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Chapter 2: Creating a Brand

Building a brand Brand identity Brand personality Brand image

Branding continues to be a strong force in the marketing of an organizations products be it a physical product or a services product. A brand is successful when consumers are convinced that there are significant differences among the brands in the same product category. The brand consists of tangible attributes and some intangible benefit. The meaningful differences can therefore take the form of either product attributes or creating images around their product

Strategic Brand building and management process

Internal company analysis Vision, mission and organizational culture Company strengths and weaknesses Existing brand image Brand heritage Strategic Analysis Identify opportunities: Brand Objectives External audit PESTE analysis Porters five forces Industry analysis Competitor analysis Customer analysis Supplier analysis Substitutes


Designing Identity of brand Brand as a product Brand as a person brand personality Brand as a symbol Brands as an organization


Grow and sustain brand equity Manage brand challenges over time Manage brands across boundaries

Identify brand value proposition Functional benefits Self-expressive benefits Emotional benefits

Branding strategies Brand architecture, Brand stretching and Brand extension strategies

Identify brand positioning basis

Measure brand performance Financial measures Customer based measures

Build a brand through the marketing programs Product strategy Pricing strategy Promotion strategy Distribution strategy Online strategy

Brand meaning: Brand image, Brand positioning, Brand personality

The Strategic Fit

Strategic brand building includes a mix of organizational activity and the consumers perception or understanding of the brand. It is therefore important that there be a strategic fit between the two entities i.e. the identity designed by the organization should be understood and readily perceived by the customers.

The Strategic Fit

Brand is purchased Brand is created
Product design and features
Brand communication Social responsibility Place

Brand evaluation by consumers


Perceived self image


Brand identity (BI1)


Brand image (BI2)

(BI2) similar to (BI1) Brand meets expectations

(BI2) dissimilar to (BI1)

Strong Brand

Brand gap

Designing Brand identity Kapferers Identity Prism

Kapferer (2009) has categorized the brand identity into six dimensions that can be represented by the six faces of the hexagonal prism. The six facets are broadly categorized under two perspectives internal and external

Kapferers Identity Prism

Left side The left side is the social face of the brand and helps in expressing the brand. They result in externalization of the brand and consists of:
Physique of the brand Relationship Reflection

Right side The right side of the prism is the spirit of the brand and is incorporated in the brand itself. It results in internalization of the brand and consists of:
Personality Culture Self-image

Brand personality
Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that can be associated with the brand like gender, age and personality traits like warmth, honesty, integrity, etc. The physical aspects of a product can be copied but it is very difficult to copy the personality of a brand. Thus brand personality helps in building a sustainable competitive advantage For an organization retailing brands across cultural boundaries, the personality of the brand is an important aspect that helps them to market their brand. Celebrity endorsements help in creating a brand personality as they help consumers to understand the brand in context of the celebrity.

Measuring brand personality

An important aspect that needs to be discussed is how to measure brand personality. This is not discussed in the brand identity prism as in a brand identity the focus is internal. When we talk about measuring brand personality the focus is external, i.e. how does the customer perceive the brand or what is the personality of the brand according to the customers. This can be done with the help of Aakers (1997) Brand Personality Framework

Aakers Brand Personality Framework

2 facets 5 items

4 facets 11 items

2 facets 6 items

Brand personality

4 facets 11 items

3 facets 9 items

Aakers Brand Personality Framework

Down to earth Down-toearth Familyoriented Small town Honest Honest Sincere Real Wholesome Wholesome Original Cheerful Cheerful Sentimental Friendly

Daring Daring Trendy Exciting Spirited Spirited Cool Young Imaginative Imaginative Unique Up-to-date Up-to-date Independent Contempora ry

Reliable Reliable Hard working Secure Intelligent Intelligent Technical Corporate Successful Successful Leader Confident

Sophistication Ruggedness
Upper-class Upper class Glamorous Good looking Charming Charming Feminine Smooth Outdoorsy Outdoorsy Masculine Western Tough Tough Rugged

Brand image
The brand image is the set of beliefs held about a particular brand (Kotler and Keller, 2005) by the consumer. This image is formed by an understanding of all the brand associations. The brand image gives an understanding about how consumers choose a particular brand among alternative brands after they have gathered information about the brands.

Brand image (contd.)

Brand image is defined as perceptions about a brand as reflected by the brand associations held in consumer memory. Brand associations are anything linked in memory to a brand The association can be with the brands attribute, brands benefit and the brand attitude

Brand image (contd.)

Brand image can be built by: Product Price Packaging User imagery Usage imagery

Brand image (contd.)

Brand meanings can be studied by adopting any of the following measures:

Free associations Picture interpretations Brand as a person Brand as an animal / magazine

Use experience Decision process Brand user Differential perception Personal values driving choice

Quick Recapitulation
Building a brand Brand identity Brand personality Brand image