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is the study of the past, with special attention to the written record of the activities of human beings over time. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyze the sequence of events.


study of Philippine history is important in understanding the present. To know the significance of why our heroes fight for the freedom against the dominant foreigners To know what is the values and aspects our ancestors have tried to protect To learn from the past in the decision making of todays leaders As Filipinos, we should love and know our country as well, studying history is the story of our country and its people


country is Philippines, our native land It is 1 of more than 180 countries worldwide Its citizenry are called Filipinos


God loves Filipinos and put them in a rich and

beautiful land God gave the gift of faith to Filipinos to know and serve him. God has helped Filipinos in many times from all natural calamities and social troubles

People Men, women, and children who make up the

Filipino nation are very fortunate Only Filipinos have the most knowledge of Gods Word and His Son Jesus Christ compared to Asian, African, and Middle Eastern nations Only Filipinos have rich and unique cultural heritage of Asian, Latin, European, and American influences No other nation in the world has this rich in cultural heritage

We are bridge between the East and West We are the only Christian nation in Asia


We have the most beautiful and richest lands in

the world Philippines is rich in natural resources like oil, gas, mineral, farmlands, and forests Visitors come to see the scenic spots in the country


Filipinos were not yet united as nation, we were separated into clans and tribes People lived in areas of their own names


Chinese traders who visited Mindoro called our nation Ma-yi which means land of gold A greek mapmaker named Claudius Ptolemy called our islands Maniolas in his ancient map When Magellan came in 1521, he called the Philippines Archipelago of St. Lazarus In 1543, a Spanish explorer Ruy Lopez de Villalobos gave the name Felipinas in honor to Crown prince Felipe (Philip) who later became King Philip II of Spain


Felipinas later became Filipinas during the Spanish colonial era, then it became the Philippine Islands during the American colonial era, then the Republic of the Philippines after our Independence in 1946


most popular nickname for the Philippines is Pearl of the Orient Seas by a Spanish missionary-historian Fr. Juan Delgado in 1751 and was popularized by Dr. Jose Rizal, our National Hero in 1892


Philippines lies in southeast Asia, a little above the Equator Bounded in the east by the Pacific Ocean, in the west by the South China Sea, in the north b the Bashi Channel, and in the south by the Zulu and Celebes sea The northernmost island is Y Ami, only 240 km from Taiwan The southernmost island in Saluag Isle, about 24 km from Sabah (north Borneo)


Philippine area includes islands, adjacent seas, and submarine areas and the airspace above Total land area is 300, 780 sqm or 0.2% of the worlds land mass It is bigger than that of UK, almost as large as Italy and slightly smaller than Japan With 7, 107 island, one of the worlds largest archipelagos


2, 773 island have names and 1, 190 are inhabited Luzon is the biggest island group (141, 395sqm) Mindanao is second (101, 999 sqm) Visayas is third (56, 606 sqm)

Luzon (104, 687 sqm) Mindanao (94, 630sqm) Samar (13,080sqm) Negros (12,709sqm) Palawan (11, 785 sqm) Panay (11,515 sqm) Mindoro (9, 735 sqm) Leyte (7,214sqm) Cebu (4, 422sqm) Bohol (3, 864sqm) Masbate (3, 269s sqm)


the area has been increased with the addition of Spratly island (Presidential Decree no. 1596 of President Marcos, June 11, 1978) Spratly is under the province of Palawan (which is claimed also by Malaysia, Vietnam, and china)

Means It is an

the physical feature of the country inverted Y shaped archipelago of numerous islands and islets, coral reefs, rivers, lakes, and bays, mountains and valleys, cool plateaus, and scenic volcanoes Philippines has the longest discontinuous coastline in the world- 34, 600 km It has 61 natural harbors and 20 landlocked straits Manila Bay is the finest harbor in Asia and the largest bay in the country


famous bays:

Balayan Bay (Batangas) Tayabas Bay (Quezon) Ormoc Bay (Leyte) Taytay Bay (Palawan) Sindangan Bay, Illana Bay and Sarangani Bay in Mindanao



Lingayen gulf Leyte gulf Davao gulf


strait in the world is the San Juanico Strait between Samar and Leyte, now connected by San Juanico Bridge Great peninsulas:
Historic Bataan Peninsula Fertile Bicol Peninsula in Luzon Zamboanga and Davao Peninsula in Mindanao


Deep is the lowest place in the country, some 89 km Northeast of Mindanao

With a depth of 37, 732 feet below sea level It is said to be the deepest place in the world The tallest mountain in the world , Mount Everest

is the (29, 028 feet high), can easily submerged in it with over 8,000 feet to spare

Mountains and valleys 7 major mountain ranges: Sierra Mountain range (the longest) from Cagayan

province in the North to Laguna in the south Mt. apo, the highest mountain in the country (9, 690 feet or 2, 954 meter above sea level) Mt. Pulog, the second highest peak on the IfugaoBenguet boundary in Luzon (2, 982 meters) Mt. Banahaw in Laguna- Quezon Mt. Bulusan in Sorsogon Mt. Halcon in Mindoro Orriental Mt. Kanlaon in Negros Occidental Mt. Matutum in Cotabato

major lowland plains:

Central Plain (luzon)- the rice granary of the

Philippines Cagayan Valley (Luzon)- greatest tobaccoproducing region in Asia and is also the largest Agusan Valley (Mindanao) Cotabato Valley (Mindanao)



Benguet plateu in Northern Luzon (the summer

capital of the Philipines, Baguio city of pines) Fertile Bukidnon Plateu in Mindanao (famous for pineapple)


main rivers

Cagayan River (longest), its annual flood fertilizes

the Cagayan Valley as the Nile River in Egypt Rio Grande of Mindanao (the largest river in water volume) Pasig river (most historic) bad is now badly polluted and is gradually dying


natural lakes

Laguna de bay, the largest, which was the source

of Jose Rizal and other literary talents, and source of livelihood for nearby fishing communities


Valuable for medicinal waters and for geothermal

Los banos and pansol in Laguna Pandi and sibul in Bulacan Tiwi in Albay Magsingal in Ilocos sur


Provide tourist attractions and hydroelectric power Pagsanjan falls in Laguna- favorite tourist resort and movie location Maria Cristina in Lanao del Norte Hinulugang Taktak in Antipolo Tamaraw Fallas in Mindoro Orriental Darosdos Falls in Smaar


have the richest and most numerous species of plants and animals


plant species grow in the country Orchids alone has 1,000 varieties Rice has 1,000 species Numerous flowers of various colors, not to mention the Queen of Philippine flowers, the Sampaguita Grapes of various species are being cultivated in the country

About 850 species of birds are found in the country more than Australia, Japan, and other Asian countries The biggest bird Eastern Sarus Crane known as tipol in Luzon and labong in Visayas is in the country, a wading bird with very long legs and necks The worlds largest eagle is in the country, which is the Philippine or money eating eagle known as the National Bird The kalaw, the clock of the mountains is in the country The most useful animal, which is carabaois in the country considered as the farmers bestfriend


smallest monkey in the world is in Bohol which is the tarsier The smallest deer in the world the mouse deer of Balabac Island is in Palawan


forest lands have a total area of 16, 633,000 hectares, representing 55% of the total land area In Asia, Philippines ranks 3rd in forest reserves,Indonesia being first and Japan as the second More than 3,000 species of trees are found in our forests The most famous is narra, the queen of Philippine wood


are many fishing grounds in the archipelago which include the Lingayen gulf, Manila Bay, Lamon Bay, Ragay Gulf and the Tayabas Bay in Luzon; Samar Sea Carigara Bay, Sibuyan Sea, Guimaras Strait, Camotes sea, Iloilo Strait, Panay Gulf, and Bohol strait in the Visayas; Malampaya sound, Coron Bay, Taytay Bay, Cuyo Pass,a nd Imuran Bay in Palawan, and Mindanao Sea, Gingoog Bay, Illana Bay, and Moro Gulf in Mindanao


least 2,000 species of fish are found in the Philippine waters Both the largest ( whale shark or the pating bulik) and smallest fish (pygmy globy fish or the Pandaka Pygmaea which is about the size of a rice grain and tabios ) in the world is in the archipelago We are also yielded with marine products such as shells, shellfish, sponges, coals, seaweed, and pearls

20,000 of the 60,000 shell species in the world are in the Philippines The worlds largest pearl is in the Philippines , the Pearl of Allah Many minerals are found in the country such as nickel, copper, iron, gold, etc. Philippines is one of Asias great gold producing region Gold and copper mining are among the ancient industry for Filipino people The greatest iron-bearing areas in the country are the two Surigao provinces, the biggest in the world Vast nickel deposit was discovered in Nonoc Island, Surigao del Norte, one of the worlds largest in Asia

philippines energy is supplies by oil, hydroelectric power, bagasse (surgarcane wastes), geothermal, coal, new sources of energy like solar power, biogas, agroforestry wastes, natural gas, alcogas, and wood The discovery of more oil and gas in Malampaya, Palawan is the biggest oil and gas field in the country

Banaue rice terraces- built more than 2,000 years ago sing the bare hands and crude stone tools of the Ifugaos Mount Mayon- the crowning glory of Philippine natural wonders Manila bay sunset is another enchanting wonder of the country called as the most beatiful sunset in the world Pagsanjan Falls and Gorge, the inland Sampalok lake of San pablo city and the hidden Valey of Alaminos in laguna, the amazing Umbrella Geyser of Barrio Bigaa, San Juan, the petite Taal Volcano 9smallest and lowest volcano in the world, the hundred islands in pangasinan, the Chocolate Hills, the magnificnet Ma. Cristina Falls, the underground river in Palawan are among the beautiful sights in the land


environment means people and their character and culture including the racial ancestry, the population growth, the religion, customs, language, arts and sciences, government, and economy

Filipinos are a great nation because of the following:

We are a unique with a cultural heritage from the major

civilizations in the world: Asian, European, Latin American, and North American We are a nation with a gift of faith and a gift of music (Filipinos are very spiritual and deeply religious, also our music is more romantic and melodious than other countries) We are the first republic in Asia (the first Philippine Republic was founded by Aguinaldo in 18989), other countries in Asia were only kingdoms, colonies, or non existent

We received training in self-government and

democracy ahead of the other Asian nations, with the Philippine Commonwealth came into being in 1935 under President Quezon We led Asian world in building schools, universities, roads, and bridges, town planning, public health system, hosptials, orphanages, telephones and other Western-style technology We are the largest English speaking nation in Asia, other Asian countries do not speak English and do not feel comfortable with foreigners


2002, the population was 82, 841, 516 The population grows more than the national wealth, the nation has become poorer The urgent economic problems are developing and protecting natural resources and controlling population growth


are 3 social classes based on income and hsare of the national wealth
Rich (oligarchs) represent 10% of the population

but own 90% of the wealth Middle class represent 20% of the population who are professionals, they are the backbone of the nation Lower income groups and the poor masses represent 70% of the population but only earn or share 10% of the wealth


is the only Christian nation in

Asia About 93% are christians, 83% are Cathlics, 7.6% are Aglipayans, 2.35 are protestants, and other sects Catholicism was Spains greatest leagcy to the philippines Protestant sects (Episcopalian, baptist, methodist, SDA are among the Americans introduced sect

The Aglipay church of the Philippine Independent Church is a unique Filipino Protestant founded by Isabelo delos Reyes in 1902 with Gregorio Aglipay as its first Bishop. Today, it has 1.43 million adherents Iglesia ni Kristo, founded by Feliz Manalo in 1914, is a Philippine sect with members both in the country and abroad. It has 475,000 members Islam with 1.6 million followers is the countrys second largest religion Pagan religions followed by tribal minorities (ancestor & nature worship) account a very small minority of the reglion (0.03%)


(0.002%) and Shintoism (0.008%) are followed by Chinese and Japanese communities

Philippines is a nation of many languages There are 55 native languages and 142 local dialects according to a survey by Richard Pitman, an American linguist Cebuano ranks 1st of the 8 principal native languages, it is the mother tongue of of the people (24.39%) Tagalog is now a close second (23.82%), followed by Ilocano (11.14%), Hiligaynon or Ilonggo (9.99%), Bicolano (6.96%), Waray-waray (4.62%), Kapampangan (3.43%, and Pangasinan (2.26%) English is the most widely used language in the country especially used for education, commerce, and the profession Philippines is the 3rd largest English speaking country in the world


1935, President Manuel L. Quezon, the father of the National Language The 1987 Constitution provided that the national language is Filipino with Tagalog as the basis of the national language

Filipinos are fond of education The american Governor-General of the Philippines Frank Murphy said No people ever accepted the blessings of education with more enthusiasm than the Filipinos A college diploma is a status of symbol in the country Filipino & English are the medium of instruction from Elementary to Highschool English is the medium of instruction in colleges and universities There are more than 50 universities in the Philippines


University of Santo Tomas in Manila was the oldest (1611), it is 25 years older than the Harvard University, the oldest university in the United States Literacy rate for the Philippines is 89.9%, the highest among Southeast Asian countries


patriots since Spanish times have sacrificed their fortunes and their lives in defense of democracy Thousands of Filipinos fought and died in Bataan, Corregidor, Mauban, and other battlefield during the World War II in defense of freedom and democracy against the Japanese invaders As early as Philippine revolution (1896-1902), democracy was already the peoples cherished ideal


has many good qualities than bad

traits We love fiestas, parties, expensive clothes, and jewels for which we spend for money Filipinos are prone to gamblling and bettingcockfighting, horse races, jai-alai-mahjong, and card games gambling is a national vice Fatalism is another bad trait- Filipinos believe that what happen to them depends on fate. They say Bahala na


are sensitive about their honor and reputation Filipinos prefer smooth relations with their relatives, friends, and colleagues even when others are corrupt, or dishonest. This is called pakisama which often leads to nepotism, influence peddling, or cheating Filipinos unlike the Chinese or the Japanese lack of discipline. They are usually easy going and will not work well without strict supervision

Filipinos lack perseverance they begin a task with enthusiasm but quickly lose interest in the job. This is called ningas cogon Filipinos have the bad habit of putting aside the work which can be done right away and doing it the following day manana habit,which is inherited from the Spaniards Some good traits are: Filipinos are intelligent, with retentive memory, quick perception, and talents for arts and science are very high. Filipinos are also gentle, friendly, and cheerful, noted for courtesy and hospitality

Filipinos are noted for close family ties Filipinos are passionately romantic Filipinos are liberty-loving and brave people. They valiantly resisted the Spanish, American, and Japanese invaders The Filipino courage is proven during the Battle of Mactan (1521), the Battle of Tirad Pass (1899), the Battle of Bataan,corregidor, and Bessang Pass during the World War II Gratitude is another sterling strait of the Filipinos. They are grateful to those who have granted them favors (utang na loob)


are cooperative (bayanihan) Filipinos are noted for their durability and resilliency


of Ilocandia are the most adventurous, hardworking,and frugal of Filipinos Tagalogs feel superior to other Filipinos because they live in a region blessed with rich farm lands,navigable rivers, and panoramic beauties & because of their participation to history Bicolanos are a religious , mild tempered, and musical people Bisayas particularly from Iloilo and Negros Occidental are extravagant, carefree and jolly The Muslim Filipinos are fierce, valiant warriors

Of the 52 million Filipinos, 1.6 million belong to the cultural minorities Northern tribes are the Ifugaos, the Bontocs, the Kankanays, the Ibaloys, the Tinguians, the Kalingas, the Gaddangs, and the Negritoes. Some tribes worship nature and their ancestors Mindoro tribes comprise the Mangyans, a peace loving, musical people Mindanao: Maranao, Ilanum, Tausug, Samal, Badjao, Yakan, Subanon, Bukidnon, Mansaka, Higaunon, Kalagan, Mandaya, Bagobo, Tiruray, Manobo, Blaan, Manubo Blit, and Ubo tribes The Badjao and Samals are primitive fishermen and often live in boats


in the Philippines occupy a high place in the society, enjoy equal social and political rights with men unlike in other Asian countries The first lady President of the philippines is Corazon Aquino

Filipinos are creative people & have produced outstanding artists- writers, painters, sculptors, musicians, etc Since 1972, many Filipinos have received the National Artist Award: Juan Nakpil & Pablo Antonio for Architecture Amado Hernandez, Jose Garcia Villa, Nick Joaquin, & Carlos Romulo for Literature Fernando Amorsolo, Carlos Francisco, & Victorio Edades for Painting Guillermo Tolentino & Napoleon Abueva for Sculpture Lamberto Avellana, Gerardo de Leon for Film Antonio Molina, Jovita Fuentes for Music

Filipino scientists are trying to find alternative technology appropriate to Philippine condition The Department of Science and Technology is pushing the frontiers of the coutnrys technological knowledge Some national scientists: Juan salcedo Jr, Fe del Mundo, Geminiano Ocampo for Medicine Alfredo Santos & Julian Banzon for Chemistry Casimiro del Rosario for Physics Gregorio Zara for Engineering Eduardo Quisumbing, Gregorio Velaszuez, and Dioscoro Umali for Botany


early ancestors can be explained in:

The story of Gods creation in the Bible Evolution theory Legend and fairy tales


men and women originated from the first man (Adam) and the first woman (Eve) After the great flood, Noah and his 3 sons lefts to settle the earth Noahs sons were Japheth, Shem, & Ham The youngest of Japheth named Javan, came four (4) sons namely: Elishah, Tharsis, the Kittim, and the Rodanim They spread into their territory with their clans within their nations each with its own language


to Fr. Francisco Colin, a Jesuit historian, the first settlers in the country was Tharsis, son of Javan and great grandson of Noah, together with his brothers and their descendants Descendants then settled in the parts of the world that we now know as Asia, including the islands of Philippines

By study of archaeologists, scientist who study the past, man came from apelike creatures They use material relics like bones, jars, pottery, and antique jewelry to trace the past One group of scientist believe that early Filipinos came from waves of migration- Negritos, Indonesians, and Malays Another group of scientist believe that early Filipinos came from settlers within the islands, and in fact our ancestors migrated outside the country to the other nearby islands Both group of scientist however believe that first man in the Philippines lived in Palawan about 25,000 years ago. Palawan was then connected to the Asian mainland


first Filipino lived in caves at Tabon Palawan, thus called Tabon man They belong to the stone age culture Tabon man hunted wild animas with crude stone weapons, use stone tools to make clothes or prepare food They did not know farming or raise animals They were short, with bushy eyebrows and low forehead


of the time was spent looking for

good Primitive people like the Tabon Man lived in other parts of the world called java man or Beijing man

Filipinos grew in number and improved their lifestyle They began to cook with fire and to make sharper tools Many llived in Central Luzon and Cagayan Valley About 5,000 years ago, the early Filipinos learned to make axes, seashell ornaments and pottery Filipinos then became experts craftsmen, travelers, and traders The early filipinos were like Vikings of the Pacific They sailed on boat across the Pacific Ocean to nearby islands in Micronesia and polynesia They live in larger villages in Manila, pampanga, Mindoro, Samar, Leyte, Cebu, and Bohol They started good business relations with the Arabs, Chinese, and other nearby nations

The first people to come to the Philippines were the Negritos They were called Atis or Aetas The came across land bridges from mainland Asia about 25,000 years ago They were very small people, less than 5 feet tall Negritos because they had black skin, short kinky hair, thick lips, and black noses They wore little clothing They had no government, no writing and no permanent homes They wandered in the forests and lived by hunting using bow and arrow Today, negritos are still in the hills of Zambales

According the migration theory, Indonesians were the first immigrants to come by sea to the Philippines They came about 5,000 years ago They sailed in boats from south Asia They drove the negritos to the mountains and lived in the lowlands There were 2 types of Indonesians:

Tall, with light skin, large forehead high nose, and thin lips Shorter and darker, with a large nose, thick lips, and heavy


Indonesians were more advanced than the Negritos They lived in permanent homes They used fire to cook their food They lived by hunting, fishing, and small farming They painted their bodies with colorful figures Today, Indonesian minority tribes are found in the interior parts of the country: the Kalingas of Northern Luzon, the Tagbanuas of Palwan, the Bagobos, manobos, Mandayas, Bukidnons, Tirurays and Sabanuns of Mindanao

Malays came after Indonesians, about 2,000 years ago They arrived in boats from Southeast Asia They were medium in height, brown-skinned, with dark eyes, flat noses, and straight black hair They drove Indonesians to the forests and they lived in the lowlands Malays were more civilized than the Indonesians They lived in larger villages They had government, writing, music, arts, and scienes They lived by agriculture, fishing, mining, and trading


Filipinos today came from the Malays brown race. Thus, there are Muslim malays in Mindanao, particularly in Jolo and also in Palawan There are also Christian Malay across the country There are also Malay tribes like the Igorots, Ifugaos, Bontoks, and Tinggians of Luzon


legend and fairy tale about the origin of the country is told by the story of:
1. malakas and maganda 2. story of brown people


Malay ancestors had brought to our shores their ancestral culture including food and drinks, mode of dressing, housing, society, government and laws, writing, language, literature, music, economy, religion, arts and sciences, superstitious beliefs and customs and traditions


staple food of the early Filipinos was

rice Aside from rice, their food consisted of carabao meat, pork, chickens, sea turtles, fish, bananas, and other fruits and vegetables They cooked their food by rubbing two pieces of dry wood which then heated produced a flame They stored their drinking water in earthen jar or in huge clean bamboo tube


popular wine of our ancestors was tuba which was made from coconut Other wines were basi, an Ilocano wine made from sugarcane; pangasi, a Bisayan wine made from fermented rice; lambanog, a Tagalog wine taken from the coconut palm; and the tapuy, an Igorot wine distilled from rice

Men wore collarless, short-sleeved jacket called kangan and a strip of cloth called bahag, wrapped around the waist and in between legs The jacket (kangan) reached slightly below the waist It was dyed (tining)either in blue or black except that of the datu which is red Instead of hat, men use putong, a piece of cloth wound around the head They had no shoes They had jewels, such as gold necklaces, gold armlets called kalombigas and gold anklets filled with agates and other colored glass


wore side-sleeved jacket called baro Skit was patadyong, a piece of cotton cloth which they wrapped about their waists and let fall to their feet They wore jewels consisted of gold necklaces, gold bracelets, large gold earrings, and gold rings They are barefooted Both men and women inserted gold between their teeth as an ornament


Filipinos tattooed their bodies with animals, birds, flowers, and geometric figures to:
Enhance beauty Show their war record


lived in houses made of bamboo, wood, and palm leaves They were built near each other in the barangay Each house had a bamboo ladder They had batalan where jars of water were kept for household purposes Some of them lived in tree-houses. Bagobos and Kalingas still live in such houses The Badjaos of the Sulu sea still live in boat houses

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