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COASTAL EROSION.

BY
JAWAD BASHIR(THUNDER)
GROUP MEMBERS

3. Enam-ul-haq malik.
4. Haroon Khan.
5. Jawad Bashir.
COASTAL EROSION
1. Coastal Processes.

4. Coastal Land forms

7. Impacts and Hazards on Coasts.

10. Prevention Methods used.

13. Coastal Erosion in Pakistan.


Coastal Erosion
• Erosion is when wind, water, and ice take
sediments away.

• Erosion on coasts by wind and water.

• Water is major agent of erosion.

• About 21% of all erosion in done by coastal


erosion.
Coastal Processes
• Currents and Waves.

• Swash and Backwash of waves.

• Tides and Tidal Currents.

• Rip Currents.

• Long Shore drift.

• Hurricanes and Tsunami.

• Abrasion & Attrition.

• Corrosion (Salutation).
Waves and Currents.
• A wave is a disturbance that
propagates through space
and time.

• Current is a continuous flow


of water in a particular
direction.

• Both contains characteristics


of Crest and Trough.
Swash and Back wash
• Swash is the water that
washes up on shore after
an incoming wave has
broken.
• Also called as
constructive current.

• Backwash current is a
seaward current that
results from the receding
swash.
• Also called destructive
current.
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Longsho
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Tides and Tidal currents.
• Tidal bulge combine with daily
earth’s rotation creates broad
system of waves.

• Cause by the gravitational


action.

• Mainly because of moon and


sun.

• Incoming tides and out going


tides.

• Neap and Lunar tides.


Rip Currents.
• Fast, narrow surface
currents.

• Flow seaward at
nearly right angles to
shore.

• Mainly in surfing
zone.

• Move back to sea by


narrow paths.
Long Shore Drift.
• The movement of
sediments along a beach
or shore by currents.

• Having a particular
direction.

• Mainly cause by Long


shore currents.

• Swash and Backwash are


major Phenomena.
Hurricane and Tsunami.
• A tropical cyclonic storm
with winds having
velocity>120km/hour.
• Mostly hit in late
summers and fall.

• A short period
disturbance create by
submarine earth quake or
volcanic vent.
• The waves more than
100feet, might possibly
rise.
Abrasion & Attrition(Corrasion)
Abrasion.
• The waves pick up the
sediment & hurl it against
the cliffs (uses the
sediment as ammunition).

Attrition
• As the sediment is hurled
against the cliff, bits are
chipped off, the sediment
gets smaller & rounder
Corrosion (Salutation)
• Salt & other
chemicals in sea
water attack &
dissolve the cliffs.

• The cliffs mainly of


limestone and
calcium rich are
mainly effected.
Coastal Land Forms.
• Head lands and Bay Mouth Bars.
• Barrier islands and Barrier Reef.
• Atolls and Reef Flats.
• Fore shore and Back shore.
• Berms and Spits.
• Cliffs, Crack or Inlet.
• Caves and Arches.
• Stack and Stump.
• Wave Cut Platform
• Tombolos
Headlands and Bay mouth Bars.

• A headland is an area of land


adjacent to water on three
sides.
• Where the rock is hard a
Headland is left outstanding.

• A shallow bar, extends partially


or completely across the
mouth of bay.
• Where there is softer rock
erosion carves out a bay.
Barrier Island and Barrier Reef.
• Elongate ridges of sand
and gravel parallel to
coasts, forms at long
shallow shelf.
• Separated from mainland
by shallow lagoon.

• Coral reef that parallel to


shore.
• Separated by open water.
Atolls and Reef Flats.
• A ring shaped coral reef,
encloses a lagoon.
• Grows upward from
submerged volcanic
peak.

• A platform of coral
fragments and sands.
• Exposed only in low tidal
zone.
Fore Shore and Back Shore.
• The shore between low and high tide lines.
• This area continuously attacked by currents and waves.

• The inner portion of the shore that is land ward having


gentle sloping.
• Only attacked by waves during high tides and in severe
storms.
Berms and Spits.
• Horizontal portion of a
beach whose edge
abruptly slopes seaward.
• Located in Back shore
zone.

• A narrow strip of land,


usually of sand.
• Whose one end attached
with mainland and ends
in water.
Cliffs, Crack or inlet
• A cliff is a steep, often
vertical, rock outcrop
along a coast.
• The waves erode the rock
through processes such
as hydraulic action and
corrasion.
• Wave attack picks out
cracks, joints &
weaknesses in the cliff.
• With time these
weaknesses are widened,
to form inlets or Goes
Caves and Arches.
• The inlets with time
further opened due to
action of currents and
waves form Caves.

• The hole broken


through the rock
makes an arch
Stack and Stump.
• A pillar of rock
surrounded by sea is left
as a stack.
• Pressure is put on the
arch roof until it
collapses.

• Waves undercut the base


of the stack until only a
rock stump is left.
• Stump then disappears
later on due to wave
attacks
Wave cut Platform
• The cliff above the wave
cut notch eventually
collapses leaving the cliff
further back.

• Repeat this process & a


wave cut platform is left
at the cliff foot, indicating
retreat
Tombolos
• Derived from an Italian
word means" long
chain of rocks “.

• It is a deposition
landform in which an
island is attached to the
mainland by a narrow
piece of land such as a
spit or bar.
Impacts and Hazards on Coasts
• Plate Tectonic Impacts.
Due to the movement and collision of
Plates.

• Human made impacts.


Due to Man made artificial structure and
human activity.
Plate Tectonic Impacts
• Divergent/Convergent plate
boundaries possess steep continental
shelves
• Passive Continental Margins- have
broad continental shelves and have
beaches with spit
• Island Arcs can protect coastlines
• Allows deltas to form
Human Impacts on Coastline
• Retention walls, groins, and Revetments
all cause large bulk deposition of sediment
somewhere.
• Other areas lose beach sand
• Development destroys vital shoreline
vegetation
• Water and petroleum pumping cause
subsidence
Hazards Related to Coasts.
• Mass wasting.

• Danger to Urbanization.

• Danger to Marine life.

• Permanent Changes in Topography.


Mass Wasting.
• Include mainly land slide.
• Land slide causes the sediments to erode in a large bulk.
• Triggered due to hurricanes, Tsunamis.
• Results are heavy loss of property.
• Average 8,774,406 billion dollars loss taken place.

7. Process of Rock fall.


• When a hard cliff is under cut by waves the bulk of rocks fall under the influence of
gravity.
• The Speed of fall might exceeds about 500km/hour.
• Cause structures to subside and heavy turbulence in water.
• Triggered coastal floods.

13. Toppling.
• Rotation of a mass of rock, debris, or earth outward from a steep slope face is
called Toppling.
• Toppling also produce turbidity and might also destroy structures
Danger to Urbanization
• Heavy loss of property taken place every year.

• Loss of life also taken place.

• Oil spillage during extreme storms may also cause various


diseases.

• Sea water intrusions with drinking water bodies also a major hazard

• Different under ground structures might become exposed and


become collapsed.

• The Most Effected urban countries of world is Holland and Japan.


Danger to Marine life.
• The marine life specially the shelf marine life
heavily suffer.
• Due to continuous erosion the shelf life heavily
buried inside and become extinct,
• Oil spillage near shore destroy the coral reefs
and other biodiversities.
• The production rate also disturbed as the eco
system changes with coastal processes.
• Every year about 24-29% of all marine life near
coast effected by various coastal factors.
Permanent Changes in
Topography.
• The continuous erosion move the shelf further landward.

• The artificial constructed structure don’t control the rate


of sediments.

• A large bulk of sediments erodes from one side and


deposited at some other side, disturbing Isostacy.

• The artificial structures restrict the natural land forms.


Prevention Methods Used.
• Structural Measures.

• Non-Structural Measures

• Bio Shield Methods


Structural Measures.
• Sea walls.
• Groins.
• Jetties.
• Bulkheads
• Revetments.
Sea walls

in order to stop high tides


Groins

It is oriented perpendicular to shore


Jetties

on the both side of inlets.


Revetments.

Stop the erosion.


Bulk Heads.

They also used for steep slope stability.


Non Structural Measures.
• Building sand dunes
and growing
vegetation around
them.

• Artificial beach
nourishment
Bio Shields
• Mangroves
• Coral reefs
• Sea grass
• Sea weeds
• Animal habitats
• Marine parks
• Marine sanctuaries
Coastal Erosion in Pakistan.
• The Pakistan’s coastline with the Arabian Sea
stretches to over 990 km.
• The Balouchistan coast is active whereas the
Sindh coast, Indus deltaic area, and offshore
Indus basin are passive.
• Balouchistan coast mainly contains Gawadar
coastal area.
• Sindh coast can be further divided into two parts
the Indus deltaic coast and the Karachi coast
Ecosystem found.
• Mangrove forests in the Indus delta, which
are a rich source of nutrients for a variety
of marine species.
• Avicenna marina being the most
dominant.
• Coral reefs and sea weeds also the main
part of eco system.
• Various types of birds, fishes and
mammals also live in these areas.
Coast of Balouchistan
• The coast of Balouchistan is about 400-
450 km.

• The Makran coast consist mainly of


Clastic sediments.

• The Gawadar coast is rocky and


compacted coast.
Makran Coast
• Makran coast is not an
well urbanized area.
• On the west (Makran)
coastal erosion already
threatens coastal
property, coastal
agriculture land and
habitats.
• The Barrier island, bay
mouth bars and
Tombolos are main land
forms.
• Two major barrier islands
of about 2-3 km are here.
Gawadar coast.
• Gawadar coast is a rocky
type of coast
• Coastal erosion to some
degree is only noticeable.
• Rock fall often seen here.
• Stack, stump, inlets ,head
lands and wave cut platform
is noticeable features here.
• Coral reefs specially sea
weeds are found here.
Indus Deltaic coast.
• It is urbanized area.
• Carrying most of the eroded alluvial soils and
clay.
• Coastal erosion on a massive scale is seen
here, Land sliding is a major coastal hazard.
• Oil spillage is often subjected to that area.
• The land forms seen here are Deltas, bays,
Tombolos and Berms.
• Mangroves also the part of Eco system.
Karachi Coast
• Karachi coastal area is about
60km in length.
• Mainly consist of detrietal
particles and sand.
• Heavily urbanized area.
• The Main hazard is coastal
pollution by various means i.e.
oil spillage is common.
• The phenomena of land
subsidence is also present
• Mangroves are present in
large number but there
production become decrease
with time.
• The main land forms are Bays,
spits and barrier islands.
Prevention Methods Used in
Balouchistan coast.
• The government is not
giving interest in
Balouchistan coastal
areas.
• The only method used in
Balouchistan (Makran) is
the bulkhead method.
• In Gawadar the national
disaster control frame
authorities will use sea
walls in order to stop
massive cliff erosions.
Prevention Methods used in Sindh
coast.
• Government is focusing specially on Karachi
coast due to urbanization.
• Retention walls are build at various places.
• Bulkheads and artificial beach nourishment is
common used methods here.
• The marine geologists also working on method
to increase mangroves production.
• In Indus coastal area the Groin and jetties
protection method is used to lessened the
effects of coastal erosion.
The End.
Any Questions.