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Prof. Golda Aira V. Crisostomo, Ph.D.

, CIOP Director, Letran Research Center

-BIG THING
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Where are we, Where Might We Go?

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Teaching

the learning environment (30 %)

Research volume, income and


reputation (30 %)

Citations

research influence (30 %) Industry income innovation (2.5 %) International outlook staff, students and research (7.5%)

Source: Times Higher Education (THE)

World University Ranking 2011-2012

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Academic Criteria Academic Reputation Employer Reputation Faculty Student International Faculty International Students Citations per Paper Methodology Asian University Rankings vs World University Rankings Academic Reputation Index Employer Reputation Faculty Student Ratio Bibliometrics - Papers per Faculty and Citations per Paper
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Factors

QS (Quacquarelli Symonds)
ACADEMIC REPUTATION this survey asks active academics across the world about the top universities in fields they know about
FACULTY STUDENT RATIO

EMPLOYERS REPUTATION recruiters who hire graduates on a global scale

CITATIONS PER PAPER


Citations per published

research THOMSON REUTERS SCOPUS


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TITLE OF THE STUDY

CHAPTER 1
4. Hypothesis/ Assumption 5. Theoretical / Conceptual Framework 6. Definition of Terms
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1. Introduction 2. Statement of the Problem 3. Objectives

CHAPTER 2- REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Unpublished Theses and Dissertations Books Journals (?)

SYNTHESIS

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1. Demonstrate ability to develop research questions and propositions born out of sound LITERATURE REVIEW

2. Demonstrate ability to identify the right RESEARCH METHOD and TECHNIQUES consistent with the nature of the questions asked
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INQUIRY or investigation aimed at the DISCOVERY & INTERPRETATION of facts or REVISION OF ACCEPTED THEORIES in the LIGHT OF NEW FACTS & insights into the practical application of such new facts & insights on the particular subject.

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STEP 1 :

BIG

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STEP 1 :

HAIRY

BIG

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STEP 1 :
HAIRY
AUDACIOUS

BIG

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STEP 1 :

BIG HAIRY
AUDACIOUS

GOAL

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STEP 2 :

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Field of Expertise:
Organizational Behavior, Culture, Leadership, Politics and Development

Priority Research Areas:


Organizational practices, culture and change Organizational knowledge Transformation of organizations in emerging and changing societies Higher Education as organization

Specific Projects
The influence of organizational politics on employees affective organizational commitment Culture of Public and Private Higher Education Institutions Organizational development programs in Higher Education

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Priority Research Topics


1. Capacity and Policy Development
Governance
Public Resources Government Procurement Systems Public Financial Management

Growth and Competitiveness


Skills and Innovation Policy Knowledge Economy Education and Innovation Sustainable and Land Use Planning

2. Environment and Climate Change Mitigation

Priority Research Topics


3. Communication and Green Media Development
Values Orientation, Communication and Media Education (VOCAME)

4. Human Capital Investment


Talent Management Dynamic Capitalism Education Investment and Economic Growth Organizations Financial Performance

5. Organizational Culture, Leadership and Development


Organizational Practices, Culture, and Change Organizational Knowledge Transformation of Organizations in Emerging and Changing Societies Higher Education as Organization

Priority Research Topics


6. Promotion of Historical Awareness

Colonial Influence in the Philippines Historical events that transpired in Intramuros Historical Personalities Institutions of great influence to nation building
Literature and Lifestyle Performing Arts, Visual Arts, etc. Religious and Political Culture Translations

7. Preservation of Cultural Heritage

STEP 3 :

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THESIS FORMAT

IMRAD
Title Authorship and Affiliation Abstract (100-150 word count)
1.0 Introduction 2.0 Theoretical Background 2.1 Theoretical Framework 2.2 Literature Review 2.3 Research Model (Simulacrum) 3.0 Methods 3.1 Subjects 3.2 Instruments 3.3 Data Collection & Procedure 3.4 Data Analysis 3.5 Ethical Consideration 4.0 Results/ Findings 5.0 Discussion 6.0 Conclusion 7.0 References

Chapter 1: The Problem: Rationale and Background Introduction Statement of the Problem Theoretical Framework Significance of the Study Scope and Limitation Hypothesis Assumptions Definition of Terms Chapter 2 : Review of Related Literature Chapter 3 : Research Methodology Research Design Research Locale Population and Sampling Research Instrumentation Data Gathering Procedure Statistical analysis Ethical consideration Chapter 4: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data Chapter 5 : Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

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WHAT IS IT?
IMRAD, which stands for Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion is a standard layout for academic journal articles.

It also typically requires a title, abstract, tables and figures, acknowledgments and references to literature cited.

WHAT IS IT?
It requires suitable background knowledge so that the paper:

1) complies with widely recognized publication standards 2) is approved in the peer-review process with the minimum of amendments

This is what a typical thesis might look like.

This is what a Publishable Article (IMRAD) might look like.

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WHAT IT IS
Short and sweet
Must have only 4,000 to 6,000 word count Single spaced Font size: 11 Length: 10 to 15 pages

BENEFITS OF IMRAD
It is concise. IMRAD structure facilitates modular reading. Readers usually do not read in a linear way but browse in each section of article, looking for specific information.

This is normally found in pre-established areas of the paper.

HISTORY

1950s: Adoption of IMRAD format After 1965: IMRAD began to predominate 1979: IMRAD introduced as standard by the American National Standards Institute 1980s onwards: Absolute leadership of IMRAD Wide use of IMRAD may be credited to editors - to benefit readers and facilitate peer review

BASIC STRUCTURE OF IMRAD


Introduction
Methods Results

(What question was asked?)


(How was it studied?) (What was found?)

And
Discussion (What do the findings mean?)

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
It describes the background of the work and puts it in context. It should define the nature and scope of the problem. It must state the aim of your study.

It mentions former studies when it helps in setting focus for the subject of the report.

INTRODUCTION
It provides the rationale for the current study. What gap in knowledge did you try to fill? What controversy did you try to resolve?

It should forward the papers hypotheses.


It usually requires a research model or simulacrum. It should end in a by the report.

CENTRAL QUESTION to be answered

A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers.
Its purpose is to convey to readers what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic and what their strengths and weaknesses are. The main focus of your academic research paper is to develop a new argument. The literature review serves as a foundation and as support for a new insight that youll contribute.

A literature review must:


Be organized around and related directly to the research question Synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known Identify areas of controversy in the literature Formulate questions that need further research

It states the general purpose of the study of what it intends to determine and the specific objectives of the research paper. However, research questions in IMRAD format are stated declaratively. Key points for writing good objective: The purpose of the research objectives is to focus on the research problem. Avoid the collection of unnecessary data. Provide direction to research study. Objectives must be clear and well defined.

Measurable
Achievable Realistic Timely

A well-thought-out and focused research question leads directly into your hypotheses.

What predictions would you make about the phenomenon you are examining?
It is a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or problem that can be tested by further investigation. It can be a more specific prediction about the nature and direction of the relationship between two variables.

It is better known as conceptual framework in the chapter format. It includes a diagram that shows how variables are related with each other. Key points for making a simulacrum:
It is the researchers way of representing realities. It enables the researcher to crystallize the working title of a paper. Only two valid shapes are allowed: circle/ellipse and square/rectangle. Arrows are hypothesis typologies and are used to denote the relationships of variables. Directional: x y (x relates to y) Hypothetical: x y (x correlates with y)

INTRODUCTION
The Introduction describes the background of the work and puts it in context. It should mention former studies when it helps in setting focus for the subject of the report. The introduction should end in a research question to be answered by the report.

METHODS
It describes the procedure used to answer the research question. It must be detailed enough for the reader to be able to duplicate it. If the choice of method needs to be justified, it should be done here.

METHODS
It describes your sample and how/why they have been selected.

It includes rules of analysis, and rules of verification and validation.


It may include deductive reasoning, approximations, statistical analysis and simulations.

This part discusses thoroughly about the qualifications needed by the researchers for their participants. It often includes the age, other characteristics that may typify what the study is all about and the number of participants needed.

It confers about how the study will run (quantitative or qualitative). It also answers the question of how the data will be gathered such as using survey questionnaires, interviews and the likes. It also includes how the data will be analyzed, verified and validated.

RESULTS
It is the core of the paper and shows the outcome of the method. The results should be presented in a clear, accurate and concise format. There should be no redundancy so stick to what is relevant.

The text should tell the story and the tables give the evidence while the figures illustrate the highlights.

RESULTS
Summary statistics, figures and tables should be used when convenient for the sections purpose. Do not repeat in the text all the data given in the tables or illustrations; emphasize or summarize only important observations. While this section should contain the explanations necessary for it to be understandable, interpretations and deductions are to be kept for the Discussions section.

The third part of the IMRAD format which considered as the core of the paper and shows the outcome of the method. What should be remembered in writing the Results: The results should be presented in a clear, accurate, and concise format. There should be no redundancy so stick to what is relevant. The text should tell the story and the tables give the evidence while the figures illustrate the highlights.

DISCUSSION

DISCUSSION
It answers the research question. Conclusions drawn from the results are presented, and the significance of the work (for the author or others) are explained as needed. It describes the studys limitations, advantages, applications and recommendations.

It reveals the importance of the research paper in general. It also includes the benefits it may bring to specific types of profession, branches of any courses or any particular field.

OTHER SECTIONS OF AN IMRAD ARTICLE


Title Page
Abstract Acknowledgment References Appendices

TITLE PAGE
Title of the article (maximum of 40 characters or 12 salient words); only first word is capitalized (APA)
Full name(s) of author(s)

Academic degree(s)
Institutional affiliation(s) of author(s) Communication address Key words

Title of the Article Full name(s) of Author(s) Institutional Affiliation Communication Address Key Words

ABSTRACT
It must be short, only around 100 words. It must summarize: the context or background for the study the study's purposes basic procedures for the study main findings

principal conclusions

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
It mentions those that are close to being authors without being responsible for the papers contents.
For example: people delivering the data or putting forward important ideas in conversations

REFERENCES
All sources referred to in the paper must be listed and no others. If any standard is fixed by the journal where the paper is intended to be published, it should be adhered to. Otherwise, a general standard like APA can be followed.

APPENDICES
Appendices may be used for material logically belonging to the report, but too bulky to be part of the main text. In that case, the summary tables/statistics/figures should be in the main text, but detailed description will be placed in an appendix or two.

STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PROCESS


Topic or Problem Identification
Review of Literature Hypotheses Development Framework Development Objective Formulation Research Plan Formulation

Data Gathering/Collection
Data Analysis & Interpretation Conclusion Communicating & Utilizing the Findings

RESEARCH PROCESS

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STEP 4 :

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Reconnaissance
Good research is good because it advances our collective understanding
What has been done before Weaknesses and strengths of existing studies Implications of the findings

GENERATIVITY is one of the hallmarks of scholarship (Shulman, 1999)


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Reconnaissance
To be useful and meaningful, education research must be CUMULATIVE.
Must be build on and learn from PRIOR RESEARCH

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Reconnaissance
3 CHARACTERISTICS It clarifies and perhaps resolves the problems within a field of study rather than glossing over those problems It satisfies the formal criteria of a good theory
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It results in a progressive shift that yields a new perspective on the literature with
More explanatory More predictive power

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Other TECHNOLOGY- DRIVEN literature sources


Elsevier science journals
ScienceDirect Subject areas in ScienceDirect Subscribed, non-subscribed, complimentary

www.doaj.org (Directory of Open Access Journals)

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STEP 5 :

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Cases for Research on Life-giving Forces in Nursing


Researcher Major Objectives/ Central Question
Explore the relationships and relative contributions of selected work, shift worker health and demographic variables to job satisfaction

Delineated Factors

Locus

Methods

Ruggiero (2005)

stress; workload, shift schedule; depression; age; sleep; family issues

New Jersey, USA

Questionnaire; Survey

Hoffman and Scott (2003)

Examine the Work shift; Michigan, USA variation in role patterns; pay; stress and career autonomy; satisfaction by professional status Prepared by: Golda Aira V. work shift patterns.
Crisostomo, Ph.D.

Questionnaire

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STEP 6 :

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Which among the identified conceptual tags/ parameters/variables are considered IMPORTANT and CONTROVERSIAL in the field where I belong?

Conceptual Tags

Literature Source (Authors, Year)

Is the CT still important?

Is the CT still controversial?

/= YES

x = NO
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Conceptual Tags Lexical Definition

(According to Authoritative Sources)

Operational Definition (how the


term is/will be used in the paper)

Self- Efficacy

Ones interest and willingness to use and interact with IT (Hasan, 2003) Refers to perceived usefulness, ease of use, compatibility, and tialability

Perceived Beliefs

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RESEARCH STEPS
1. Know your BHAG 2. Knowing your field of EXPERTISE 3. Knowing parts of a PUBLISHABLE paper 4. Immersing oneself in Literature

Prepared by: Golda Aira V. Crisostomo, Ph.D.

RESEARCH STEPS
5. Organizing your Literature 6. Identifying Research Conceptual Tags

7. Defining Research Conceptual Tags


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Do a Simulacrum that incorporates the ff. hypotheses:


H1: More positive perceived IT beliefs lead to a more positive attitude towards IT adoption

H2: A better task technology fit will lead to a more positive attitude towards IT
adoption H3: A better task-technology fit and a more positive perceived IT belief are positively correlated with each other H4: A more positive attitude will lead to a higher degree of intentions towards IT. H5: The higher the level of self-efficacy, the higher the degree of positive attitude towards IT adoption

H6: The higher the level of self-efficacy, the higher the degree of intentions towards
IT adoption H7: A higher level of subjective norm will cause a higher degree of intentions towards IT adoption
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TITLE: A study of hotel employee behavioral intentions toward adoption of information technology
Perceived IT beliefs H3 TaskTechnology FIT H2 H1 ATTITUDE

H4
H5 SelfEfficacy H6 Behavioral Intention

Subjective Norm

H7

CENTRAL QUESTION: To investigate the relationship between attitude, self-efficacy and subjective norm and behavioral intention toward the perceptions of adoption of information technology by hotel employees
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