape of population dist. is
unknown; value of is unknown;
select random sample of size n;
Sampling distribution of x:
mean ; stand. dev. o/\n;
always true!
By the Central Limit Theorem:
the shape of the sampling distribution
is approx normal, that is
x ~ N(, o/\n)
The Central Limit Theorem
(for the sample proportion p)
If a random sample of n observations is
selected from a population (any
population), and x successes are
observed, then when n is sufficiently
large, the sampling distribution of the
sample proportion p will be approximately
a normal distribution.

The Importance of the Central
Limit Theorem
When we select simple random samples of
size n, the sample proportions p that we
obtain will vary from sample to sample. We
can model the distribution of these sample
proportions with a probability model that is
(1 )
,
p p
N p
n

| |
|
\ .
How Large Should n Be?
For the purpose of applying the central
limit theorem, we will consider a sample
size to be large when np > 10 and nq >
10
Population Parameters and
Sample Statistics

p
The value of a population
parameter is a fixed
number, it is NOT random;
its value is not known.
The value of a sample
statistic is calculated from
sample data
The value of a sample
statistic will vary from
sample to sample
(sampling distributions)
Population
parameter
Value
Sample
statistic
used to
estimate
p
proportion of
population
with a certain
characteristic
Unknown

mean value
of a
population
variable
Unknown
x
Example
( )
4
8
A random sample of =64 observations is
drawn from a population with mean =15
and standard deviation =4.
a. ( ) 15; ( ) .5
b. The shape of the sampling distribution model for
is approx. no
SD X
n
n
E X SD X
x

o
= = = = =
( )
rmal (by the CLT) with
mean E(X) 15 and ( ) .5. The answer
depends on the sample size since ( ) .
SD X
n
SD X
SD X
= =
=
Graphically

Shape of population
dist. not known
Example (cont.)
15.5 15 .5
.5 .5
( )
c. 15.5;
1
This means that =15.5 is one standard
deviation above the mean ( ) 15
x
SD X
x
z
x
E X

=
= = = =
=
Example 2
The probability distribution of 6-month
incomes of account executives has mean
\$20,000 and standard deviation \$5,000.
a) A single executives income is \$20,000.
Can it be said that this executives income
exceeds 50% of all account executive
incomes?
distribution of X; we do not know the
median of 6-mo incomes.
Example 2(cont.)
b) n=64 account executives are randomly
selected. What is the probability that the
sample mean exceeds \$20,500?

( )
( ) 5,000
64
20,000 20,500 20,000
625 625
( ) \$20, 000, ( ) 625
By CLT, ~ (20, 000, 625)
( 20, 500)
( .8) 1 .7881 .2119
SD x
n
X
E x SD x
X N
P X P
P z

= = = =
> = > =
> = =
answer E(x) = \$20, 000, SD(x) = \$5, 000
Example 3
A sample of size n=16 is drawn from a
normally distributed population with mean
E(x)=20 and SD(x)=8.

( )
8
16
20 24 20
2 2
16 20 24 20
2 2
~ (20, 8); ~ (20, )
) ( 24) ( ) ( 2)
1 .9772 .0228
) (16 24)
( 2 2) .9772 .0228 .9544
X
X N X N
a P X P P z
b P X P z
P z

> = > = > =
=
s s = s s =
s s = =
Example 3 (cont.)
c. Do we need the Central Limit
Theorem to solve part a or part b?

NO. We are given that the population is
normal, so the sampling distribution of
the mean will also be normal for any
sample size n. The CLT is not needed.
Example 4
Battery life X~N(20, 10). Guarantee: avg.
battery life in a case of 24 exceeds 16
hrs. Find the probability that a randomly
selected case meets the guarantee.

10
24
20 16 20
2.04 2.04
( ) 20; ( ) 2.04. ~ (20, 2.04)
( 16) ( ) ( 1.96)
.1 .0250 .9750
X
E x SD x X N
P X P P z

= = =
> = > = > =
=
Example 5
Cans of salmon are supposed to have a
net weight of 6 oz. The canner says that
the net weight is a random variable with
mean =6.05 oz. and stand. dev. o=.18
oz.
Suppose you take a random sample of 36
cans and calculate the sample mean
weight to be 5.97 oz.
Find the probability that the mean
weight of the sample is less than or
equal to 5.97 oz.
Population X: amount of salmon in
a can
E(x)=6.05 oz, SD(x) = .18 oz
X sampling dist: E(x)=6.05 SD(x)=.18/6=.03
By the CLT, X sampling dist is approx. normal
P(X s 5.97) = P(z s [5.97-6.05]/.03)
=P(z s -.08/.03)=P(z s -2.67)= .0038

How could you use this answer?
Suppose you work for a consumer
watchdog group
If you sampled the weights of 36
cans and obtained a sample mean x
s 5.97 oz., what would you think?
Since P( x s 5.97) = .0038, either
you observed a rare event (recall: 5.97
oz is 2.67 stand. dev. below the mean)
and the mean fill E(x) is in fact 6.05 oz.
(the value claimed by the canner)
the true mean fill is less than 6.05 oz.,
(the canner is lying ).

Example 6
X: weekly income. E(x)=600, SD(x) = 100
n=25; X sampling dist: E(x)=600
SD(x)=100/5=20
P(X s 550)=P(z s [550-600]/20)
=P(z s -50/20)=P(z s -2.50) = .0062

Suspicious of claim that average is \$600;
evidence is that average income is less.

Example 7
12% of students at NCSU are left-handed.
What is the probability that in a sample of 50
students, the sample proportion that are left-
handed is less than 11%?
.12*.88
( ) .12; ( ) .046
50
E p p SD p = = = =

( .11)
.046 .046
( .22) .4129
p
P p P
P z

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< = <
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\ .
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