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Rolling Element Bearings

Operational life is variable. Fixed time replacement is ineffective and inefficient. Condition Monitoring recommended

Rolling Element Bearings Failure Modes

Rolling elements or races fail by fatigue stress giving pitting. Overheating due to poor fitting or over-greasing. Cage fracture due to poor fitting or incorrect usage.

DEFECTIVE ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS


Only 10 to 20% of all Bearings Achieve Their Design Life Problems Include

Improper Lubrication Use of Wrong Lubrication Contamination Improper Storage Moisture Improper Installation Improper Application.
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Bearing Terminology

Bearing Database

Analysis Bearing Defect Frequencies


BPFI = n* fr /2 [ 1- (BD/PD) Cos] BPFO = n* fr /2 [ 1+(BD/PD) Cos ] BSF = (PD/BD)fr[1- {BD/PD) Cos }2] FTF = fr /2 [ 1- (BD/PD) Cos ] n= No of Balls / Rollers fr= Shaft RPM BD= Ball / Roller Dia PD= Bearing Pitch Dia = Contact Angle
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ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING FAILURE

THE FOUR STAGES


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Defect Frequencies Produced by Rolling Element Bearings


(a) Random Ultrasonic. (b) Natural Frequencies of Components. (c) Rotational Defect Frequencies. (d) Sum and Difference Frequencies.
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ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 1 FAILURE MODE

ZONE A

ZONE B

ZONE C ZONE D gSE

Earliest indications in the ultrasonic range These frequencies evaluated by Spike EnergyTM gSE, HFD(g) and Shock Pulse Spike Energy may first appear at about 0.25 gSE for this first stage
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ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 2 FAILURE MODE


ZONE A

ZONE B

ZONE C ZONE D gSE

Slight defects begin to ring bearing component natural frequencies These frequencies occur in the range of 30k-120k CPM At the end of Stage 2, sideband frequencies appear above and below natural frequency Spike Energy grows e.g. 0.25-0.50gSE
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ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 3 FAILURE MODE


ZONE A ZONE B ZONE C ZONE D gSE

Bearing defect frequencies and harmonics appear Many defect frequency harmonics appear with wear the number of sidebands grow Wear is now visible and may extend around the periphery of the bearing Spike Energy increases to between 0.5 -1.0 gSE
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ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS STAGE 4 FAILURE MODE


ZONE A ZONE B ZONE C gSE

High just prior to failure

Discreet bearing defect frequencies disappear and are replaced by random broad band vibration in the form of a noise floor Towards the end, even the amplitude at 1 X RPM is effected High frequency noise floor amplitudes and Spike Energy may in fact decrease Just prior to failure gSE may rise to high levels
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Case Study: Defective Rolling Element Bearing

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Paper Roll Bearing With Multiple Harmonics Of BPFO

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Vibration Characteristics of Failing Bearings

To be able to see the repetition frequencies, we need to : Filter out other , Low frequency vibration Enhance the periodic characteristic of the bearing damage signal This is what Enveloping process does.
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Rolling Element Bearing Damage Repetition Frequencies

Usually between 6-10 impacts per shaft revolution Different impact repetition frequencies are generated for defects on the inner race and outer race and rolling elements. Repetition frequencies are usually masked by other vibration.
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Rolling Element bearing

Each time a Rolling Element passes a defect in the race, an impact is generated. Each impact a pulse of high frequency vibration.

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Use of Enveloping

Distinguishes between rolling Element Bearing Damage and other faults as cavitation, Gear Meshing, Casing resonances. Require considerable expertise to apply effectively and so is best targeted where standard bearing monitoring techniques are found to be ineffective.
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Gear Transmission

Principal mode of failure is wear to the contacting faces of the Gear Teeth. Occasional failure due to cracking or breaking of Gear Teeth.

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Gear Transmission Vibration Characteristics

Peak at Gear Mesh Frequency( GMF) GMF = RPM* no of Gear Teeth Other peaks at amplitudes of the gear mesh frequency i.e.2*GMF, 3* GMF etc.
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Gear Transmission Vibration Characteristics


Increase in the Gear mesh peak and its multiples may occur due to

Excessive gear wear Incorrect backlash adjustment Poor lubrication Gear eccentricity Gear misalignment

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Gear Transmission Sidebands

All gear mesh peaks exhibit sidebands at increments of the input gear RPM. Sidebands may become more prevalent in case of gear misalignment or where impacting of some type occurs. High resolution spectra are usually needed to observe sidebands. 22

Vibration Analysis Gears


A.

Normal Spectrum Contains 1* and 2* Gear Shaft RPM along with Gear Mesh Frequency(GMF). GMF normally contains running speed sidebands. Peak are of low amplitude.
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Vibration Analysis Gears


B. Tooth Wear

High amplitude sidebands(normally one each side) around GMF, spaced at the running speed of the bad gear is the best indicator of tooth wear. Gear Natural Frequency may also be excited.
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Vibration Analysis Gears


C. Gear Eccentricity & Backlash

Fairly high amplitude side bands around GMF occur due to gear eccentricity or backlash. The Gear with problem is indicated by the spacing of the side band frequencies.
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Vibration Analysis Gears


C. Gear Eccentricity & backlash

Improper backlash normally excites GMF and Gear Natural frequency both of which will be side banded at 1* RPM GMF amplitude often decrease with increasing load if backlash is the problem.
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Vibration Analysis Gears


D. Gear Misalignment

Gear misalignment almost always generates 2nd or higher GMF harmonics which are side banded at running speed. They often show small amplitude 1* GMF, but higher 2* or 3* GMF.
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Gear Mesh With Sidebands

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Case Study: Gear Misalignment

GMF = 17 teeth X 613 RPM = 10421 CPM


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Vibration Analysis Gears


D. Cracked / Broken Tooth

Cracked / Broken tooth generates high amplitude 1*RPM of defective gear shaft. Time wave form shows pronounced peaks at 1/speed of gear shaft, I.e. every time the broken tooth meshes , creating a impact.
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