Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

Dept.

of Mechanical Engineering, IISc

ME-255 : PRINCIPLES OF TRIBOLOGY


Surface Properties - Measurement Techniques Profilometer

Presented by Balasenthil D Sr.No. 08993

CONTENTS
Introduction Types of Profilometer
Contact Non - Contact

Working Principle
Optical Principle Basics Modes of Operation

System Performances
Range , Resolution & Accuracy

Surface Parameters
Surface Topography & Amplitude Parameters

Profilometers @ IISc Measurement Examples

INTRODUCTION
Definition. - A profilometer is a device used to measure the roughness of a surface. - Gives difference between the high and low point of a surface in nanometres.

Types of Profilometers.
Non - Contact Profilometers

Contact Profilometers

Non - Contact Profilometer


Optical Methods
Vertical Scanning Interferometry Phase - Shifting Interferometry Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy

Focus Detection Methods


Intensity Detection Focus Variation Differential Detection Critical Angle Astigmatic Method Focault Method Confocal Microscopy

Contd

Non - Contact Profilometer


Pattern Projection Methods
Fringe Projection Fourier Profilometry Moire

Contact & Pseudo Contact Profilometer


Stylus Profilometer Atomic Force Microscopy Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

Contact Profilometer

Height from 10 nanometres to 1 millimetre Radius of diamond stylus from 20 nm to 25 m Horizontal resolution is controlled by the scan speed and data signal sampling rate. Contd ...

Contact Profilometer
Advantages & Disadvantages

Acceptance & Easy to Use Surface Independence Resolution : The stylus tip radius can be as small as 20 nanometres Direct Technique : No modelling required. Not suitable for very soft (or even liquid) and easily damageable surface Very hard and damage surface can damage the stylus Only 2D

Non - Contact Profilometer

Uses beams of light to read a surface They shoot a beam out and measure the time it takes to return. no wear since none of its parts touch anything

Contd

Non - Contact Profilometer


Advantages of optical profilometers
Good Resolution: Vertical resolution is usually in the

nm level

High Speed
Reliability : cannot be damaged by surface wear or careless operators Spot size or lateral resolution ranges from a few micrometres down to sub micrometre. Contd

Non - Contact Profilometer

Limitations:
Limited by very high slopes, where the light is

reflected away from the objective, unless the slope has enough texture to provide the light. Surface Modelling is required to convert the digital code to human usable data.

Working Principle of Profilometer


(Non - Contact Optical Profilometer)

Contd

Working Principle of Profilometer


(Non - Contact Optical Profilometer)

A light beam is split, reflecting from reference (known/flat) & test material.
Constructive and destructive interference occurs Forms the light and interference fringes. dark bands known as

The optical path differences are due to height variances in the test surface. Contd

Working Principle of Profilometer


(Non - Contact Optical Profilometer)

Constructive interference areas as lighter and the destructive interference areas as darker.

Interference Image

Light to dark fringes above represents one-half a wavelength of difference between the reference path and the test path. Contd

Working Principle of Profilometer


(Non - Contact Optical Profilometer)

From the above Interference Image:


Lower portion is out of focus means less interference. Greatest contrast means best focus.

Modes of Operation
(Non - Contact Optical Profilometer)

Phase Shifting Interferometry (PSI) Mode Vertical Scanning Interferometry (VSI) Mode

Contd

Modes of Operation
(Non - Contact Optical Profilometer)

System Performances

Range: Highest vertical distance the profiler can measure.


Resolution: Smallest accurately measure.
Lateral Resolution Vertical Resolution

distance

the

profiler

can

Accuracy: How closely a measured value matches the true value & can be obtained by frequent calibration.

Surface Parameters

Surface Topography: 3D representation of geometric surface irregularities.

Contd

Surface Parameters
Roughness : Closely spaced irregularities Waviness : More widely spaced irregularities

Error of Form : Long period & non cyclic deviations


Flaws : Discrete & infrequent irregularities Roughness & Waviness comprise the Surface Texture Contd

Surface Parameters
Amplitude Parameters:
Term Ra Definition The roughness average (mean height) RMS roughness Max profile peak & max profile valley depth Use Gives roughness of the machine surface Describes the finish of optical surface Ra - info of friction & wear Rv - retaining of lubricant

Rq Rp & Rv

Rt

Max height of surface

Gives overall roughness of the surface

Contd

Surface Parameters
Amplitude Parameters:
Term Rz Definition Average max height of the profile Skewness measure of asymmetry of the profile about the mean line. Use Evaluating surface texture on limited access surfaces Gives load carrying capacity, porosity & characteristic of non-conventional machining processes.

Rsk

Profilometers @ IISc
Optical surface profilometer
Make Veeco NT1100 Type Non Contact type Principle of Operation VSI g interferometry (VSI) Phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). Range VSI 2mm PSI 160nm Resolution Vertical Resolution : PSI 3 & VSI 3nm Lateral Resolution -- Function of magnification objective and the detector array size you choose

Profilometers @ IISc
Nanoscience Profilometer

Film thickness measurement from 5 microns down to 300 nm or less 4 million pixel camera for high resolution Auto-range and auto-fringe-find for ease of use of Single mode of operation over all scan ranges.

Measurement Examples
Some of the profiles obtained are shown below:
600 GRIT SIZE:
UPD (in 2D): UPD (in 3D)

Measurement Examples
Surface of steel Block Reflection Intensity

3D Image

Measurement Examples
Pit on a thin iron plate 2D image

Plate thickness 0.7mm (Depth 0.14494mm)

Measurement Examples
3D image

References
Research Papers :
T.V.Vorburger, J.Raja.

Surface Finish Metrology Tutorial June 1990


WYKO Surface Profilers Technical Reference manual

September 1999, Version 2.2.1 Webpage


Profilometer, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Profilometer

THANK YOU

Оценить