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LEARNING OUTCOMES

To explain what malnutrition is To explain the effects of malnutrition using examples To describe ways to reduce the chance of contracting certain health problems due to ones diet To describe ways to reduce the effects of certain health problem

Malnutrition and Its Effects


Malnutrition : lack of one or more of the nutrients required in the diet to maintain good health
Can be caused by :
A reduced intake of nutrients (undernourishment) An inability to use absorbed nutrients The failure to meet a required increase in nutrient intake Nutrient loses

Malnutrition & Its Effects


3 stages to provide energy in cases of malnutrition :
The carbohydrate stores in the body are used up The fat reserves are oxidised Proteins are broken down. When protein levels have been reduced to half their normal value, death will occur

Lack of any nutrient can cause deficiency diseases

Nutrients
Proteins

Effects of deficiency
Kwashiorkor

Characteristics
Stomach bloated, growth of body and brain retarded, no appetite for food, weak body poor night vision cornea dry & opaque Swollen legs & ankles, numbness in hands, muscular pain & cramps, fatigue, loss of appetite Dermatitis (skin becomes red & inflamed), diarrhoea & mental disorder

Vitamin A

Night blindness Xerophthalmia Beri-beri

Vitamin B1

Vitamin B3

Pellagra

Vitamin B12 Iron

Anaemia

Lack of RBC or haemoglobin to transport oxygen

Vitamin C

Scurvy

Bleeding gums, bruise skin, painful & swollen joints, weakness


Stunted growth of bones & teeth, weak bones Brittle bones which easily broken

Vitamin D Calcium

Rickets Osteoporosis

Iodine

Goitre Cretinism
Muscular cramps

Enlarge thyroid glands Physical & mental growth retarded


Sudden & painful contraction of muscles

Sodium

Effects of Excessive Intake of Certain Nutrients on Health


Nutrient
Carbohydrates (sugar)

Effects
Obesity which may lead to high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, heart diseases Dental caries

Characteristics
Body weight is more than 20% of the suitable body weight for a particular height Tooth decay due to the destruction of the teeths enamel by acids which are produced by bacteria from carbohydrate

Lipids

Atherosclerosis (as a result The narrowing & hardening of saturated animal fats) of arteries

Proteins

Gout Stones in the kidney which can damage the kidney

Excessive uric acid deposits on the joints causing joint pain Uric acid crystalises & forms stones in the kidney The liver fails to function because liver cells die & fibrous tissues form in the liver Fatigue, headache, can cause bleeding in the brain (stroke) & heart failure Kidneys are overloaded with the task of removing excess salt

Vitamin A

Liver damage

Sodium

High blood pressure Kidney damage

Calcium

Atherosclerosis

Calcium deposits on the inner walls of arteries causing the arteries to harden & lose their elasticity

DIET-RELATED DISEASES
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
Excessive intake of food that is rich in saturated fat, cholesterol & calcium leads to atherosclerosis & high blood pressure. The saturated fats, cholesterol & calcium are deposited on the inner walls of arteries. The lumen become smaller & the walls of the arteries harden & lose their elasticity. Blood flow is reduced. the heart pump faster to produce a higher pressure

Also can cause by excessive intake of salts, tea & coffee which can increase the rate of heart beat, thus increasing the blood pressure. Ways to reduce the risk of HBP :
Reduce the intake of food which are rich in saturated fats & cholesterol Exercise frequently Reduce the intake of salts in food, as well as tea & coffee Do not smoke Have enough rest

DIET-RELATED DISEASE
DIABETES MELLITUS
Caused by excessive glucose in the blood & its subsequent excretion in the urine
Excessive intake of food rich in sugar (carbohydrates) can cause diabetes mellitus Obesity can also lead to DM The risk of DM can be reduced by :
Reduce the intake of food rich in sugar Exercise frequently

DIET-RELATED DISEASE
OSTEOPOROSIS
Due to the lack of calcium, phosphorus & vitamin D in the diet of an adult Low density of the bone mass & the bones become thin & brittle, easily broken The risk of contracting osteoporosis can be reduced in the following ways :
Intake of food rich in calcium, phosphorus & vitamin D Exercise frequently

Kwashiokor

Xerophthalmia

Beri-beri

PELLAGRA

ANAEMIA

SCURVY

RICKETS

GOITRE

ATHEROSCLEROSIS

OSTEOPOROSIS

OBESITY

GOUT

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

DIABETES MELLITUS

EXERCISE 6.3
1. Explain what is malnutrition. 2. Explain the effects of malnutrition using examples. 3. Describe ways to reduce the effects of certain health problems.