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SPATIAL DATA MINING

Compiled byAnmol Jain Vishav Vij

SPATIAL DATABASE
Stores large amount of space-related data such as maps, preprocessed remote sensing, medical imaging of data, etc. However it is different from relational databases. They carry topological and distance information. They are organized in sophisticated multidimentional spatial indexing structures.

SPATIAL DATA MINING


Extraction of knowledge, spatial relationships and other interesting patterns. Require spatial reasoning, geometric computation and spatial knowledge representation techniques. Spatial database technologies are used for understanding spatial data and discovering spatial relationship. Spatial auto-correlation.

APPLICATIONS
Geographic information systems Geomarketing, remote sensing Image database exploration, medical imaging Navigation, traffic control, gps(emphasis) Environmental studies Eg- spatial OLAP used on climatic classification of a particular region.

CHALLENGES IN SPATIAL DATA MINING


Use of effective spatial data mining technologies due to huge amount of spatial data. Integration of spatial data from heterogeneous sources and systems. Realization of fast and flexible on-line analytical processing in spatial data warehouses(details). Using statistical techniques for complex spatial data. Difference btw geostatistics and spatial statistics.

SPATIAL DATA CUBE DIMENSIONS


Non-spatial dimension- contains only non spatial data with non spatial generalization. Spatial to non spatial dimension- primitive level is spatial, generalization becomes non spatial. Eg- generalization of Seattle is generalized to the string pacific north west. Spatial to spatial dimension- primitive level as well as generalization is spatial.

SPATIAL DATA CUBE MEASURES


Numerical measures- contains only numerical data. Eg- monthly revenue rolled up to annual revenue. Spatial measures- contains a collection of pointers to spatial objects. Eg- similar regions are grouped together. The count of a coast line is numerical measure while the map is spatial measure.

POSSIBLE CHOICES IN REGARD TO SPATIAL MEASURES


Collect and store the corresponding spatial object pointers but do not perform precomputation of spatial measures in the spatial data cube. Precompute and store a rough approximation of the spatial measures in the spatial data cube. Eg- MBR (minimum bounding rectangle) Selectively precompute some spatial measures in the data cube.

SPATIAL CLUSTERING METHODS


Spatial data clustering identifies clusters or densely populated regions according to some distance measurement in large multidimensional data set. Cluster analysis usually considers spatial data clustering with the help of numerous examples and applications.

SPATIAL CLASSIFICATION AND SPATIAL TREND ANALYSIS


Spatial classification analyses spatial objects to derive classification schemes in relevance to certain spatial properties such as neighborhood of a district, highway or river. Spatial trend analysis deals with the detection of changes and trends along a spatial dimension. Typically, trend analysis detects changes with time, eg- changes in time-series data.