Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 26

FRACTION

Adding and subtracting fractions


Without renaming
Fractions with the same denominator are known as like fractions. Look at this pizza. It is cut into 8 equal 1 slices. 1 slice is of the pizza. 8

I take 1 slice of the pizza.

I take 2 slices of the pizza.

1 2 + = 8 8 3 of the pizza is given away altogether. 8

3 8

How much of the pizza is left?

8 3 = 8 8

5 8

5 3 + = 8 8

8 8

5 of the pizza is left. 8

Lets look at this strip of paper. It has been divided into 9 equal parts.

4 9 of the paper is coloured blue.

3 9 of the paper is coloured orange.

What fraction of the paper is coloured? 7 4 3 + = 9 9 9 What fraction of the paper is not coloured? 9 = 9 9

2 9

Try these.

Related fractions Related fractions have 1 denominator that is a factor of the other.

2 1 3 and 6 are related fractions as 3 is a factor of 6.

2 Let us add the 2 fractions, 3 and

1 6

. 2 3 1 6

2 3

X2

=
X2

4 6

4 6

1 6

2 3 = = 4 6 5 6

+ +

1 6 1 6

2 How do we subtract 5

7 from 10 ?

7 Here is 10 of an apple pie. 2 Now, lets take away 5 of the pie.

2 4 5 is the same as 10 .
2 5
X2

=
X2

4 10

4 I take away 10 of the pie.

7 10
= =

2 5

4 7 10 10 3 10

Mixed numbers

I have 3 mooncakes.

I have

1 2 of a mooncake.

3
3 +

1 2 1 1 = 3 2 2
3 whole number part 1 2 fractional part

There are 3

1 mooncakes altogether. 2

Look at the mooncakes below.

1 +

2 2 = 1 3 3 whole number part 1 2 3 fractional part

2 3

There are 1

2 mooncakes altogether. 3

2 1 and 1 are mixed numbers. A mixed number has a 3 2 whole number part and a fractional part. Numbers like 3

Improper fractions Look at the fractions below.

1 5

5 or 1 5

There are 6 1 one-fifths in 1 . 5

2 5

6 1 or 1 5 5

3 5

7 2 or 1 5 5

4 5

8 3 or 1 5 5

5 6 , , 5 5

7 8 and are improper fractions. 5 5

An improper fraction can be expressed as a whole number or a mixed number.

In an improper fraction, the numerator is greater than or equal to the denominator.

Changing mixed numbers to improper fractions Change 3

2 3

into an improper fraction. 3 2 3

11 3 Here is another way. 3

7 3 1 3

8 3 2 3

9 3

2 3

= 3 +

2 3

10 3 1 3

11 3 2 3

= =

9 2 + 3 3 11 3 2 . 3

There are 11 thirds in 3

Changing improper fractions to mixed numbers Express

9 as a mixed number. 4
9 4

2 Here is another way.

1 4
8 4 9 4 1 4

5 4 1 4

6 4 2 4

7 4 3 4

9 4

8 1 + 4 4 1 4

= 2 + =2
1 4 1 . 4

There are 9 quarters in 2

Look at the diagram below.


0 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 1 3 5 3 6

7
3 1 3

2
3

Try these.

=1

2 3

5 3

1 3

Fraction of a set
We have divided these 9 sweets into 3 equal groups.
Each group is

1 of 9. 3

1 of 9 3

What is

2 3 of 9?

1 of 9 3

2 is 2 groups out of 3 groups. 3 2 of 9 is 6. 3

1 of 9 3

Look at the 12 candies below. It has been divided into 4 equal groups. Each group is 1 of 12. 4

1 of 12 4 3 4 of 12?

1 of 12 4

What is

1 of 12 4 1 of 12 4

3 is 3 groups out of 4 groups. 4 3 of 12 is 9. 4

Product of a fraction and a whole number


3 x 12. 4 = = 36 4 9

1.

Find the value of 3 4 x 12 =

Recall 3 4 of 12 is 9.

3 x 12 4

So,

3 3 x 12 is the same as of 12. 4 4

2.

What is 3 4

3 of 5? 4 3x5 4 = =3

x 5 =

15 4
3 4

3.

What is 5 x 5 x 3 = 4

3 ? 4
5x3 4 = =3

15 4
3 4

Word problems
2. The mass of Box A is 1 kg. The mass of Box B is 3 (a) What is the total mass of the 2 boxes? (b) How much heavier is Box B than Box A? 1 (a) + 3 5 = 9 = 5 3 + 9 9 8 9 1 3 8 kg. 9
X3

5 kg. 9

=
X3

3 9

The total mass of the 2 boxes is

(b)

5 9

1 = 3 =

5 9 2 9

3 9

Box B is

2 kg heavier than Box A. 9

4.

Mrs Jones made 50 burgers. 30 of them were fish burgers and the rest were chicken burgers. Express the number of chicken burgers as a fraction of the number of burgers made.

50 30 = 20 20 50
10

=
10

2 5

2 5

of the burgers were chicken burgers.

7. Mr Samson had 120 teddy bears in his toy store. He sold


at $12 each. How much money did he receive? Step 1 Find the number of teddy bears sold. 2 3 2 x 120 3 80

2 of them 3

x 120 =
=

He sold 80 teddy bears. Step 2

Find how much money he received. 80 x 12 = 960

He received $960.

8.

My brother had 55 stamps in his stamp collection. He gave

his stamps away. How many stamps did he have left?

1 of 5

Step 1

Find the number of stamps given away. 1 x 55 1 x 55 = 5 5 = 11


My brother gave away 11 stamps.

Here is one way.

Step 2

Find the number of stamps he had left. 55 11 = 44 He had 44 stamps left.

Lets try another way.

Step 1

Find the fraction of stamps that he had left. 5 1 5 5 = 4 5 4 He had of his stamps left. 5 1 = Find the number of stamps he had left. 4 5 x 55 = = 4 x 55 5 44 1 5

Step 2

He had 44 stamps left.

Wrap-Up!

We can add or subtract fractions with the same denominators.

Example:

1 7 2 5

+ +

3 7

= =

4 , 7

5 8

8 9

2 8 -

3 8

3 10

4 3 + , 10 10 = 7 10

1 3

=
=

8 9 5 9

3 9

A mixed number has a whole number part and a fractional part. 1 1 Example: 2 and 3 are mixed numbers. 2 4

In an improper fraction, the numerator is greater than or equal to


the denominator. 7 3 11 Example: , and are improper fractions. 5 3 10

Wrap-Up!

A mixed number can be expressed as an improper fraction. An improper fraction can be expressed as a whole number or a mixed number. 3 13 12 11 1 Example: 2 = , = 3, =1 5 5 4 10 10 When we find the product of a fraction and a whole number, we multiply the whole number to the numerator. We then write the product over the denominator.

Example:

2 5

2x7 5 14 = 5 4 =2 5