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English for Graduate Study (LA 501)

Using Context Clues

Using Context Clues

Using Context Clues

What is missing from the photograph?


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Using Context Clues

Using Context Clues

In this lesson, you will:


know different types of contextual clues and strategies on using the clues

use context clues to guess unknown words

Using Context Clues


Context Clues

Words/phrases that help you understand the meaning of the word you do not know
Example: If you do catch a computer virus, there are several antivirus programs to detect and eradicate the virus. (From the context, you know that antivirus programs are used to detect and remove viruses from a computer system. So you can figure out that eradicate means remove)
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Using Context Clues


Context Clues

Words/phrases that help you understand the meaning of the word you do not know
Example: For many people today, its difficult to imagine life without a cellular phone. Once the preserve of the rich, they have now become an indispensable part of modern day life. (From the context, you can figure out that indispensable means important)
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Using Context Clues


Context Clues

Words/phrases that help you understand the meaning of the word you do not know
To approach the meaning of the new vocabulary, searching from the context is your first task. If you become more aware of the words around the difficult words you encounter in your reading, you will save yourself many trips to the dictionary.
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Using Context Clues


There are 4 types of context clues: Definition Restatement Example Contrast a brief definition of or a synonym

a word that is used to say the same thing


an example that clarifies a words meaning

a word or phrase of opposite meaning

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Definition Clue:
means is/are known as commas (, ) Unknown word Signal

a brief definition of or a synonym


is/are is/are/can be defined as dashes (-) Definition is/are called refers to parentheses ( )

Computer means a device that processes data according to a set of


instructions known as a program.

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Restatement Clue: a word that is used to say the same thing
or in other words that is to say
comma (, )

that is
parentheses ( )

(i.e.)
dash (-)

to put in another way

Unknown word

Signal

Restatement

Computers are multi-purpose tools. In other words, they can be used in a wide variety of situations and are found in a wide range of systems.

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Example Clue: an example that clarifies a words meaning
for example (e.g.) for instance with like

such as

especially
Unknown word

including
Signal

namely
Examples

Office workers use many computer applications such as word processing,


spreadsheets, and database.

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Contrast Clues:
but although on the other hand

a word or phrase of opposite meaning


however though on the contrary
Contrasting idea

yet even though while/as


Signal

Some people think that IT careers are boring. However,


most feel that its very simulating.

Unknown word
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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

In Information Technology - the study and practice of techniques or use of equipment for dealing with information- the hardware such as computers, phones, and consumer electronics, is covering.
Definition Clue the study and practice of techniques or use of equipment for dealing with information Dash ( - )

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

Voice and language recognition, computer programs changing speech into program commands and digital, will provide an easy interface, avoiding the problem of technophobic users, or users who have a fear or strong dislike of technology and technological devices
Definition Clue

computer programs changing speech into program commands and digital


comma ( , )

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

Voice and language recognition, computer programs changing speech into program commands and digital, will provide an easy interface, avoiding the problem of technophobic users, or users who have a fear or strong dislike of technology and technological devices.
Definition

users who have a fear or strong dislike of technology and technological devices or
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Clue
Using Context Clues

Using Context Clues


Practice -1

Changes in work practices may lead to teleworking. To put in another way, you can work at home while communicating with your office by computers, telephone, and fax.
Definition

Using computers, telephones, and fax to communicate with your office while you are at home To put in another way

Clue

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

Cyberspace is the combination of all the data on all the computer networks throughout the world, accessed using the Internet. A person who uses their skills to make cyberspace safer is referred to as a white hat hacker.
Definition

the combination of all the data on all the computer networks throughout the world, accessed using the Internet is

Clue

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

Cyberspace is the combination of all the data on all the computer networks throughout the world, accessed using the Internet. A person who uses their skills to make cyberspace safer is referred to as a white hat hacker.
Definition

a person who uses their skills to make cyberspace safer is referred to

Clue

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

A computer virus is a program that can reproduce itself and is written with the purpose of causing damage or causing a computer to behave in an unusual way. It infects other programs i.e. it attaches itself to other programs, known as host programs, and therefore reproduces itself.
Definition

a program that can reproduce itself and is written with the purpose of causing damage or causing a computer to behave in an unusual way is
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Clue
Using Context Clues

Using Context Clues


Practice -1

A computer virus is a program that can reproduce itself and is written with the purpose of causing damage or causing a computer to behave in an unusual way. It infects other programs i.e. it attaches itself to other programs, known as host programs, and therefore reproduces itself.
Definition

attaches itself to other programs and therefore reproduces itself

Clue
Using Context Clues

i.e.
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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

Unix is a popular multi-user ( can be used by many people at the same time) and multi-tasking ( can run more than one program at a time) operating system originally designed for mainframe computers.

Definition Clue

can be used by many people at the same time parentheses ( )

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

Unix is a popular multi-user ( can be used by many people at the same time) and multi-tasking ( can run more than one program at a time) operating system originally designed for mainframe computers.

Definition Clue

can run more than one program at a time parentheses ( )

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -1

The software consists of the protocols, i.e. the rules which determine the formats by which information may be exchanged between different systems.

Definition

the rules which determine the formats by which information may be exchanged between different systems

Clue

i.e.

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

Engineers are trying to make computers think and behave like humans. By combining Artificial Intelligence (an area of studies concerned with making computer copy intelligent human behavior) and engineering techniques, theyre building different types of robots and androids.
Definition

an area of studies concerned with making computer copy intelligent human behavior

Clue

parentheses ( )

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

Robots are devices which are controlled by computers and move and react to sensory input. They usually contain software that runs automatically without the intervention or the involvement of a person..
Definition

devices which are controlled by computers and move and react to sensory input.

Clue

are

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

Robots are devices which are controlled by computers and move and react to sensory input. They usually contain software that runs automatically without the intervention or the involvement of a person..
Definition

the involvement of a person

Clue

or

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

Today, they are used in all sorts of places, from factories to space exploration. Our life is affected by robotics, the science of designing and operating robots, in many other ways. Just think about medicine and the health system.
Definition

the science of designing and operating robots

Clue

comma (,)

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

Today, they are used in all sorts of places, from factories to space exploration. Our life is affected by robotics, the science of designing and operating robots, in many other ways. Just think about medicine and the health system.

Definition

the treatment of diseases

Clue

and the health system

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

For instance, tiny computers are used to monitor the heart rate and the blood pressure which are in the small areas that doctors cannot access themselves. In addition, micro-machines and insect-sized robots help doctors from simple treatments like heart operations to other complicated ones.
Definition

small computers the small areas that doctors cannot access themselves micro-machines / insect-sized robots
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Clue

Using Context Clues

Using Context Clues


Practice -2

For instance, tiny computers are used to monitor the heart rate and the blood pressure which are in the small areas that doctors cannot access themselves. In addition, micro-machines and insect-sized robots help doctors from simple treatments like heart operations to other complicated ones.
Definition Clue

not simple / difficult

simple

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

Robots are also used in dangerous situations- for example in repairing nuclear plants, cleaning toxic wastes and defusing bombs.
Definition Clue

Removing the fuse from the bombs bombs

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

Some research centers are building androids robots that have shape and capabilities of a human being. In the near future, androids will be available for sale.
Definition Clue

robots that have shape and capabilities of a human being Dash ( - )

Using Context Clues

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Using Context Clues


Practice -2

They will have access to the Internet, guide the blind and assist elderly people at home; they will be a 24 hour security guard for your home, sound the alarm in case of fire and phone the police if there is a burglary. In short, androids will become intelligent, which makes our futures life more convenient.
Definition Clue

housebreaking
phone the police

Using Context Clues

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