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Introduction HVDC Technology high voltage transmission Advantages of HVDC Disadvantages Cost of HVDC Configurations Applications Conclusion

In the initial stages DC used to be employed for generation of electric power. With the introduction of transformers & 3phase ac system situation changed in favor of ac. The earlier dc schemes used mercury-arc convertors. With the development of high power thyristors the HVDC transmission has become viable alternative. It has an operating voltage upto 1600kv .

high voltage direct current (HVDC), electric power transmission system uses direct current for bulk transmission of electrical power . For long distance transmission , HVDC system is less expensive and suffer lower electrical losses. HVDC allows power transmission between unsynchronised AC distribution system & can increase system stability.

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using dc to provide asynchronous link between two ac system, two convertor stations at each end is necessary connected by dc transmission line.

The

main equipments in convertor station are: transformer and thyristor valves. Chokes and filters are provided at each end to ensure smooth direct current. At sending end thyristor valves acts as rectifier to convert ac into dc. At receiving end it acts as inverters to convert dc into ac. In convertor station at sending end voltage is stepped up and then converted into dc. Thus at the start we have high voltage direct current.

cheaper in cost An HVDC line can be built in stages No skin effect Lower transmission losses Voltage regulation Greater reliability Higher operating voltage

Costly terminal equipment : the convertors used at both ends are much more expensive than conventional equipments. The convertors have very little overload capacity & absorb reactive power. More maintenance of line insulators Voltage transformation : voltage transformation is not easier in dc and hence it has to be accomplished on the ac side of the system.

Line cost is higher. Lower substation cost. Intermediate substations are required. Skin effect: present. Series & shunt compensations are required.

Lower line cost. Higher substation cost. Intermediate substations are not required. Skin effect: absent No compensation is required.

EHV-AC

HVDC

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Monopolar link : it has one conductor and return path is provided by earth or sea. These are used for low power ratings.This is used for power rating of 250MW. Bipolar link: this link has 2 conductors- one operating with positive polarity and other with negative. This is the most widely used link. There are 2 convertors connected in series. The rated voltage is 500V.

3. Homopolar link: It has two or more conductors having the same polarity and always operate with ground return.

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On the basis of application HVDC transmission systems can be classified as: Long distance high power transmission Under water transmission Underground transmission DC link in parallel with AC link HVDC back-to-back system Multi terminal HVDC interconnection

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AC network interconnections Renewable electricity highways HVDC interconnections are often used at national or regional boundaries for exchange of power.

Considerable research and development work is under way to provide a better understanding of the performance of HVDC links to achieve more efficient and economic designs of thyristor valves and related equipment and to justify the use of Alternatives AC/DC system configurations . Future power system would includes a transmission mix of AC & DC. Future controllers would be more & more Microprocessor based, which can be modified without requiring Hardware changes. It is by now clear that HVDC transmission is already a reliable, efficient &cost effective alternative to HVAC for many applications.